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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

African Immigrants, Recent

African Immigrants, Recent   Reference library

John A. Arthur

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...2000. Martin, Daniel C., and Michael Hoefer. “Refugees and Asylees: 2008.” Annual Flow Report, June 2009. United States Office of Immigration Statistics, Policy Directorate, Department of Homeland Security. http://www.riwn.org/uploads/files/1248761397_DHS%20OIS%20Annual%20Flow%20Report%20Refugee%20and%20Asylees%202008.pdf . Owusu, Thomas Y. “The Role of Ghanaian Immigrant Associations in Toronto, Canada.” International Migration Review 34, no. 4 (2000): 1155–1181. John A....

Alcatraz Island, Occupation of (1969)

Alcatraz Island, Occupation of (1969)   Reference library

Kent Blansett

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Island, Occupation of (1969) On 20 November 1969 , more than eighty American Indians from the organization Indians of All Tribes (IAT) claimed Alcatraz, an island in San Francisco Bay, as Indian land by right of discovery. The occupation lasted a total of nineteen months as thousands of indigenous people from all across the Americas made their collective stand for treaty and human rights on Alcatraz. Two of the most important leaders for the IAT were college students: Richard Oakes, an Akwesasne Mohawk from San Francisco State College, and LaNada...

Servicemen’s Readjustment Act

Servicemen’s Readjustment Act   Reference library

William M. Tuttle Jr.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...or “GI Bill,” as it is commonly known, authorized payments for tuition, books, and living expenses for up to four years of college or vocational school, low-interest mortgages for homeowners, loans for veterans to buy farms and start businesses, and a “readjustment allowance” of $20 per week while veterans sought employment. In important ways, the GI Bill shaped the economic and social history of postwar America . More than a million veterans enrolled in colleges in 1946 —half of that year’s total enrollment. By 1956 , almost 10 million men and women had...

Anti-Child-Labor Movement

Anti-Child-Labor Movement   Reference library

Kriste Lindenmeyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...fourteen. By 1900 most states had passed laws requiring school attendance, but they had done little to restrict children’s employment. From 1870 to 1910 the proportion of wage-earning children rose from approximately 14 percent of all Americans aged ten through fourteen to 20 percent. The General Federation of Women’s Clubs and the National Consumers League used boycotts to demand safer and healthier workplaces, as well as to demand an end to child labor. The 1902 anthracite coal strike drew attention to the circumstances of breaker boys. In 1903 ,...

Crack Cocaine

Crack Cocaine   Reference library

Harry G. Levine and Craig Reinarman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...cocaine that first appeared in 1984 in impoverished neighborhoods in New York City, Los Angeles , and Miami . Produced by cooking a mixture of powder cocaine (cocaine hydrochloride), water, and baking soda in a microwave, crack was typically sold in tiny vials costing $5 to $20. Crack was not a new drug: its active ingredient is entirely cocaine. Nor was it a new way of using cocaine: freebase cocaine had been smoked since the 1970 s. Rather, it was a marketing innovation. It repackaged an expensive, upscale commodity (powder cocaine) into small,...

Fraternal Organizations

Fraternal Organizations   Reference library

Steven C. Bullock

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...formal whites-only restrictions only after a series of court battles in the 1970 s. Women more often belonged to the ladies’ auxiliaries of national orders; the Odd Fellows formed one of the first such orders, the Daughters of Rebekah, in 1851 . By 1900 , probably more than 20 percent of all adult men, though many fewer women, belonged to a fraternal group. The popularity of these orders declined later in the century, undermined by the welfare state, the decline of single-sex sociability, and the broadened horizons offered by the automobile, radio, and...

Japanese American Citizens League

Japanese American Citizens League   Reference library

Susan S. Hasegawa

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... 1980 s the JACL took a leadership role in the redress and reparations movement, which ultimately led to the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 . Thanks to the act, Japanese Americans evacuated and interned during World War II obtained an official apology from the U.S. government and $20,000 each in compensation. [ See also Aliens during Wartime ; Immigrants’ Rights Movement ; Japanese Americans, Incarceration of ; and Race and Ethnicity . ] bibliography Hosokawa, Bill. JACL: In Quest of Justice . New York: William Morrow, 1982. Although this book was...

Parks, Rosa

Parks, Rosa   Reference library

Elliott J. Gorn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...found Parks guilty and issued a $14 dollar fine, the Montgomery buses ran empty, and black folks continued to boycott the segregated bus system for a total of 381 days. The boycott ended only after the case made it through the federal system to the U.S. Supreme Court, which on 20 December 1956 affirmed that segregation on the bus system was illegal. Certainly the victory proved the effectiveness of mass organizing. But there were costs. Whites, too, organized themselves in new Citizens’ Councils that pressured activist blacks economically and sometimes...

Red Cross, American

Red Cross, American   Reference library

John F. Hutchinson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Davison gave it legitimacy on Wall Street, headed its endowment fund, and directed its extensive operations during World War I. The Red Cross provided both planned assistance to the military and an outlet for civilian patriotic enthusiasm; the wartime boom brought the organization 20 million members and a treasury surplus of $127 million by 1919 . Salaried administrators proliferated despite its tradition of voluntarism. Ambitious plans for innovative peacetime public-health and social-welfare programs at home and abroad soon foundered on war-weariness and...

Sexual Harassment

Sexual Harassment   Reference library

Nancy Woloch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...jobs. Other studies held that women in white-collar work, such as office employees, were the most common targets. Surveys in the 1980 s found that 42 percent of women employed in federal agencies had experienced harassment, as had 14 percent of the men. However, less than 20 percent of workers who felt that they had been harassed complained to their superiors, and even fewer left their jobs or pressed charges. The issue of sexual harassment gained national visibility in 1991 when the law-school professor Anita Hill , a former aide to the Supreme...

Unemployment, Social Impact of

Unemployment, Social Impact of   Reference library

Max Fraser

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...do so—and in the 1880 s the term “unemployed” began to assume its modern usage in the popular lexicon. Meanwhile the protests of the jobless continued. In 1874 the Tompkins Square riot became New York City’s largest public demonstration, and in 1894 , as unemployment neared 20 percent following the Panic of 1893 , Coxey’s Army riveted the country by marching across the Midwest to Washington , D.C., to demand a national public works program. The Progressive Era brought the first steps toward the modern welfare system, but it was not until 1932 that...

World War II, Home Front

World War II, Home Front   Reference library

John W. Jeffries

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...but as part of the sharp general rise in incomes, average annual earnings for full-time employees in major industries rose by 73 percent, and median family income rose by 64 percent. Despite shortages and rationing, consumer spending, corrected for inflation, rose by more than 20 percent. Not only did war production mean more than 10 million additional civilian jobs and higher incomes, but it brought significant new opportunities to groups that had been on the margins of the nation’s economy—including women, African Americans, and the new immigrants from...

Burned-Over District

Burned-Over District   Reference library

Joan R. Gundersen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and Harriet Tubman. A visit by the Quaker abolitionist Lucretia Mott to Waterloo, between Cayuga and Seneca Lakes, reunited her with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, a resident of nearby Seneca Falls. The Seneca Falls Convention, a national women’s rights convention held on 19 and 20 July 1848 , resulted. The next year, Amelia Bloomer began publishing the Lily , a temperance and women’s rights newspaper, from her Seneca Falls home. By the end of the nineteenth century, transportation and settlement patterns had changed, muting social experimentation in the...

Child Workers

Child Workers   Reference library

Brian Gratton and Jon R. Moen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...reporting gainful employment in 1920 . Girls were even less likely to work. In 1880 only 8 percent of those aged ten to thirteen had gainful employment, and that fell to 3 percent in 1920 ; meanwhile, among girls from ages fourteen to seventeen, rates stayed steady at just over 20 percent. Industrial work was therefore always rare among children less than fourteen years of age. Reformers also claimed that ethno-cultural deficiencies led certain groups to exploit their children. There was some justice in this assertion: many immigrants had come from...

Douglass, Frederick

Douglass, Frederick   Reference library

David N. Huyssen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...“lost cause” narrative of the Civil War as a dispute over states’ rights. A Republican until his death, Douglass served as U.S. marshal ( 1877 – 1881 ) and recorder of deeds ( 1881 – 1886 ) of Washington, D.C. , and as a U.S. representative in Haiti ( 1889 – 1891 ). On 20 February 1895 , Douglass died in Washington . As one newspaper put it the following day, he died “in an epoch which he did more than any other man to create.” [ See also Antebellum Era ; Antislavery ; Civil War Era ; Emancipation of Slaves ; Reconstruction Era ; Slavery, ...

Hawai‘i

Hawai‘i   Reference library

John P. Rosa

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...spending replaced agriculture as the primary sectors of the economy. By 1967 a million tourists visited the islands yearly; by 1988 this number was more than 6 million. Data from the 2010 U.S. Census show a population of 1.3 million, with native Hawaiians accounting for about 20 percent. No ethnic group constitutes a majority, but when grouped together, Asians, native Hawaiians and Pacific islanders make up more than 70 percent of the population. An ongoing renaissance of native Hawaiian culture began in the 1970 s, with the revitalization of the Hawaiian...

Liberia, Colonization of

Liberia, Colonization of   Reference library

Claude A. Clegg III

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...in Liberia . The vast majority of people who migrated were poor, and many had been slaves prior to leaving the United States . Few were prepared for life in a tropical frontier where ailments of various sorts flourished, including a virulent strain of malaria that killed 20 percent of all immigrants during the first generation of colonization. Along with disease, Liberia ’s founding was marked by incessant conflicts with indigenous Africans, who were dispossessed of land and sovereignty. Ironically, although the African American settlers had come to...

Civil War, African Americans

Civil War, African Americans  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

...eleven slave states), the District of Columbia , Nova Scotia, Canada , Africa, and “unknown.” Collectively the men had plied forty-six trades and occupations. The most common profession was farmer (596), followed by laborer (74), waiter (50), cook (27), teamster (27), sailor (20), mason and plasterer (16), and hostler and shoemaker (9 each). The recruits had served in thirty-five other occupations, ranging from broom maker to glass grinder to confectioner. The men included 247 former slaves, 550 “pure blacks,” 430 men of “mixed blood,” 477 men who were...

Multiracial and Multiethnic Americans

Multiracial and Multiethnic Americans   Reference library

G. Reginald Daniel and Josef Castañeda-Liles

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...combination. An additional 8 percent of the “two or more race” population reported three races, and less than 1 percent reported four or more races. Nearly three-quarters of the “two or more race” population was composed of four groups: white and black (1.8 million, or 20 percent), white and “some other race” (1.7 million, or 19 percent), white and Asian (1.6 million, or 18 percent), and white and American Indian or Alaska Native (1.4 million, or 16 percent). As in 2000 , the percentage of Latinos who identified themselves as having multiple...

Twenties, The

Twenties, The   Reference library

Lynn Dumenil

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...In manufacturing and mining, more than twelve hundred mergers took place; in banking and finance, by 1929 , thanks to consolidations, 1 percent of the banks controlled 46 percent of the country’s banking resources. In that same year, two hundred corporations owned approximately 20 percent of the nation’s wealth. More and more Americans found themselves working for large corporations—either in blue-collar jobs or in the rapidly expanding ranks of white-collar employees necessary to maintain modern business operations. Corporations exerted their power over...

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