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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Tuskegee project, the

Tuskegee project, the   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...“free treatment” including “spinal shots,” which were spinal taps without anesthesia—although anesthesia was available. Although PHS officials began discussing issues related to research on human subjects in 1945 , they did not issue guidelines on clinical research until more than 20 years later. Revisions of the 1966 Surgeon General's guidelines on clinical research and training grants established a system of peer review at each investigator's home institution. The most important revision was that peer review panels were to have members with nonscientific...

education in the sciences

education in the sciences   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science, Social sciences
Length:
3,596 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Selected Countries by Science Area Area 5th Percentile 1st Quartile Median 3rd Quartile 95th Percentile Biological Sciences 2.2 3.5 4.0 5.2 6.5 Chemistry 0.7 1.2 1.4 1.6 2.0 Computer & Information Science 2.9 4.3 5.4 8.2 11.8 Earth Science 0.5 0.8 1.2 1.4 2.0 Engineering 3.9 7.2 9.1 12.1 14.8 Health Occupations 1.1 2.3 3.7 4.6 8.1 Health Sciences 3.7 5.1 8.8 11.5 14.7 Mathematics 0.8 1.0 1.3 2.0 2.9 Physics 0.6 0.7 0.9 1.1 2.2 Table 4.Proportions of Retained Science Career Choices Compared with the Proportions of Gaining New Science Career Choices and the Odds...

family, the, and science

family, the, and science   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...and birth control have contributed to the decoupling of sex from procreation and marriage. Whereas 51 percent of men and 87 percent of the women born before 1890 were virgins at the time of marriage, less than 10 percent of Americans today are still virgins by the time they reach 20 years of age. Marriage is no longer the frontier for exploring sexuality. Between 1938 and 1963 Alfred Kinsey and his colleagues collected sexual histories from more than 18,000 research participants. The famous “Kinsey Reports,” Sexual Behavior in the Human Male and ...

information technology

information technology   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...for faster research and publication cycles. There is a well-known paradox about the development of computing, known as the productivity paradox, according to which the introduction of computers into a workplace tends to lead to a lowering of productivity in the short term (about 20 to 20 years). Paul David and others have argued that what is happening here is that we are still using the old ways of working and trying to adapt them to the production of electronic text. A new academic field, social informatics, has grown up precisely with the goal of exploring...

abortion/anti-abortion conflict

abortion/anti-abortion conflict   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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Current Version:
2006

...“free of interference by the State” (paras. 18, 126); in the second under regulation that “reasonably relates to the preservation and protection of maternal health” (paras. 19, 125); and in the third “when it is necessary to preserve the life or health of the mother” (paras. 20, 127). In Roe the court interpreted women's right to terminate pregnancies and physicians' right to perform abortions as within constitutional rights to privacy; abortion in the United States is framed as a “negative” right to act without government interference, rather than an...

institutional relations in science

institutional relations in science   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...the context as well as the content , matter. All social institutions—politics, media, business, law—have suffered from a diminution of public trust. Science has fared better than most. Yet the citizenry is largely science illiterate—consistently trusting (according to more than 20 years of public opinion polling), but not comprehending (NSB, 2002 ). That is a fragile state not readily changed by “popularizers” of science (the most illustrious of whom are deceased), such as Margaret Mead , Carl Sagan , Lewis Thomas , and Stephen Jay Gould , who...

rain forests

rain forests   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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Current Version:
2006

...locations, harsh conditions, and regenerative capacity. However, recent economic globalization and new production technologies (such as aerial logging and genetic engineering) have incorporated the rain forests more directly into the world's industrial system. Consequently, some 20 percent of tropical rain forests were deforested in the last three decades of the twentieth century. In contrast to this recent deforestation, most of Europe's temperate rain forests had been eliminated by the end of the nineteenth century. The primary source of this destruction is...

automobile, the

automobile, the   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...lines at gas stations. Raising fuel taxes to reduce consumption was deemed politically unacceptable, and the federal government has instead mandated that manufacturers must meet a Corporate Average Fuel Economy ( CAFÉ ) standard of 27.5 miles per gallon for their automobiles and 20.7 mpg for their light trucks. Cars are much safer today, but motor vehicle accidents still account for around 42,000 deaths annually in the United States. Similarly, automobile exhausts are much cleaner, but they are still a significant source of air pollution, and fuel economy...

agriculture and technology

agriculture and technology   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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2006

... Monocultures of the Mind: Perspectives on Biotechnology and Biodiversity . London: Zed Books/Third World Network, 1993. UK Food Group. Hungry for Power: The Impact of Transnational Corporations on Food Security . London: UK Food Group, 1999, http://www.ukfg.org.uk/docs/Hungry%20For%20Power.pdf . Yoxen, Edward . “Life as a Productive Force: Capitalizing the Science and Technology of Molecular Biology.” In Science, Technology and the Labour Process: Marxist Studies , Vol. 1, edited by Les Levidow and R. M. Young . London: CSE Books/Atlantic Highlands:...

gender and globalization

gender and globalization   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...when they attempt to pursue a professional or managerial career in this sector. Indeed, the percentage of undergraduate degrees in computer science awarded to women in the United States nearly halved between 1984 and 1999 (37 percent of all degrees in 1984 compared to 20 percent in 1999 ). The result is that women are chronically underrepresented in precisely the jobs that are key to the creation and design of technical systems in the new economy. Increasingly, these technical systems constitute the world we inhabit. Changing Location All visions...

patients, medical communication with

patients, medical communication with   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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Current Version:
2006

...advertising in general and medical information in particular, like many others, he uses the Internet to investigate the facts. By 2002 , over 45 million Americans had gone online to help themselves or another person deal with a major illness. According to a Pew Institute Survey, 20 percent of these people had diagnosed or treated a medical condition on their own, without consulting a doctor. In such cases, the very perception of an illness becomes an interactive, social, and cognitive negotiation. An increasing worry in the United States is that the ubiquity...

computers

computers   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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2006

...and Industry concerned with the organizational aspects of information technology ( IT ), estimated that 80 to 90 percent of investments in new technology were failing to meet their objectives in full, with about half of these projects being abandoned completely; and that only 20 to 30 percent of new systems were delivered on time and to budget. OASIG found that it was thought rare for failures to be due solely to technical factors and that human and organizational factors were believed to be the major sources of problems. In particular, many changes were...

diseases, emerging

diseases, emerging   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...surgeries increase potential exposure to infections, and use of drugs that suppress the immune system, following transplant surgery and as part of chemotherapy against cancer, make individuals more vulnerable to infections. Nosocomial (hospital-acquired) infections kill at least 20,000 Americans each year. Industrial management techniques in private hospitals, which seek to maximize the ratio between patients and doctors and nurses, also amplifies the likelihood of infection by decreasing time for sanitation and increasing the number of contacts between...

epistemic cultures

epistemic cultures   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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Current Version:
2006

...differently in different cultures, as are personhood, subjectivity, collectivity , and other cognates of the term. For example, high-energy physics experiments, which are today among the largest and longest-lasting worldwide (approximately 200 physics institutes, collaborating for 20 years and more), develop strong post-traditional communities as a practical accomplishment and normative choice. These communal socio-technical forms erase the individual scientist as an epistemic subject. What emerges instead is a distributed form of agency that involves the human...

Sex and the Body in Science

Sex and the Body in Science   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...of Sex . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998. Dreger, Alice Domurat , ed. I ntersex in the Age of Ethics . Hagerstown, MD: University Publishing Group, 1999. Fausto-Sterling, Anne . “ The Five Sexes: Why Male and Female Are Not Enough. ” T he Sciences 33.2 (1993): 20–25. Fausto-Sterling, Anne . Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality . New York: Basic Books, 2000. Foucault, Michel . Herculine Barbin: Being the Recently Discovered Memoirs of a Nineteenth-Century French Hermaphrodite , introduced by Michel Foucault ,...

education, philosophy and science of

education, philosophy and science of   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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Current Version:
2006

...raise. In contrat to mathematics, the committee charged by the government with the development of the National Science Curriculum had a major Public Educator strand in their philosophy, as well as Progressive and Old Humanist strands. In their final report, they proposed 20% of the science curriculum was to be devoted to social, historical, philosophical, and ethical dimensions of science; 40% to process aspects of science; and only 40% to traditional knowledge and understanding. These can be seen as roughly corresponding to the Public Educator aims,...

gender, race, and class in technology

gender, race, and class in technology   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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Current Version:
2006

...into some relationship with the automobile. For many urban dwellers, and for all of us at one time or other, cars force us to inhabit the role of the pedestrian. Pedestrians have very little social or material power. Despite the facts that pedestrians amount to approximately 20 percent of all car-related deaths in the United States and that small design changes could drastically lower this proportion, car designers do not need to take pedestrians into account when designing the front ends of cars. In fact, current sport utility vehicle designs are some of...

government and technology

government and technology   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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2006

...has long been regarded as insufficient for the nation's long-term economic growth, allows a 125 percent deduction. Some nations, including the United States, Canada, Japan and France, also allow firms that increase their R&D spending to take a certain percentage of the increase (20 percent in the case of the United States) as a tax credit. With this mechanism, governments can increase industrial investment in R&D while allowing individual firms to choose technologies and R&D projects according to their own needs and judgment. Other indirect mechanisms that...

indigenous knowledge

indigenous knowledge   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...Peoples' rights and ownership over their ancestral knowledge. According to the bill, companies seeking to use Peruvian Indigenous knowledge must allocate no less than 10 percent of their profits to the Indigenous People's Development Fund of Peru. Panama legislature also passed Law 20 on June 26, 2000 , addressing the same issue. Another Latin American country, Brazil, did the same with the enactment of Presidential Provisional Measure 2.186-16 in August 2001 . In New Zealand this trend is in advanced stages of implementation concerning Maori knowledge;...

metrics of science

metrics of science   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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2006

...Network of Interactions between Basic and Technological Research: The Case of Polymer Chemistry. ” Scientometrics 22.1 (1991): 155–205. Cozzens, Susan E. “ The Knowledge Pool: Measurement Challenges in Evaluating Fundamental Research Programs. ” Evaluation and Program Planning 20.1 (1997): 77–89. European Commission. Third European Report on Science and Technology Indicators: Towards a Knowledge-Based Economy . Brussels: European Commission, 2003. Garfield, Eugene . Essays of an Information Scientist . Philadelphia: ISI Press, 1977. Godin, Benoît . 2003....

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