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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

G-20 and Multilateral Economic Cooperation

G-20 and Multilateral Economic Cooperation   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,644 words
Illustration(s):
1

...G-20, or a similar inclusive group, was likely to emerge as the premier forum of international economic dialogue, policy coordination, and decision making even beyond the crisis. A formal declaration to that effect was made at the third G-20 summit in Pittsburgh, USA, in 2009. G-20 leaders will now meet each year at the summit level. The bigger EMEs have now become too systemically important to be excluded from any meaningful or effective international economic consultative process to manage globalization. India is one of the bigger economies within the G-20....

Inequality

Inequality   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

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Current Version:
2012

...possible to look at only the top 1 per cent of the population. The various measures in Table 1 provide a snapshot Table 1 Inequality in India Computed Using Various Measures, 1951–2004 Year Gini a,b Consumption b Consumption b Income c shares of shares of shares of bottom 20% top 20% Top 1% 1951 35.56 7.0 43.0 13.42 1960 32.59 8.4 41.4 12.31 1965 31.14 8.8 40.0 10.92 1970 30.38 8.8 39.5 10.02 1973 29.17 9.0 38.1 7.02 1977 32.14 8.5 40.9 6.18 1983 31.49 8.6 40.5 6.46 1986 32.22 8.5 41.1 8.64 1988 31.15 9.0 40.5 8.52 1992 32.02 8.8 41.10 6.96 2004 36.80 8.0...

Monsoon

Monsoon   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...Similarly, the regional distribution of rainfall across India’s 36 meteorological subdivisions can also be erratic. During 8 of the 61 normal monsoon years within the period 1901–2005 , more than 35 per cent of the sub-divisions received either deficient (–20 per cent to –59 per cent) or excess (+20 per cent or more) rains. During winter, the air above the Indian landmass cools and begins to sink, forming a high-pressure area over most parts of the country. Dry and cold north-west winds from the north circumnavigate the Himalayas, and they emerge over the...

Tariffs

Tariffs   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

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Current Version:
2012

...reduce the duty from 20 per cent to 10 per cent, in order to help the textile industry acquire a competitive edge in the post-quota regime. Similarly, to encourage the food processing industry, I propose to reduce the duty on refrigerated vans from 20 per cent to 10 per cent. To give a leg-up to the leather and footwear industry, I propose to reduce the customs duties on seven specified machinery from 20 per cent to 5 per cent. The duty on ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA), an input for the footwear industry, is also proposed to be reduced from 20 per cent to 10 per...

Chronic Illnesses

Chronic Illnesses   Reference library

Jishnu Das and Jeffrey S. Hammer

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,552 words
Illustration(s):
1

...hypertension, and diabetes is a relatively cheap intervention that could yield substantial benefits. Jishnu Das and Jeffrey S. Hammer References Bala, K. and Kiran Sagoo . 2000. ‘Patents and Prices’, HAINEWS , 112, available at http://www.haiweb.org/pubs/hainews%20Patents%20and%20Prices.html . Das, Jishnu and Jeffrey Hammer . 2005a. ‘Chronically Misinformed: Chronic Illnesses, Information and Behavioral Change in Delhi, India’, World Bank, Processed. ——. 2005b. ‘ Money for Nothing: The Dire Straits of Medical Practice in Delhi, India ’, Policy...

Trade Barriers in Manufacturing

Trade Barriers in Manufacturing   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...Import coverage ratio (per cent) Intermediate goods Average 98.31 98.26 41.77 27.60 71.47 SD 12.89 12.65 42.63 37.88 20.43 CV 13 13 102 137 29 Capital goods Average 95.11 77.21 20.47 8.15 54.37 SD 21.56 26.94 25.36 16.96 16.69 CV 23 35 124 208 31 Consumer goods Average 98.69 87.85 45.69 33.43 68.77 SD 11.35 21.64 39.23 38.53 20.89 CV 12 25 86 115 30 All industries Average 97.59 91.64 37.97 24.82 67.11 SD 15.33 20.45 39.88 35.84 20.93 CV 16 22 105 144 31 Source : Author’s calculations based on the (1) Customs Tariff Working Schedule, Central Excise and...

Middle Class

Middle Class   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

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Current Version:
2012

...upper-income levels in the past 20 years, particularly in urban areas. The sheer size of the Indian middle-income group is important for estimating the size of the Indian market, but for social scientists the structure and composition of the middle class are even more important. While the definition of ‘middle class’ varies widely from Marxists to non-Marxists, much of the research on the ‘middling sorts’ has tended to focus on the nexus between education, occupation, and income. Changes in these three categories over the past 20 years in India paint a very...

Steel Industry

Steel Industry   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

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Current Version:
2012

...in 1919–20 on alternative assumptions. An econometric model-based estimate puts India’s finished steel consumption in 2019–20 in the range of 166 to 171 million tonnes on the assumption of annual average growth rates of GDP, GFCF, and the Index of Industrial Production in the range of 8 to 9 per cent, 12 to 15 per cent, and 10 to 11 per cent, respectively, over the period 2010–11 to 2019–20 ( Banerjee 2011 ). Indian steel exports are also projected to grow from 3.4 million tonnes in 2009–10 to a level in the range of 15 to 20 million tonnes by 2019–20. This...

Non-banking Financial Companies

Non-banking Financial Companies   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,275 words
Illustration(s):
1

...So the group pools in Rs 20,000 each month, the prize money. Every month an auction is held. In each auction, the bidder who offers the highest discount is given the prize money minus the discount. For example, when a member bids Rs 4,000, she will be paid Rs 16,000. The discount of Rs 4,000 is equally shared by all members. In this example, each member thus earns a dividend of Rs 200. The winner of an auction continues to pay the monthly contribution but is not eligible to bid in subsequent auctions. According to this system, after 20 months each member has...

Low-carbon Growth and Development

Low-carbon Growth and Development   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,140 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Government of India. 2011. Low-carbon Strategies for Inclusive Growth—An Interim Report , Interim Report of the Expert Group on Low Carbon Strategies for Inclusive Growth Chaired by Kirit Parikh, available at http://moef.nic.in/downloads/public-information/Interim%20Report%20of%20the%20Expert%20Group.pdf . Stern Nicholas . 2011. ‘ Raising Consumption, Maintaining Growth and Reducing Emissions ’, Paper for China Development Forum, Beijing, March 2011 Session on Strategic Emerging Industries for Economic Restructuring, Centre for Climate Change Economics and...

Education and Religious Minorities

Education and Religious Minorities   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...States, 2001 (per cent) States Urban Rural Hindu Muslim Difference Hindu Muslim Difference Jammu and 77.4 52.4 25.0 52.0 29.7 22.3 Kashmir Uttar Pradesh 67.9 47.3 20.6 37.7 31.6 6.1 West Bengal 78.3 59.2 19.1 55.7 47.9 7.8 Assam 82.6 65.6 17.0 56.9 38.4 18.5 Delhi 76.0 59.5 16.5 68.2 48.8 19.4 Rajasthan 66.3 50.4 15.9 37.2 31.2 6.0 India 73.9 63.2 10.7 45.7 42.7 3.0 Bihar 63.8 56.7 7.1 29.9 27.9 2.0 Orissa 73.1 66.3 6.8 46.9 59.6 –12.7 Gujarat 74.8 68.0 6.8 47.1 57.1 –10.0 Maharashtra 79.6 74.7 4.9 58.0 62.2 –4.2 Madhya 70.2 65.9 4.3 42.3 49.5 –7.2 Pradesh...

The Current Debt Situation

The Current Debt Situation   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...4.4 13.2 1999– –1.0 98.3 21.8 144.8 17 4 10.3 2000 2000–1 –0.6 101.3 22 130.4 16.5 3.6 8.6 2001–2 0.7 98.8 20.7 121.4 13.6 2.8 5.1 2002–3 1.3 104.9 20.7 109.6 15.9 4.5 6.1 2003–4 2.3 112.7 18.8 94 16 3.9 3.9 2004–5 –0.3 134 18.6 86.6 5.9 13.2 12.5 2005–6 –1.2 139.1 16.6 71.4 10 14 12.9 2006–7 –1.0 172.4 18.2 70.8 4.7 16.3 14.1 2007–8 –1.3 224.4 18.3 71.2 4.7 20.4 14.8 2008–9 –2.4 224.5 18.5 63.7 4.4 19.3 17.2 (R) 2009–10 –2.9 261.2 19.9 76.1 5.5 20 18.8 (PR) Source : Reserve Bank of India, Handbook of Statistics on the Indian Economy 2009–10 ; Ministry of...

Irrigation

Irrigation   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...Source 1950–1 1995–6 2005–6 Million ha Distribution per cent Million ha Distribution per cent Million ha Distribution per cent Surface 14.9 71.3 23.7 44.3 24.7 41.1 Govt canals 8.3 39.7 17.5 34.0 15.5 25.8 Tanks 3.6 17.2 3.1 5.8 2.0 3.8 Other sources 3.0 14.4 3.5 6.5 7.3 12.2 Groundwater 6.0 28.7 29.8 55.7 35.4 58.9 All sources 20.9 100 53.5 100 60.1 GIA all sources 22.6 71.5 82.6 Source : GoI, Statistical Abstract of India (various issues). irrigation, which in turn stimulated a surge of private investment in wells and tube wells. As a result, the importance...

Petroleum Product Pricing

Petroleum Product Pricing   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,810 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Total under-recovery i. PDS SKO (Rs crore) 20,300 24,200 32,000 39,800 47,500 ii. Domestic LPG (Rs crore) 16,200 19,300 25,300 31,400 37,500 iii Total (i+ii) 36,500 43,500 57,300 71,200 85,000 Measures to reduce under-recovery iv Reduction in SKO allocation by 20% 4,100 4,800 6,400 8,000 9,500 v Increase in price of SKO by : Rs 6/litre 6,100 6,100 6,100 6,100 6,100 vi Increase in price of LPG by : Rs 100/cylinder 7,600 7,600 7,600 7,600 7,600 vii Sub-total: If all three measures adopted (iv+v+vi) 17,800 18,500 20,100 21,700 23,200 viii Balance...

Home-based Work

Home-based Work   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...inputs or credit, but that is not essential. Subcontracting also may be of the vertical type where the buyer is primarily a downstream manufacturer/seller, or horizontal where the buyer is engaged in a similar activity as the home-based worker. Home-based workers constituted 20.9 per cent of the total non-agricultural workforce in India in 1999–2000 . Almost half (about 9 per cent) of the non-agri workforce was subcontracted, the rest being independent sellers not tied to a particular buyer. Home-based work is much more important in the case of female...

Raj Krishna

Raj Krishna   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

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Current Version:
2012

...leave from teaching and research to dabble in policymaking, only to return inevitably to his academic roots. His writings span a period of four decades—from a piece entitled ‘Economic Planning for the People’, published in the Congress Souvenir in 1946, when Raj Krishna was only 20, to ‘Ideology and Economic Policy’, published posthumously in 1988. He wrote on a wide variety of subjects for a wide variety of audiences. His writings range from a controversial piece advocating that India acquire nuclear capability 1 to the rather technical econometric paper...

Oil

Oil   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,201 words
Illustration(s):
2

...1.3 -1.6 0.6 Gross imports of crude oil (MMT) 20.7 27.3 74.1 99.4 159.3 5.7 22.1 11.6 Consumption of crude oil (refinery throughput) (MMT) 51.8 58.7 103.4 130.1 160.0 2.5 12.0 6.4 Net imports of POL crude & products (MMT) 26.7 44.2 75.0 94.5 131.8 10.6 11.2 8.4 Consumption of POL products (MMT) 55.0 74.8 100.7 113.2 138.2 6.3 6.1 4.6 Export of petroleum products (MMT) 2.7 3.4 8.4 23.5 51.0 4.7 19.8 29.4 Self reliance in crude =100 * production/(Imports + production) 61.5 56.3 30.4 24.5 17.5 R/P ratio (years) 22.4 20.8 21.7 24.4 23.0 Percentage gross POL to...

Stock Exchange

Stock Exchange   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 Number of listed domestic companies 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 Total market capitalization 7 11 13 8 15 17 18 17 19 25 23 23 21 20 20 21 22 22 Average company size 55 55 68 55 67 69 70 74 79 85 80 81 77 78 69 70 60 59 Total turnover 10 11 13 15 18 18 18 16 17 15 14 17 19 21 18 31 23 24 Turnover ratio 22 12 26 31 21 20 15 6 7 6 4 17 27 39 11 60 40 35 Share in world market capitalization (%) 2.96 2.49 1.85 2.82 1.53 1.28 1.02 0.87 0.56 0.40 0.46 0.51 0.39 0.56 0.61 0.72 0.84 0.70 Share in world stock...

Foreign Direct Investment for Media

Foreign Direct Investment for Media   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...position with respect to FDI in Indian media is shown in Table 1 . Table 1 FDI in Media: Foreign Equity Limits Limit (per cent) Conditions Broadcasting TV software production 100 Uplinking, HUB, etc. 49 includes FII Cable network 49 includes FII DTH 49 s.t. 20% for individual Terrestrial broadcast FM 20 FII only Print media Science/professional journals 100 Newspapers 26 Periodicals News and current affairs 26 Others 100 Note : FII=Foreign institutional investors (portfolio investment). Reciprocity Principle We should have no objection in principle to...

Millennium Development Goals

Millennium Development Goals   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...20MDG%20Report%202009.pdf , accessed on 21 May 2011. ——. 2011c. ‘Provisional Population Totals Paper 1 of 2011 India Series 1’, New Delhi, Office of Registrar General and Census Commissioner, available at http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/prov_results_paper1_india.html , accessed on 21 May 2011. ——. 2011d. ‘ Sample Registration Bulletin January 2011 ’, New Delhi, Registrar General India, available at http://www.censusindia.gov.in/vital_statistics/SRS_Bulletins/SRS%20Bulletin%20-%20January%202011.pdf , accessed...

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