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20/20

Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Exercise and Mental Health Benefits

Exercise and Mental Health Benefits   Reference library

Aaron L. Slusher and Edmund O. Acevedo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...PA interventions (i.e., 6 to 10 weeks), Smits et al. ( 2008 ) demonstrated that six 20-minute sessions of aerobic exercise at 70% of maximal heart rate performed over a 2-week period significantly reduced the sensitivity to anxiogenic stimuli in individuals who presented with elevated anxiety scores at baseline. Acute exercise has also been shown to positively influence anxiety. For example, Petruzzello et al. ( 1991 ) concluded that acute bouts of PA lasting at least 20 minutes in duration were sufficient to acutely reduce state and trait anxiety, whereas...

Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Anxiety

Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Anxiety   Reference library

Steven J. Petruzzello

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...before any firm conclusions can be drawn and certainly before any recommendations about minimal exercise intensity levels can be made. As for a minimum duration of exercise, Petruzzello et al. ( 1991 ) noted that exercise durations of less than 20 minutes were as effective as durations of greater than 20 minutes for reducing anxiety. The PAGAC report ( 2008 ) essentially concluded the same thing—minimal and optimal exercise durations or intensities for anxiety reduction remain unknown. Thus research at this point shows that the anxiety-reducing effect...

Prevalence, Measurement, and Experience of Eating Disorders in Sport and Retirement

Prevalence, Measurement, and Experience of Eating Disorders in Sport and Retirement   Reference library

Trent A. Petrie

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...is, athletes do not have to develop specific cognitive schema regarding the expectations and ideals communicated by the sport environment to be negatively affected. At the highest competitive levels (e.g., collegiate, elite), athletes are immersed in their sport environments for 20 or more hours per week, being exposed to the messages and expectations of coaches, teammates, judges, and other sport personnel and to the physical bodies of teammates and other competitors. They also may experience the environment as very restrictive in terms of how they spend...

Psychological Skills Training and the Impact on Military Performance Readiness

Psychological Skills Training and the Impact on Military Performance Readiness   Reference library

Scott Barnicle

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...Skills Training and the Impact on Military Performance Readiness Military and Combat Performance and Readiness From a Psychological Perspective Since the late 20th century, the U.S Army has implemented programmatic and systematic cognitive training measures at nearly all levels of its ranks, trained in most cases by civilian contractors. From cadets at West Point in New York to sergeants major at the U.S. Sergeants Major Academy at Fort Bliss in El Paso, Texas, and nearly everywhere in between, traditional sport and exercise psychology techniques...

Physical Activity and Sleep

Physical Activity and Sleep   Reference library

Sayaka Aritake-Okada and Sunao Uchida

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
6,110 words
Illustration(s):
1

...with sleep problems, because many systematic reviews about the topic showed the effects on good sleepers are not clinically significant. A study by Passos et al. ( 2010 ) on insomniac patients showed that acute moderate-intensity physical activity shortened sleep latency (near 20-minute reduction), reduced nocturnal awakenings (15-minute reduction), increased total sleep time (50-minute increase), and increased sleep efficiency (8% increase) during nocturnal sleep ( Passos et al., 2010 ) . They also revealed that 6 months of chronic moderate aerobic...

Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Depression

Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Depression   Reference library

Felipe B. Schuch and Brendon Stubbs

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...of burden across the world and is ranked in the top ten causes of years lived with disability ( Murray et al., 2012 ; Vos et al., 2012 ). The global prevalence of MDD is between 6% and 20% ( Andrade et al., 2003 ). In addition, the prevalence of subthreshold depressive symptoms, which do not quite meet the criteria for a formal diagnosis of MDD, is approximately 15%–20% ( Ayuso-Mateos et al., 2001 ). However, both MDD and depressive symptoms are associated with considerable burden to the individual ( Charlson, Diminic, Lund, Degenhardt, & Whiteford, ...

Physical Activity and Stress Reactivity

Physical Activity and Stress Reactivity   Reference library

Stephen H. Boutcher

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
10,759 words
Illustration(s):
1

...was small the relationship was clinically meaningful. For example, Chida and Steptoe ( 2010 ) suggest that people with high reactivity BP scores would have a 23% increase in risk of developing hypertension. In the Framingham study, after a follow-up of 34 years, an increase of 20 mmHg in resting systolic BP was associated with a 25% increase in carotid stenosis ( Lovallo, 2010 ). In summary, it seems that BP reactivity is a consistent independent predictor of future hypertension status when long-term follow-ups are conducted in adults and adolescents. Delayed...

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Europe

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Europe   Reference library

Stiliani “Ani” Chroni and Frank Abrahamsen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...Smith, and Andrew Sparkes). These trends developed strong research lines and appear to have influenced research worldwide. Considering that English is still “the most widely used language for international academic exchange and communication,” as Biddle ( 1995 , p. xi) pointed out 20 years ago, these works enjoy an immense advantage in comparison to work done in other languages that does not experience the visibility of Anglophone journals and textbooks. Concerning the U.K. scholars, it is worth noting their current presence as journal editors for multiple...

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Southern Africa

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Southern Africa   Reference library

Clinton Gahwiler, Lee Hill, and Valérie Grand’Maison

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
11,560 words
Illustration(s):
1

..., 20 (4–2), 1564–1571. Ramtohul, R. (2010). The gendered dimension of competitive sports in a multicultural context: The Mauritian scenario . In J. Shehu (Eds.), Gender, Sport, and Development in Africa: Cross-cultural Perspectives on Patterns of Representations and Marginalization (pp. 95–109). Codesria. . Rejeski, W. J. , & Brawley, L. R. (1988). Defining the boundaries of sport psychology. Sport Psychologist, 2 , 231–242. Rhodes, R. E. , & Nasuti, G. (2011). Trends and changes in research on the psychology of physical activity across 20...

Psychological Responses to Sport Injury

Psychological Responses to Sport Injury   Reference library

Britton W. Brewer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

..., 45 , 20–37. Brewer, B. W. , van Raalte, J. L. , & Linder, D. E. (1993). Athletic identity: Hercules’ muscles or Achilles heel? International Journal of Sport Psychology , 24 , 237–254. Byerly, P. N. , Worrell, T. , Gahimer, J. , & Domholdt, E. (1994). Rehabilitation compliance in an athletic training environment. Journal of Athletic Training , 29 , 352–355. Carson, F. , & Polman, R. (2010). The facilitative nature of avoidance coping within sports injury rehabilitation . Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports , 20 ,...

Religion and Spirituality in Sport

Religion and Spirituality in Sport   Reference library

Ivo Jirásek

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...( Collins, 2014 ). Therefore, for a deeper and more genuine understanding of the association between sport and religion, it is necessary to observe it in the wider context. Experience, Sport, and Positive Psychology A focus on pathology was dominant in psychology until the mid- 20th century ; however, a positive, humanistic existential psychology has emerged in the new millennium that concentrates on the positive subjective experience, the improvement of quality of life, and the flourishing of individuals ( Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000 ). Such interest...

Depression Among Athletes and the Potential Impact on Performance

Depression Among Athletes and the Potential Impact on Performance   Reference library

Zella Moore, Jamie Leboff, and Kehana Bonagura

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...for females and males are quite high, reportedly ranging from 10% to 25% for women and from 5% to 12% for men ( APA, 2000 ; Kessler et al., 2005 ). Onset of MDD can occur at any time throughout the lifespan, yet onset typically is between puberty and the 20s, and incidence rates usually peak in the 20s as well ( APA, 2013 ). The onset data are particularly applicable for sport psychology practice, since the middle school through postcollege age range is precisely the age range of most athletes with whom sport psychologists work. Furthermore, while the...

A Holistic and Mental Health Perspective on Transitioning Out of Elite Sport

A Holistic and Mental Health Perspective on Transitioning Out of Elite Sport   Reference library

Paul Wylleman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
5,852 words
Illustration(s):
1

...by factors such as the degree of preparation and voluntariness for ending one’s athletic career (e.g., Alfermann & Gross, 1997 ; McPherson, 1980 ; Webb, Nasco, Riley, & Headrick, 1998 ; Wheeler et al., 1996 ). Significantly, research also suggested that approximately 20% of elite athletes may experience psychological problems in relation to their retirement ( Lavallee et al., 2000 ). With athletic retirement in the 1990s being conceptualized as a process of transition resulting “in a change in assumptions about oneself and the world and thus requires...

Counseling and Communication Skills in Sport and Performance Psychology

Counseling and Communication Skills in Sport and Performance Psychology   Reference library

Jack Watson, Robert Hilliard, and William Way

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...organizations joined together to create a consensus-based definition that would be appropriate for all counseling professionals and organizations to use with their specific external constituencies ( Kaplan, Tarvydas, & Gladding, 2014 ). This meeting resulted in the creation of “20/20: A Vision for the Future of Counseling” and the consensus definition for the term counseling . Accordingly, the term counseling was defined as “a professional relationship that empowers diverse individuals, families, and groups to accomplish mental health, wellness, education,...

Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Cognition

Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Cognition   Reference library

Jennifer L. Etnier

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...persons diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease based on established clinical criteria or MCI based on Petersen criteria and found that significant positive benefits resulted from aerobic exercise programs for both (Alzheimer’s: n = 4, effect size = 0.83; MCI: n = 6, effect size = 0.20). Summary for Clinically Cognitively Impaired. In summary, although a smaller number of RCTs have been conducted with clinically cognitively impaired adults, the results are extremely promising. Meta-analytic reviews show that small-to-moderate effects can be observed in response...

The Roles of Psychological Stress, Physical Activity, and Dietary Modifications on Cardiovascular Health Implications

The Roles of Psychological Stress, Physical Activity, and Dietary Modifications on Cardiovascular Health Implications   Reference library

Chun-Jung Huang, Matthew J. McAllister, and Aaron L. Slusher

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
12,608 words
Illustration(s):
2

...this study with young adults cannot be assumed to transfer to adult populations. Given this limitation, longer intervention periods utilizing various aerobic exercise protocols may be more relevant in today’s society. A study by von Haaren and colleagues ( 2016 ) indicated that 20 weeks of supervised aerobic exercise at moderate intensity reduces the effects of psychological stress on the autonomic nervous system exhibited by enhanced parasympathetic tone and suggests that long-term aerobic exercise is sufficient to attenuate adverse physiological responses...

Evaluation of Psychological Interventions in Sport and Exercise Settings

Evaluation of Psychological Interventions in Sport and Exercise Settings   Reference library

Rebecca A. Zakrajsek and Jedediah E. Blanton

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...(p. 322) The researchers hosted a seven-week mindfulness-based intervention program with 21 Swedish junior elite soccer players compared to 20 similar players assigned to an attentional-focus control group. Injuries for all 41 athletes were monitored over a six-month period. Results showed that 67% (14 of 21) of the mindfulness-based intervention treatment group remained injury free, whereas only 40% (8 of 20) in the control group sustained no injuries. Tranaeus, Ivarsson, and Johnson ( 2015 ) conducted a meta-analysis of psychological-injury-prevention...

Sociocultural Aspects of Sport Injury and Recovery

Sociocultural Aspects of Sport Injury and Recovery   Reference library

Diane M. Wiese-Bjornstal

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
12,308 words
Illustration(s):
1

...several elite gymnastics coaches, and the sport governing body of USA Gymnastics have all been accused of enablement and complicity in covering up knowledge of the sexual abuse of youth athletes during treatments for sports injuries by this physician over a period of over 20 years ( Barr & Murphy, 2018 ; Green, 2017 ). Athletes and parents attempting to report and remedy the abuse were allegedly silenced via a range of social influences, including pressure from sport authorities, clubs, coaches, athletic trainers, institutions, and organizations....

Psychological Considerations of Adolescents in Sport and Performance

Psychological Considerations of Adolescents in Sport and Performance   Reference library

Katherine A. Tamminen and Courtney Braun

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
14,022 words
Illustration(s):
1

...(i.e., burnout occurs when athletes feel “entrapped” in the sport rather than wanting to participate). Figure 1. Integrated model of athlete burnout (from Gustafsson, Kenttä, & Hassmén, 2011 ). Reprinted with permission by Taylor & Francis, http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/rirs20/current . One important factor that has been associated with burnout among adolescent athletes is perfectionism, which is defined as a multidimensional trait or disposition consisting of a combination of exceedingly high standards and a preoccupation with extreme self-critical evaluation...

Research Methods in Sport and Exercise Psychology

Research Methods in Sport and Exercise Psychology   Reference library

Sicong Liu and Gershon Tenenbaum

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...papers . Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Carron, A. V. , Bray, S. R. , & Eys, M. A. (2002). Team cohesion and team success in sport. Journal of Sports Sciences, 20 (2), 119–126. Chen, M. J. , Fan, X. , & Moe, S. T. (2002). Criterion-related validity of the Borg ratings of perceived exertion scale in healthy individuals: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sports Sciences, 20 (11), 873–899. Cohen, J. , Cohen, P. , West, S. G. , & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). Mahwah...

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