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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Azzam, Abdullah Yusuf al-

Azzam, Abdullah Yusuf al- (1941–1989)   Reference library

Nahed Artoul Zehr

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
816 words

... Azzam, Abdullah Yusuf . Defence of the Muslim Lands: The First Obligation after Imam . Circa 1979. http://www.religioscope.com/info/doc/jihad/azzam_defence_1_table.htm. Azzam, Abdullah Yusuf . Join the Caravan . Circa 1987. http://www.hoor-al-ayn.com/Books/Join%20the%20Caravan.pdf. Wright, Lawrence . The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11 . New York: Vintage Books, 2006. Nahed Artoul Zehr...

International Institute of Islamic Thought

International Institute of Islamic Thought   Reference library

Deina Abdelkader

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
639 words

...recovering, like other Islamic organizations, and is struggling to restore its academic and scholarly vigor. Bibliography “Center for the Study of Islam and Democracy.” https://www.csidonline.org/about-csid/board-of-directors/past-directors/24 . “History Commons.” March 20, 2002. www.historycommons.org . “Islamic Epistemology.” http://i-epistemology.net/tahar-jabir-al-alwani.html . “International Institute of Islamic Thought.” www.iiit.org . “Ismail Faruqi.” www.ismailfaruqi.com/ . McCarthy, Andrew . “International Institute of Islamic Thought...

Religion and Political Conflict: “No Religious Affiliation” in the United States

Religion and Political Conflict: “No Religious Affiliation” in the United States   Reference library

Kristi Winters

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
7,166 words

...“God bless the United States of America,” being a person of faith—especially of Protestant Christian faith—was almost synonymous with being a patriot. The 21st century is proving to be very different from the 20th in that regard, however. After years of exceptionally high levels of religious adherence and identity, the latter part of the 20th century saw the start of a trend: increasing numbers of Americans reported they had no religious affiliation when asked by pollsters. Those without a religious identification are now the second largest so-called...

Islamic Constitutional Movement

Islamic Constitutional Movement   Reference library

Chrystie Swiney and Joseph A. Kéchichian

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
974 words

...Political Islam , Washington, D.C.: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung [Foundation] and Project on Middle East Democracy, November 2009. “Islamic Constitutional Movement.” http://www.icmkw.org/ . In Arabic. “Muslim Brotherhood.” http://www.ikhwanweb.com/tagBView.php?id=Islamic%20Constitutional%20Movement . The Muslim Brotherhood's official English web page provides detailed reportage on the ICM in Kuwait. Valenti, Peter C. “The New Shape of Kuwait's Elections.” Washington Report on Middle East Affairs 25, no. 6 (August 2006): 40–41. Chrystie Swiney Updated by...

Mahathir bin Mohamed

Mahathir bin Mohamed   Reference library

Abdul Rashid Moten

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
778 words

...bin Mohamed . Mahathir bin Mohamed ( 1925–  ) was born 20 December 1925 in Alor Setar, Kedah, Malaysia. As the prime minister of Malaysia from 1981 to 2003, he is credited with engineering Malaysia's rapid modernization symbolized, among others things, by a multimedia super corridor, Kuala Lumpur International Airport and its adjacent Sepang International Race Circuit, and the Petronas Twin Towers, which was, until 2003, the tallest building in the world. He embraced an export-oriented market strategy that propelled Malaysia into the world's top...

Masyumi Party

Masyumi Party   Reference library

Fred R. von der Mehden

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
722 words

...and the divisions within the Islamic community. Four parties received approximately 75 percent of the votes, although a total of 28 parties were represented in the new parliament. Masyumi and Nahdlatul Ulama split the great majority of the Islamic vote with the former receiving 20.9 percent and the latter 18.4 percent of the electorate. This gave the Masyumi 57 seats in a legislature totaling 257. The other two major parties were the Partai Nasional Indonesia (PNI or National Party of Indonesia) with 22.2 percent and the Partai Kommunis Indonesia (PKI or...

Wizāra

Wizāra   Reference library

Luke Yarbrough

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
860 words

.... The term Wizāra (vizierate) designates the office of the wazīr (vizier), or minister of state. It became fixed in Islamic political vocabulary only in the early ʿAbbāsid period (after 750 ce ). Qurʾān verses 20:29 and 25:35 give wazīr in the sense of “helper”—Hārūn is wazīr to Mūsā. Other words based on the root w-z-r in the Qurʾān refer to a burden of responsibility, often moral, or its bearer (e.g., 6:31). Certain supporting participants in seventh-century sectarian revolts (e.g., al-Mukhtār in Kufa, d. 687) were called wazīrs . The first ʿAbbāsid...

Nabhānī, Taqī al-Dīn al-

Nabhānī, Taqī al-Dīn al- (1905–1977)   Reference library

Ovamir Anjum

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
944 words

...Taqī al-Dīn al- . Muḥammad Taqī al-Dīn bin Ibrahīm al-Nabhānī ( 1905–1977 ) , was born in Ijzim, a village near Haifa, and died 20 December 1977 in Beirut. He was the founder of the Islamic Liberation Party (Ḥizb al-Taḥrīr al-Islāmī), a small but durable political movement that embodied the conjuncture of Islamist activism and Palestinian yearning for a homeland and reversing the outcome of the 1948 war. After a religious education, he served as a judge in the sharīʿah court of Haifa during the British Mandate. During the early 1940s he went to Egypt...

Arslān, Shakīb

Arslān, Shakīb (1869–1946)   Reference library

Joseph A. Kéchichian

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
795 words

...and Remedies . Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Islamic Book Trust, 2004. Cleveland, William L. Islam against the West: Shakib Arslan and the Campaign for Islamic Nationalism . Austin: University of Texas Press, 1985. Kéchichian, Joseph A. “The Prince of Eloquence.” Gulf News , 20 May 2011. Available online: http://gulfnews.com/life-style/people/the-prince-of-eloquence-1.809019 . Kramer, Martin Seth . Arab Awakening and Islamic Revival: The Politics of Ideas in the Middle East . Piscataway, N.J.: Transaction, 2008. Joseph A. Kéchichian...

Capitulations

Capitulations   Reference library

Hazem Kandil

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
871 words

...Courts did not return to ruling in accordance with the Sharīʿah but rather in light of the positive laws first introduced for trying foreigners. Bibliography Ahmad, Feroz . “Ottoman Perceptions of the Capitulations, 1800–1914.” Journal of Islamic Studies 11, no. 1 (2000): 1–20. Angell, James B. “The Turkish Capitulations.” American Historical Review 6, no. 2 (1901): 254–259. Finkel, Caroline . Osman's Dream: The History of the Ottoman Empire, 1300–1923 . New York: Basic Books, 2006. Kinross, Patrick Balfour . The Ottoman Centuries: The Rise and...

Ghannūshī, Rāshid al-

Ghannūshī, Rāshid al- (b. 1941)   Reference library

Emad El-Din Shahin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
804 words

... Ghannūshī, Rāshid al- . Maqālāt (Essays). Paris: Dār al-Karwān, 1984. Ghannūshī, Rāshid al- . Ṭarīqunā ilā al-Ḥaḍārah (Our Path to Civilization). Tunis, n.d. Ghannūshī, Rāshid al- . “We Don’t Have a Religious Problem.” Interview. Middle East 203 (September 1991): 19–20. Ghannūshī, Rāshid al- , and Ḥamīdah al-Nayfar . Mā huwa al-gharb (What Is the West?). Tunis, n.d. Ghannūshī, Rāshid al- , and Ḥasan al-Turābī . Al-Ḥarakah al-islāmīyah wa-al-taḥdīth (The Islamic Movement and Modernization). Beirut: Dar al-Jeel, 1984. Shahin, Emad Eldin...

Human Trafficking and Religious Movements

Human Trafficking and Religious Movements   Reference library

Yvonne C. Zimmerman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
10,384 words

...the second section introduces human trafficking and the movement to end it. The third section situates the anti-trafficking movement in a broader social movement ecology, discussing how the 19th-century abolition movement, the early 20th-century anti-white slavery campaigns of the social purity movement, and the late 20th-century religious freedom movement each shape and impact the current anti-trafficking movement, with special attention to the role of religion in each. Having thus situated the anti-trafficking movement in relation to three significant...

Religious Regulation: Discrimination Against Religious Minorities

Religious Regulation: Discrimination Against Religious Minorities   Reference library

Jonathan Fox

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
8,370 words

...to religiously appropriate food 3.3% 4.4% Restrictions: The ability to write/publish/disseminate religious publications 20.8% 26.2% Restrictions: The ability to import religious publications 20.8% 21.3% Restrictions: Access to religious publications for personal use 9.3% 13.7% Restrictions: The observance religious laws concerning marriage and divorce 12.6% 12.0% Restrictions: The observance religious laws concerning burial 16.9% 20.8% Restrictions: The wearing of religious symbols or clothing 9.8% 16.9% At least one in this category 54.6% 60.1%...

Religious Regulation in Ireland

Religious Regulation in Ireland   Reference library

Vesna Malešević

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
14,423 words

...Regulation in Ireland Introduction During the 20th century , religious regulation in Ireland became synonymous with the pervasive institutional reach of the Roman Catholic Church into both the public and private spheres of life. Sociohistorical examination reveals the multiple layers of influence it exerted at the political, societal, and individual levels of Irish society, resulting in its widely perceived “moral monopoly” within the state and society. The moral hegemony the church enjoyed had its roots deep in complex social, political, and economic...

Catholic Church Advocacy in Latin America

Catholic Church Advocacy in Latin America   Reference library

Christopher W. Hale

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
9,283 words

...Church Advocacy in Latin America Introduction The Catholic Church has long been associated with political conservatism in Latin America, and it surprised many when elements of its hierarchy became forceful advocates for progressive reform in the latter half of the 20th century . Prominent Catholic officials in countries such as Chile, Brazil, Nicaragua, and El Salvador denounced authoritarian rule, mobilized protest, and became powerful voices demanding democratization and sweeping reform. Much scholarship preoccupied itself with the question of why...

Religious Regulation in Iran

Religious Regulation in Iran   Reference library

Mehran Tamadonfar and Roman B. Lewis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
9,505 words

...Cornell International Law Journal , 20 , 337–361. Amanat, A. (1981). The early years of the Babi movement (Doctoral dissertation). University of Oxford. Amanat, A. (1989). Resurrection and renewal: The making of the Babi movement in Iran, 1844–1850 . Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Amnesty International . (2017). Amnesty International report 2016/17: The state of the world’s human rights . Baha’i faculty receive prison terms in Iran: Court verdict alleges crimes against national security . (1999, April 20). PR Newswire . Baha’i International...

Religious Traditions in Politics: Islam, Sunni, and Shi’a

Religious Traditions in Politics: Islam, Sunni, and Shi’a   Reference library

Halil Ibrahim Yenigun

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
13,420 words

...especially in the face of their widespread class and status resentments, or outright secularist oppression and repression. Under these circumstances, the novelty of the 20th century was a new type of autonomous grassroots Muslim community, jamaat , often led by non-ulama, lay Muslim activists and intellectuals. These jamaats became the primary vehicle for Muslim mass mobilization in the 20th century . As the best known example, the Muslim Brotherhood (MB) in Egypt, founded by Hasan al-Banna (d. 1949 ), quickly spread to the other Arab countries. Tablighi...

Secularization, Secularity, and Secularism in the New Millennium: Macro-theories and Research

Secularization, Secularity, and Secularism in the New Millennium: Macro-theories and Research   Reference library

Jörg Stolz and Pascal Tanner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
8,268 words

...decline, a theory that depicts a very gradual long-term decline that began at the turn of the 20th century (and possibly earlier). The authors’ view is that the 1960s were a religious tipping point that happened over a longer period of time (the long 1960s), but that a cultural revolution occurred at that time, a revolution whose underlying causes of modernization had much greater longevity. While modernization had occurred all through the 19th and 20th centuries , the 1960s were a time when an older cultural regime that no longer fitted society was...

Secularism and Religion

Secularism and Religion   Reference library

Steven Kettell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
7,362 words

...spheres of life is contested in many parts of the world. Controversies over issues such as the legalization of same-sex marriage, assisted dying, and freedom of expression, as well as clashes around reproductive rights and equality issues have all, from the latter years of the 20th century , featured highly on national political agendas. Supporters of a role for religion in public life maintain that religion provides a range of valuable public goods and gives individuals a sense of meaning and identity. As such, they argue that efforts to keep religion out...

Brazil’s Evangelical Caucus

Brazil’s Evangelical Caucus   Reference library

Pedro A. G. dos Santos and Linsey Moddelmog

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
8,203 words

...his cabinet” ( Encarnación, 2017 ). The impeachment vote, combined with recent developments in Brazilian politics, show that the rhetorical and political force of the bancada evangélica or Evangelical Caucus has increased considerably since its creation in 2003 . The end of the 20th and beginning of the 21st centuries have seen a dramatic increase in the number of Brazilian citizens identifying themselves as evangelical Christians. Once a small fraction of the population, today the various denominations of evangelical Christians constitute roughly...

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