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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Third World Organization for Women in Science

Third World Organization for Women in Science   Reference library

Ayad al- Qazzaz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
661 words

...for Women in Science, Retrieved February 20, 2013, from http://owsdw.ictp.it/ . CTA Knowledge for Development, Retrieved February 20, 2013, from http://knowledge.cta.int/ . http://knowledge.cta.int/en/layout/set/print/S-T-Organisation/International/ . Forestry Nepal, Retrieved February 20, 2013, from www.forestrynepal.org . Girls In ICT Portal, Retrieved February 20, 2013, from http://girlsinict.org. Organization for Women in Science for the Developing World, accessed June 19, 2012, Retrieved February 20, 2013, from http://owsdw.ictp.it/ . Third...

Commission on International Religious Freedom

Commission on International Religious Freedom   Reference library

Dominic T. Bocci

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
651 words

...Analysis of the Constitutions of Predominantly Muslim Countries . Washington, D.C.: United States Commission on International Religious Freedom, 2005. United States Commission on International Religious Freedom . “Annual Report 2012.” http://www.uscirf.gov/images/Annual%20Report%20of%20USCIRF%202012(2).pdf . Dominic T....

Fatima bint Mubarak, Sheikha

Fatima bint Mubarak, Sheikha (bce 1940)   Reference library

Wanda Krause

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
627 words

...Builders of World Civilization and Culture . London: Oneworld, 2006. See especially page 95. Emirates Centre for Strategic Studies and Research . “Second AWO Conference and UAE Efforts in Support of Arab Women's Issues.” http://www.ecssr.ac.ae/ECSSR/print/ft.jsp?lang=.%20Family%20Development%20Foundation . “Sheikha Fatima Bint Mubarak: Mother of Nation.” http://motherofnation.ae/ . Sultan Bin Ali Al Owais Cultural Foundation . “Sheikha Fatima Bint Mubarak.” http://www.alowaisnet.org/en/winnersbio/abijgjfcfjedfhgejj.aspx . Swaroop, Sangeetha . “Her Highness...

Mubarak, Massouma al-

Mubarak, Massouma al- (b. 1947)   Reference library

Dina El Sharnouby and Helen Mary Rizzo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
607 words

...she and KU student activists failed to stop the law's implementation. However, one month after parliament passed the law ensuring women's right to vote and run for political office, Dr. al-Mubarak became the first and only woman to hold a cabinet post with fifteen men. On 20 June 2005 she was sworn in as the Minister of Planning and Administrative Development. According to the political science professor Abdullah Alshayeji , her appointment as a liberal Shīʿī woman served several purposes. First, it addressed one of the longstanding goals of the...

Balkan States

Balkan States   Reference library

Đermana Šeta

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,420 words

...exclusive, but complementary. Bibliography Blagojević, Marina . Položajžena u zemljamaBalkana: Komparativnipregled (Position of Women in the Balkans: A Comparative Overview), 2003: http://www.vladars.net/sr-SP-Cyrl/Vlada/centri/gendercentarrs/AKTI/Documents/Polozaj%20zena%20u%20zemljama%20Balkana.pdf (Accessed on 8 July 2012). The British Academy project: Contemporary Islam in the Balkans : http://www.balkanmuslims.com (Accessed on 8 July 2012). Buturović, Amila , and Irvin Cemil Schick , eds. Women in the Ottoman Balkans: Gender, Culture, and...

Muslim Women's League

Muslim Women's League   Reference library

Saba Senses Ozyurt

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
782 words

...International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations (under review). Rehman, Aamir . “The Human Capital Deficit in the Islamic Nonprofit Sector.” Report Published by the Institute for Social Policy and Understanding , 2004. http://ispu.org/files/PDFs/human%20capital%20deficit.pdf/ . “The Muslim Women's League, Center Profile.” The Pluralism Project, Harvard University. http://pluralism.org/profiles/view/74042/ . The Muslim Women's League. http://www.mwlusa.org/ . Saba Senses...

Prophethood

Prophethood   Reference library

David A. Kerr and Halim Calis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
838 words

... 10:2 ; 12:109 ; 21:25 ). The divine revelation makes them the bearers of good news ( mubashshir ) and warners ( mundhir ) ( 2:213 ; 4:165 ; 6:48 ). The prophets are not responsible for the people's rejection of their message; their task is only to preach, warn, and remind ( 3:20 ; 5:99 ; 11:12 ; 16:35 ; 88:21 ). They will be accepted on Judgment Day as witnesses ( shahīd and shāhid ) for or against the people to whom they were sent ( 4:41 ; 16:84 , 89 ; 28:75 ; 33:45 ; 48:8 ). According to the Qurʾān, God has sent his messengers to every human...

Same-Sex Relations

Same-Sex Relations   Reference library

David Tabb Stewart, Thomas K. Hubbard, Anthony Corbeill, Lynn R. Huber, David Brodsky, and Valerie Abrahamsen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
23,413 words

...18, and 20 (especially vv. 18:3 , 6–8 , 14 , 22 ; 20:13 ) and Deuteronomy 23:10–15 , 18–19 ; from ancient Near Eastern law: Hittite Law [HL] §§ 189–190 (ca. 1650–1180 b.c.e. ) and Middle Assyrian Laws [MAL] A 19–20 (ca. 1076 b.c.e. ). From biblical poetry, key texts include the “sex-positive” Song of Songs. Homoeroticism in the Biblical World. The Hebrew Bible gives little attention to homoeroticism. Possible texts include the story of Sodom in Genesis 19 , alleged prohibitions of homosexual relations at Leviticus 18:22 and 20:13 ,...

ḤammĀm

ḤammĀm   Reference library

Catherine Cartwright-Jones

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
628 words

...Complete , EBSCo host (accessed February 17, 2012). Cichocki, Nina . “Continuity and Change in Turkish Bathing Culture in Istanbul: The Life Story of the Çemberlitaş Hamam.” Turkish Studies 6, no. 1 (2005): 93–112. Academic Search Complete , EBSCO host (accessed February 20, 2012). Courtauld, Pari . A Persian Childhood . London: Rubicon, 1990. Guppy, Shusha . The Blindfold Horse: Memories of a Persian Childhood . London: William Heineman, 1988. Scarce, Jennifer . Domestic Culture in the Middle East: An Exploration of the Household Interior ....

Esack, Farid

Esack, Farid (b. 1959)   Reference library

Eren Tatari

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
510 words

...Works On Being a Muslim: Finding a Religious Path in the World Today . Oxford: Oneworld, 1999. The Qurʾan: A Short Introduction . Oxford: Oneworld. 2002. Secondary Works Helen Suzman Foundation . “Profile of Farid Esack.” http://www.hsf.org.za/resource-centre/focus/issues-11-20/issue-17-first-quarter-2000/profile-of-farid-esack/ . University of Johannesburg. Faculty profile of Farid Esack. http://www.uj.ac.za/EN/Faculties/humanities/researchcentres/cod/aboutus/Staff/Associates/Pages/ProfFaridEsack.aspx/ . Eren...

Fitnah

Fitnah   Reference library

John Alden Williams and Matthew Long

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
683 words

... f-t-n means “burn.” It is used also for the purpose of testing or refining a metal, such as gold, fitnah is usually understood as a “temptation” or “trial.” The term appears over thirty times in the Qurʾān, most frequently referring to trials faced by people. God tested Moses ( 20:40 ), David ( 38:24 ), and every soul with good and evil as an ordeal ( 21:35 ), according to the Qurʾān. The Qurʾānic use of the term focuses upon external struggles, as opposed to internal struggles of faith or commitment. The major ḥadīth collections, such as those of...

Houris

Houris   Reference library

Alan Jones

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
555 words

...references to ḥūr in the Qurʾān, with the usage shifted to the next world, as is not infrequently the case: al-jannah (“the garden”—heaven), al-nār (“the fire”— hell), niʿmah (“well-being”—heavenly bliss). All the passages are Meccan and quite early. Three ( 44:54 , 52:20 , and 56:22 ) have ḥūr followed by another adjective, ʿīn . This may be translated as “maidens with dark, lustrous eyes.” There is a more complex passage in 55:70–76 : In which are good and beautiful women, With lustrous eyes, confined in tents, Untouched before by either men...

Wan Azizah Wan Ismail

Wan Azizah Wan Ismail   Reference library

Justin Corfield and Natana J. DeLong-Bas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
559 words

...politician husband. Ibrahim began his political career as a cabinet minister in 1983. In 1993, he was appointed deputy prime minister of Malaysia. As his wife, Wan Azizah became patron of the Majlis Kanser Nasional (National Cancer Council). The arrest of her husband on September 20, 1998, on apparently trumped up charges owing to the perception that he posed a political threat to then prime minister, Mahathir bin Mohamad, led to a large number of demonstrations throughout the country and the emergence of the Reformasi (Reform) movement, which campaigned...

Sexual Transgression

Sexual Transgression   Reference library

Diana M. Swancutt, Hilary Lipka, Rosanna S. Omitowoju, Heather Vincent, Benjamin H. Dunning, Laliv Clenman, and Taylor G. Petrey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
30,174 words

...is understood in the Hebrew Bible as consensual intercourse between a married or betrothed woman and a man other than her husband, whose own marital status is immaterial. It is the one sexual act prohibited in the Decalogue ( Exod 20:14 ; Deut 5:12 ). Leviticus 18:20 also prohibits adultery, while both Leviticus 20:10 and Deuteronomy 22:22 sentence a couple who commits adultery to death. In Deuteronomy 22:23–24 , a betrothed woman (legally bound to her husband) and a man caught having what is assumed to be consensual sex within the town are...

Israel

Israel   Reference library

Naysan Rafati

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,023 words

...such that even the nomenclature used to describe it is contested between greater emphases on the Israeli or Palestinian dimensions of identity (ICG, 2012 ). Arabs, divided between the majority Muslim and smaller Christian and Druze communities, are estimated to make up just over 20 percent of the country's total population of nearly 8 million. Figures issued by Israel's Central Bureau of Statistics in 2012 put the total Muslim population in the country at 1.354 million, the majority based in the north of the country and one-fifth of whom are concentrated in...

Legal Status

Legal Status   Reference library

Julye Bidmead, F. Rachel Magdalene, Lauren Caldwell, Robert N. Stegmann, Judith Hauptman, and David M. Reis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
24,375 words

...Tamar is subject to the death penalty for being pregnant, also recognizes adultery by an inchoately married woman, because she is inchoately married under levirate marriage law. Adultery was absolutely prohibited ( Exod 20:14 [MT Exod 20:13 ]; Lev 18:20 ; 20:10 ; Deut 5:18 [ MT 5:17 ]; 22:22 ). It was a capital crime (e.g., Gen 20:9 ; 39:9 ; Ezek 22:11 ) and subject to divine punishment ( Ezek 16:38 ; Mal 3:5 ). The community was understood to be adversely impacted by adultery and expected to intervene ( Deut 22:22 ; cf. Lev 18:24–30 )....

Imagery, Gendered

Imagery, Gendered   Reference library

Elizabeth W. Goldstein, Ken Stone, Julia M. O’Brien, Carole R. Fontaine, Greg Carey, Michal Beth Dinkler, and Susan Grove Eastman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
26,610 words

...; 25:1–13 ; Mark 2:19–20 ; Luke 5:34–35 ; John 3:29 ), an image also applied to God’s people in the Hebrew Bible ( Isa 62:5 ; Jer 2:2 ; Hos 2:16–20 ). Jesus often discounts biological families to emphasize spiritual kinship ( Matt 10:21 , 35 , 37 ; 12:46–50 ; 19:29 ; 23:8 ; Mark 3:31–35 ; 10:29–30 ; 13:12 ; Luke 8:19–21 ; 14:26 ; 18:29 ; 21:16 ). Additionally, while God is consistently depicted as the father, his people concomitantly are cast as “sons of God” ( Matt 5:9 ), “sons of the resurrection” ( Luke 20:36 ), and heirs of...

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women   Reference library

Roja Fazaeli

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,218 words

...reservations than any other major human rights treaty” (U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1996/20, 11 June 1996). Many of the reservations to CEDAW are based on conflict with religious laws, which is especially true in the case of the Muslim-majority countries discussed below. While some of these reservations are narrow in scope, others are wide-ranging and have the potential to limit the obligations undertaken by the reserving states significantly (U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1996/20, 11 June 1996). The first part of Saudi Arabia's reservation, for example, states: “In...

Andalus, Al-

Andalus, Al-   Reference library

Manuela Marín

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
774 words

...London and New York: I. B. Tauris, 2002. Garulo, Teresa . Diwan de las poetisas de al-Andalus . Madrid: Hiperion, 1986. Marín, Manuela . “Marriage and Sexuality in al-Andalus.” In Marriage and Sexuality in Medieval and Early Modern Iberia , edited by Eukene Lacarra Lanz , pp. 3–20. New York: Routledge, 2002. Marín, Manuela . Mujeres en al-Andalus . Madrid: CSIC, 2000. Viguera, María Jesús . “A Borrowed Space: Andalusi and Maghribi Women in Chronicles.” In Writing the Feminine: Women in Arab Sources , edited by Manuela Marín and Randi Deguilhem , pp....

Asmāʾ al-Husna, al-

Asmāʾ al-Husna, al-   Reference library

Ghazala Anwar

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
742 words

...al-Husna, al- . The term al-asmāʾ al-ḥusna (the Beautiful Names [of God]) is mentioned several times in the Qurʾān: “to him belong the beautiful names so call him by these names” (Qurʾān 7:180 , also 17:110 , 20:8 , and 59:22–24 ). The most used names for God in the Qurʾān are al-Raḥman (The Compassionate) and al-Raḥīm (The Merciful). Al-asmāʾ al-ḥusna is foundational to Islamic theology and mysticism ( taṣawwuf ). In Qurʾān 2:30–33 , God teaches Adam “all the names” of which the angels have no knowledge. It is this knowledge that makes Adam (and...

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