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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

HOME OWNERS’ LOAN CORPORATION

HOME OWNERS’ LOAN CORPORATION  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

...nonfarm, owner-occupied structures consisting of no more than four units and worth less than $20,000 were eligible. The HOLC loan could be no more than 80 percent of the appraised value of the property. Between 1933 and 1935 , HOLC received over 1.8 million applications for aid. Not everyone who applied received a loan. In the end, HOLC provided over 1 million loans totaling $3.1 million. HOLC loans covered 10 percent of all nonfarm, owner-occupied homes and 20 percent of all mortgaged homes. The HOLC also provided loans to home owners to cover property...

Servicemen’s Readjustment Act

Servicemen’s Readjustment Act   Reference library

William M. Tuttle Jr.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
306 words

...or “ GI Bill ,” as it is commonly known, authorized payments for tuition, books, and living expenses for up to four years of college or vocational school, low-interest mortgages for homeowners, loans for veterans to buy farms and start businesses, and a “readjustment allowance” of $20 per week while veterans sought employment. In important ways, the GI Bill shaped the economic and social history of postwar America . More than a million veterans enrolled in colleges in 1946 —half of that year’s total enrollment. By 1956 , almost 10 million men and women had...

Confederate States of America

Confederate States of America   Reference library

Daniel E. Sutherland

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
460 words

...When Abraham Lincoln was elected president in November 1861 , many Southern whites feared that their economic security and cultural identity, especially as represented by the institution of slavery, would be threatened by a government dominated by the Republican Party. Between 20 December 1860 and 1 February 1861 , seven Southern states— South Carolina, Mississippi , Florida , Alabama , Georgia , Louisiana , and Texas —seceded from the Union in protest. On 4 February, their rep- resentatives met at Montgomery , Alabama , to form the Confederate...

Dawes Severalty Act

Dawes Severalty Act   Reference library

Donald L. Parman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
471 words

...a major disaster. [ see also Homestead Act ; and Indian Law, Federal . ] Bibliography McLaughlin, Michael R. “ The Dawes Act, or Indian General Allotment Act of 1887: The Continuing Burden of Allotment. A Selective Bibliography. ” American Indian Culture and Research Journal 20, no. 2 (1996): 59–105. Otis, D. S. The Dawes Act and the Allotment of Indian Lands , edited by Francis Paul Prucha. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1973. Donald L....

Know-Nothing Party

Know-Nothing Party   Reference library

Thomas J. Curran

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
408 words

...to East Coast cities. The American Republican Party (later simply the American Party) was founded in New York City in 1843 ; in coalition with the Whigs, it elected a nativist mayor of New York in 1844 . Advocating a ban on Catholic and foreign-born officeholders and a 20-year time limit for naturalization, the party made headway in Philadelphia also, sparking anti-Catholic riots. It gained momentum in 1849 when Charles B. Allen founded the secret Order of the Star Spangled Banner in New York . Lodges soon spread to other cities. When...

American Indian Movement

American Indian Movement   Reference library

Andrew K. Frank

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
572 words

...local chapters across North America , with forty-three in the United States and six in Canada . In October 1972 the organization led a “Trail of Broken Treaties” caravan from the West to Washington, D.C. , occupied the Bureau of Indian Affairs headquarters, and presented the 20-Point Manifesto as demands for their surrender. In it, the AIM demanded that the United States respect Native American treaty rights and address the substandard living standards of Indians, among other things. Within the next year, the AIM occupied the Bureau of Indian Affairs...

Conscientious Objection

Conscientious Objection   Reference library

John Whiteclay Chambers II

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
620 words

...objectors” (COs), the first official use of the term, and required them to serve in the military in non–arms-bearing roles. Some 64,700 men, including many who were not members of the historic peace churches, claimed CO status on religious or political grounds in World War I, and 20,900 COs were inducted into the army. The military treated many harshly, and 450 “absolutists,” who re-fused any cooperation, went to military prisons. More liberal, the Selective Service Act of 1940 , on the eve of World War II, authorized CO status for all religious objectors and...

Ford, Gerald R.

Ford, Gerald R.   Reference library

John Robert Greene

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
655 words

...by an 8 September 1974 pardon of Nixon for his Watergate-related offenses, a worsening economy, the final withdrawal of American troops from South Vietnam , and halting attempts to conclude a second strategic arms limitation treaty (SALT II) with the Soviet Union. On 20 November 1975 , former California Governor Ronald Reagan announced that he would challenge Ford for the Republican nomination for president. A grueling primary campaign found Ford eventually winning the Republican nomination on 19 August with 1,187 votes to 1,070 for ...

Pluralism, Legal

Pluralism, Legal   Reference library

Oren Perez

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
540 words

...(2008). Teubner, Gunther. “‘Global Bukowina’: Legal Plu-ralism in the World Society.” In Global Law without a State , edited by Gunther Tuebner, pp. 3–28. Aldershot: UK; Brookfield, Vt.: Dartmouth, 1997. Twining, William. “ Normative and Legal Pluralism: A Global Perspective. ” 20 Duke Journal of Comparative and International Law 473 (2010). Oren...

Seneca Falls Women’s Rights Convention of 1848

Seneca Falls Women’s Rights Convention of 1848   Reference library

Linda C. Frank

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
557 words

...Falls Women’s Rights Convention of 1848 The Seneca Falls Women’s Rights Convention, held on 19 and 20 July 1848 at the Wesleyan Chapel in Seneca Falls, New York , was the first convention in the United States specifically called to discuss women’s social, civil, and religious rights. Although the published meeting call did not mention women’s political rights, the introduction of a resolution demanding woman suffrage was the convention’s most contentious and most enduring legacy. The village of Seneca Falls, located in central New York State, was at...

Wallace, Henry A.

Wallace, Henry A.   Reference library

John J. Fry

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
581 words

...that of conservative southern congressmen within the Democratic Party. However, during the Democratic National Convention in 1940 , Roosevelt threatened to decline his nomination for president unless Wallace was his running mate. Wallace was inaugurated vice president on 20 January 1941 . Wallace promoted Roosevelt ’s policies during World War II. He traveled to the Soviet Union in 1944 , where he infamously declared that Siberian miners were well provided for. In fact, they were prisoners, and Wallace had been duped by a counterfeit village. ...

White Citizens’ Councils

White Citizens’ Councils   Reference library

Charles W. Eagles

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
539 words

...manager in Leflore County, rallied more than a dozen white men in nearby Indianola to organize resistance to racial integration. A subsequent, larger public meeting resulted in the formation of the Indianola Citizens’ Council. Other local councils soon emerged, and in October 20 groups publicly formed the Association of Citizens’ Councils in Mississippi with Patterson as executive secretary. Reflecting an emphasis on local autonomy, the state association had a loose structure. Similar organizations soon developed across the South. Strong and influential...

Homeland Security, Department of

Homeland Security, Department of   Reference library

Patrick S. Roberts

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,042 words

...customs, border, transportation security, and emergency preparation and response functions at the federal government level and issued grants to states and localities. A cabinet-level department was not the government’s first organizational response to the infamous attacks. On 20 September 2001 , President Bush proposed the creation of the Office of Homeland Security, which began formal operations on 8 October. The president named Pennsylvania governor Tom Ridge to lead the new office, which would co-ordinate homeland security activities through- out...

Naral Pro-Choice America

Naral Pro-Choice America   Reference library

Karen O’Connor and Felicia Fognani

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,080 words

...lobbying and policy. In response to President Ronald Reagan ’s support of a constitutional amendment banning abortion, NARAL launched the “Abortion Rights: Silent No More” campaign. NARAL, along with Planned Parenthood and the National Organization for Women (NOW), collected 20,000 personal letters from those who had suffered the tragic consequences of illegal abortions before Roe . NARAL also led the campaign against the anti-choice nominee to the Supreme Court Robert H. Bork in 1987 . Throughout the 1980 s, abortion rights were again threatened by...

Social Security Policy

Social Security Policy   Reference library

Madonna Harrington Meyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
2,480 words

...for full retirement benefits has been gradually increasing from age sixty-five to age sixty-seven, where it will be in 2027. The age for early retirement remains age sixty-two, but the penalty for taking early benefits, which most men and nearly all women take, has increased from 20 to 30 percent. Similarly, the Social Security earnings test penalizes wages among early retirees. Originally beneficiaries could not earn more than $15 a month without losing their entire benefit. Those rules have been relaxed and currently there is no earnings test for those ages...

Alcatraz, Occupation of

Alcatraz, Occupation of   Reference library

Troy Johnson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
741 words

...be heard. Among the Indian students at San Francisco State was a Mohawk Indian, Richard Oakes . In September 1969 , he and other Indian students began discussing the possibility of occupying Alcatraz Island as a call for Indian self-determination. In the early morning hours of 20 November 1969 , eighty-nine American Indians landed on Alcatraz Island and claimed the island by right of discovery. The occupiers set the tone of the occupation and the agenda for negotiations during the nineteen-month occupation by demanding title to the island, a center for...

Capital Punishment

Capital Punishment   Reference library

Richard Moran and Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
931 words

...Punishment Since George Kendall’s execution in Jamestown in 1608 , about 20,000 people have been legally put to death in America—more than 7,000 of them in the twentieth century. All thirteen colonies mandated public hanging for certain crimes against the state, person, or property. When the Bill of Rights was adopted in 1791 , the Eighth Amendment’s prohibition against “cruel and unusual” punishment was understood to outlaw torture and the intentional infliction of pain, not the death penalty itself. Over the next two centuries, however, the criminal...

Chinese Exclusion Cases

Chinese Exclusion Cases   Reference library

John R. Wunder

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
896 words

...who lived in the United States before 1882 and who left the country with plans to return to have a reentry certificate. Six years later, the Scott Act ( 1888 ) became law. This statute prohibited Chinese laborers abroad or who planned future travels from returning. Over 20,000 Chinese were stranded. The Scott Act did allow merchants and teachers to return if they had proper papers. This loophole began the “paper names” industry whereby Chinese created new identities to return. Congress passed a second exclusionary act, known as the Geary Act ( 1892...

Federal Reserve System

Federal Reserve System   Reference library

Wyatt C. Wells and Andrea Field

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
979 words

...of the 1970 s—simultaneous inflation and recession—stymied the central bank. After years of vacillating between expansion and contraction, the Federal Reserve in 1979 under Chairperson Paul Volcker embraced a policy of fierce monetary stringency, driving interest rates to near 20 percent and triggering the worst recession since the 1930 s. Hard times inspired calls for reforms to make the Federal Reserve more responsive to elected officials. Economic recovery after 1983 , however, coupled with stable, low inflation, bore out the wisdom of Volcker’s policy...

Gun Control

Gun Control   Reference library

Alan Lizotte, David McDowall, and Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
705 words

...could be used and restricted the carrying of concealed weapons. The most sweeping early effort to regulate firearms, New York State’s Sullivan Law ( 1911 ), strictly limited the sale, possession, and carrying of guns. By the late 1990 s, some authorities estimated, more than 20,000 state and local statutes regulated firearms. Federal gun-control laws were enacted in 1927 , 1934 , and 1938 . These forbade mail-order pistol sales, regulated firearms dealers, and limited possession of “gangster” weapons. The Gun Control Act of 1968 tightened the earlier...

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