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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Office of Technology Assessment, Congressional

Office of Technology Assessment, Congressional   Reference library

Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

... Technology . ] Bibliography Bimber, Bruce . The Politics of Expertise in Congress: The Rise and Fall of the Office of Technology Assessment . Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996. Office of Technology Assessment . http://www.princeton.edu/~ota/ns20/proces_f.html (accessed 20 March 2012). Paul S....

Sagan, Carl

Sagan, Carl (1934–1996)   Reference library

Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...venture was the 13-part Cosmos series on public television ( 1980 ). Dramatically produced and suffused with Sagan’s infectious enthusiasm, the series reached 400 million viewers in 60 countries. The accompanying book, also called Cosmos , became a best-seller. His more than 20 popular books promoting science and space research included The Dragons of Eden: Speculations on the Evolution of Human Intelligence ( 1977 ) and Pale Blue Dot: A Vision of the Human Future in Space ( 1994 ). His science-fiction novel Contact ( 1985 ) imagined an encounter...

Deepwater Horizon Explosion and Oil Spill

Deepwater Horizon Explosion and Oil Spill   Reference library

Stephen Haycox

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...Horizon Explosion and Oil Spill At about 9:45 p.m. on 20 April 2010 , methane gas escaping from an oil well being drilled from a massive drilling rig on the ocean surface into the floor of the Gulf of Mexico five thousand feet below ignited and exploded, starting an inextinguishable fire that caused the drilling rig to collapse into the sea after burning for 36 hours. Although 115 workers on the rig escaped by lifeboat, 11 were killed. The rig, Deepwater Horizon , a structure that could be dynamically positioned, had drilled the last phase of an...

Postal Service, U.S.

Postal Service, U.S.   Reference library

Richard B. Kielbowicz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...Enterprise: Post Office Innovations with Congressional Constraints, 1789–1970 . Report for Postal Rate Commission, 2000. Available at http://www.prc.gov/prc-docs/library/refdesk/techpapers/Kielbowicz/enterprise.pdf (accessed 20 March 2012). National Postal Museum, Smithsonian Institution . http://www.postalmuseum.si.edu (accessed 20 March 2012). Scheele, Carl H. A Short History of the Mail Service . Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1970. Sorkin, Alan L. The Economics of the Postal System . Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, 1980. Richard...

Silliman, Benjamin, Sr.

Silliman, Benjamin, Sr. (1779–1864)   Reference library

Julie R. Newell and Elspeth Knewstubb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...He achieved this status not through his own largely descriptive work in chemistry, mineralogy, and geology, but through the achievements of his many students and through the American Journal of Science , which he established in 1818 . He was the journal’s sole editor for the next 20 years. The American Journal of Science , commonly referred to as Silliman’s Journal , the nation’s first general scientific periodical, offered a venue where Americans could read about the experiments and observations of their countrymen and publish their own work. Silliman used...

Just, Ernest Everett

Just, Ernest Everett (1883–1941)   Reference library

Mark Robinson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...in 1941 . [ See also American Association for the Advancement of Science ; Biological Sciences ; Botany ; Higher Education and Science ; Race and Medicine ; Science ; and Zoology .] Bibliography Kessler, James. H. Distinguished African American Scientists of the 20th Century . Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1986. Manning, Kenneth. R. Black Apollo of Science: The Life of Ernest Everett Just . New York: Oxford University Press, 1983. Mark Robinson...

Mayer, Maria Goeppert

Mayer, Maria Goeppert (1906–1972)   Reference library

Karen E. Johnson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...at the institute and took a part-time (paid) position as a research physicist at the new Argonne National Laboratory. While working on a theory of the origin of the chemical elements, Goeppert Mayer discovered that nuclei with certain specific numbers of protons or neutrons—2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, or 126—were unusually stable. She called these “magic numbers”; they suggested that nuclei have quantized energy levels, or “shells.” However, she was unable to explain why it was that protons and neutrons occupy shells in a different order than electrons do until she...

Mc Cormick, Cyrus Hall

Mc Cormick, Cyrus Hall (1809–1884)   Reference library

Fred V. Carstensen, Elspeth Knewstubb, and Hugh Richard Slotten

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...was born on a farm in Rockbridge County, Virginia, the eldest of eight children. His father, Robert, was a farmer and inventor, interested especially in developing labor-saving innovations for farming. In 1831 , McCormick took up a project his father had pursued unsuccessfully for 20 years: building a reaper to speed the harvesting of small grains. In July 1831 , he gave a public demonstration of his new design, mowing a field of wheat on John Steele’s farm in Rockbridge. This prototype reaper included key innovations common to every subsequent reaper. Other...

Missiles and Rockets

Missiles and Rockets   Reference library

J. D. Hunley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...Tactical Missiles.” AIAA-2011-6941. Paper presented at the AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations (ATIO) Conference, Centennial of Naval Aviation Forum, 20–22 September 2011, Virginia Beach, Virginia. NASA, Space Shuttle . “Space Shuttle Program: Spanning 30 Years of Discovery.” http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/main/index.html , no pagination (accessed 20 March 2012). A competent, up-to-date summary of the Space Shuttle program’s history. Sutton, George P. , and Oscar Biblarz . Rocket Propulsion Elements . 8th ed. Hoboken, N...

Morgan, Thomas Hunt

Morgan, Thomas Hunt (1866–1945)   Reference library

Marga Vicedo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...development and thus continued to work on fundamental problems of embryology ( Experimental Embryology , 1927 ; Embryology and Genetics , 1934 ). A central figure in the establishment of experimental genetics and embryology in the early twentieth century, Morgan published over 20 books and about 370 research articles. He received numerous honors and became the president of several professional scientific societies, including the National Academy of Sciences ( 1927–1931 ) and the American Association for the Advancement of Science ( 1930 ). [ See also ...

National Institutes of Health

National Institutes of Health   Reference library

Victoria A. Harden and Hugh Richard Slotten

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...for licensing vaccines and antitoxins. In 1912 , the research scope was broadened to include noninfectious diseases. In 1930 Congress changed the laboratory’s name to the National Institute of Health and in 1937 created a National Cancer Institute, the first of more than 20 NIH institutes focusing on specific disease categories. The 1944 Public Health Service Act authorized the NIH to award grants and fellowships. In 1948 , as more specialized institutes were created, the name of the umbrella agency became plural: the National Institutes of...

Red Cross, American

Red Cross, American   Reference library

John F. Hutchinson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...Davison gave it legitimacy on Wall Street, headed its endowment fund, and directed its extensive operations during World War I. The Red Cross provided both planned assistance to the military and an outlet for civilian patriotic enthusiasm; the wartime boom brought the organization 20 million members and a treasury surplus of $127 million by 1919 . Salaried administrators proliferated despite its tradition of voluntarism. Ambitious plans for innovative peacetime public-health and social-welfare programs at home and abroad soon foundered on war weariness and...

Rockefeller Institute, The

Rockefeller Institute, The   Reference library

Lee R. Hiltzik and Elspeth Knewstubb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...Rockefeller’s two main advisers, his son John D. Rockefeller Jr. and Frederick T. Gates, convinced that philanthropy had a vital role in promoting the benefits of science and medicine, were determined to create a research institute of international caliber. Initially pledging $20,000 a year over a 10-year period, Rockefeller added an additional $2.6 million in 1907 and $3.8 million in 1910 . Reflecting European research models, The Rockefeller Institute was organized under the directorship of Simon Flexner around senior investigators and their...

Baird, Spencer Fullerton

Baird, Spencer Fullerton (1823–1887)   Reference library

Pamela M. Henson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

... Deiss, William A. “Spencer F. Baird and his Collectors.” Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History 9, no. 4 (1980): 635–645. Goode, George Brown . “The Published Writings of Spencer Fullerton Baird, 1843–1882.” U.S. National Museum Bulletin 20 (1883): i–xvi, 1–377. Contains a detailed bibliography. Rivinus, Edward F. , and Youssef, Elizabeth M. Spencer Baird of the Smithsonian . Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992. Spencer Baird and Ichthyology at the Smithsonian 1850–1900 . National Museum of Natural...

Teller, Edward

Teller, Edward (1908–2003)   Reference library

Gregg Herken and Elspeth Knewstubb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

.... Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004. Excellent biography provides insights into Teller and his peers as well as the intersection of science and technology with policy. Mullet, Shawn . “Teller, Edward.” In Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography . Vol. 25, pp. 20–25. Detroit: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2008. Gregg Herken ; updated by Elspeth...

Townes, Charles H.

Townes, Charles H. (1915–)   Reference library

Orville R. Butler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...; Bell Laboratories ; Military, Science and Technology and the ; Nobel Prize in Biomedical Research ; Physics ; Quantum Theory ; and Religion and Science .] Bibliography “Charles H. Townes.” Interview by Finn Aaserud , Niels Bohr Library & Archives, College Park, Md., 20 and 21 May 1987. http://www.aip.org/history/ohilist/4918.html (accessed 3 April 2012). Charles Hard Townes, a Life in Physics: Bell Telephone Laboratories and World War II, Columbia University and the Laser, MIT and Government Service, California and Research in Astrophysics . An...

Von Braun, Wernher

Von Braun, Wernher (1912–1977)   Reference library

Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...Flight Center at Huntsville, operated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). His crowning achievement, the massive Saturn V booster rocket, three hundred feet in height, delivering 7.5 million pounds of thrust, powered NASA’s Apollo 2 mission that on 20 July 1969 landed two U.S. astronauts on the moon. Handsome and charismatic, von Braun through speeches, books, magazine articles, and three Disney educational films celebrated the romance of space. He retired from NASA in 1972 as public enthusiasm waned, but continued to promote...

Wright, Wilbur

Wright, Wilbur (1867–1912)   Reference library

Fred Howard

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...the United States, England, France, and Germany in purchasing a Wright airplane. In February 1908 , the U.S. War Department finally agreed to consider a purchase. In March, the Wrights signed a contract with the French. By that summer, French aviators were making flights of up to 20 minutes. Europe seemed poised to take the lead in aviation development, but when Wilbur made his first flights in France in August 1908 , they created a sensation. Wilbur’s smooth, banked turns convinced the world that the Wrights were far ahead of their competitors. In September,...

Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

Exxon Valdez Oil Spill   Reference library

Stephen Haycox

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...work by a newly created, joint federal–state Exxon Vald ez Oil Spill Trustee Council. Subsequent federal court action exacerbated the continuing impact of the spill because a class action suit to compensate affected fishermen and communities in the Sound was not settled for 20 years. [ See also Deepwater Horizon Explosion and Oil Spill ; Environmentalism ; Environmental Protection Agency ; and Ethics and Professionalism in Engineering . ] Bibliography Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council. http://www.evostc.state.ak.us/ (accessed 10 April 2012)...

Hitchcock, Edward

Hitchcock, Edward (1793–1864)   Reference library

Rodney L. Stiling

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...Hitchcock nevertheless insisted, in a signature statement, that “the real question is, not whether these hypotheses accord with our religious views, but whether they are true” (“The Law of Nature’s Constancy Subordinate to the Higher Law of Change,” Bibliotheca Sacra ( 1863 ) 20:670:489–561). Hitchcock married Orra White ( 1796–1863 ) in 1821 . They raised four daughters and two sons, the latter (Edward and Charles) undertaking significant careers in science. Orra White Hitchcock developed into an accomplished artist whose drawings illustrated many of...

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