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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Mortgage

Mortgage   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
3,125 words

...Roman Law .] Bibliography primary works Accursius, Franciscus (1182–1260). Corpus Iuris Civilis . Lyon, France, 1589. See columns 1422–1448 (on D.13.7) and columns 1903–1958 (on D.20.1–20.6). Bartolus de Saxoferrato (1313–1357). Commentaria in secundam digesti veteris partem . Lyon, France, 1547. See folios 87–95 (on D.13.7) and folios 144–154 (on D.20.1–20.6). Cujacius, Jacobus (1522–1590). “De diversis temporum praescriptionibus et terminis pragmateia.” In Iacobi Cuiacii iurisconsulti ad tres posteriores lib. cod. Dn. Iustiniani commentarii ,...

Assault

Assault   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
924 words

...batteries, leading the nineteenth-century legal historian F. W. Maitland to observe that the law “if it had once been too severe, became much too mild.” But the damages awarded could be crippling: in a King's Bench case of 1308 , the damages were assessed at the great sum of £20 for causing the victim to fall from his mare and break both his shoulder blades. However, cases can also be found that bear out Maitland's assessment: in a 1336 case a defendant who had blinded someone had to pay only £1. Alongside the survival of assault and battery as...

Faber, Antonius

Faber, Antonius (1557–1624)   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
452 words

...German jurist Benedict Carpzov ( 1595–1666 ) as the template for his collection of Saxon decisions. In Leipzig, it was still being reprinted in the eighteenth century. Bibliography Chevalier, L. “ Le président Favre et la jurisprudence du Sénat de Savoie de 1585–1605. ” TRG 20 (1952): 263–289, 456–478. Chevalier, L. “Remarques sur André Favre.” RevSav (1957): 4–15. Faber, Antonius . Codex Fabrianus . Leipzig, Germany, 1706; reprint, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 2006. Faber, Antonius . De erroribus pragmaticorum et interpretum iuris Chiliades wie...

Ibn Rushd, Abu AL-Walid Muhammad ibn Ahmad

Ibn Rushd, Abu AL-Walid Muhammad ibn Ahmad   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
610 words

...(al-Jadd). Edited by Muhammad al-Habib al-Tajkānī. 2 vols. Casablanca, 1992. Ibn Rushd al-Qurtubi al-Maliki, Abu al-Walid Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Ahmad al-Jadd. Al-bayan wa-al-tahsil wa-al-sharh wa-al-tawjih wa-al-taʿlil fi masaʾil al-Mustakhraja . Edited by M. ḥajji. Beirut , 20 vols. Dar al-gharb al-Islami, 1988. 3 vols. Beirut, Dar al-gharb al-Islami, 1991. Ibn Rushd al-Qurtubi al-Maliki, Abu al-Walid Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Ahmad al-Jadd. Al-Muqaddamat al-mumahhidat . Edited by M. Hajji and S. A. Aʿrab . 3 vols. Berut, 1988. secondary works ʿAbbās,...

ĀtmanastuS.ht.i

ĀtmanastuS.ht.i   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
569 words

...term as it figures in the Bhagavadgītā in describing the features of the knowing (i.e., enlightened) man ( jñānin, sthitaprajñā ). For Bhagavadgītā II.55, renouncing desire ( kāma ) goes hand in hand with being content through one's own self ( evātmanā tus.t.aṭ ). Bhagavadgītā VI.20 stresses that in deep meditation ( samādhi ), contentment takes place within the self ( ātmani tushyati ) and includes never wavering from the truth ( na caivāyaṃsthitaś calati tattvataṭ ). The connection of self and truth, correct religious practice, and dharma is a powerful one...

Carrara, Francesco

Carrara, Francesco (1805–1888)   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
703 words

...the prepotent emergence of positivistic doctrine in Italian criminal law. He died in Lucca in January 1888 , bequeathing his library to the University of Pisa. [ See also Italy .] Bibliography Mazzacane, Aldo . “Carrara, Francesco.” In Dizionario biografico degli Italiani , Vol. 20, pp. 10–15. Rome: Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, 1977. F.C. nel primo centenario della morte. Atti del Congresso internazionale (Lucca-Pisa 1988), Milan, Italy, 1991. Aldo Mazzacane Translated from the Italian by Joe...

Mauritius

Mauritius   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
1,087 words

...A more democratic constitution ( 1967 ) was bequeathed by an Order-in-Council at independence. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the population of 1.2 million in Mauritius is composed of 60 percent descendants of Indian indentured labourers, 20 percent descendants of African slaves, and 20 percent European settlers and Asian traders. Mauritius is part of the Commonwealth; it adopted the Westminster model and became a republic in 1992 , when a president replaced the governor general. Mauritius retains a mixed legal system. Substantive laws such...

Witnesses in Ancient Athens

Witnesses in Ancient Athens   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
1,389 words

...from a refused challenge is often employed where the two sides present conflicting witness testimony and must bolster it (Demosthenes 47.5, 8; Lycurgus 1.28). Both metics (resident foreigners) and free foreigners ( xenoi ) could give testimony as witnesses (Demosthenes 35.14, 20, 23, 33–4; Aeschines 2.155). Terminology. Several terms are derived from the word martyria to describe the different functions served by witnesses. The diamartyria was a formal evidentiary statement declaring, for example, that an estate of a deceased man was not transferable...

GraphĒ Paranomōn

GraphĒ Paranomōn   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
2,237 words

...still made in the Assembly, but now required final approval by a board of nomothetai . The graphē paranomōn was created to ensure that laws took precedence over decrees of the Assembly (Andocides 1.87) and that all decrees conform to the basic provisions of the laws (Demosthenes 20.86). Legal Procedures. One could bring a graphē paranomōn against a proposed decree either before (Xenophon Hellenika 1.7.12–14) or after the Assembly voted to ratify it (Demosthenes 22.9–10). If the action was brought after ratification, the decree was held in abeyance until...

Mansfield, Lord

Mansfield, Lord (1705–1793)   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
2,463 words
Illustration(s):
1

...London in April 1737 , a bill was introduced in Parliament to put the city of Edinburgh under certain disabilities. Murray acted as counsel for the Lord Provost of Edinburgh. Ultimately, the city was given only nominal punishment, and Murray's role was highly praised. On September 20, 1738 , Murray and Elizabeth Finch were married. Elizabeth's grandfather (who had died before she was born) was Heneage Finch, first Earl of Nottingham, the great seventeenth-century Lord Chancellor. Like Murray, Heneage Finch had been educated at Westminster School and Christ...

East Timor

East Timor   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
929 words

...liurai represent an acceptable form of feudal authority? The challenge is to develop a system for dispute resolution including negotiations between customary landholders and economic investors. The Democratic Republic of East Timor became a full member of the United Nations on May 20, 2002 . The future of the country is in the hands of an elected National Parliament. The new prime minister, Xanana Gusmão, and the president, José Ramos Horta, appoint the members of the government. [ See also Indonesia .] Bibliography Berlie, Jean A. East Timor: A...

Noodt, Gerard

Noodt, Gerard (1647–1725)   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
1,002 words

...1716. Commentarius in Digesta sive Pandectas . Leiden. Books 1–4 were published in 1716 and all twenty-seven books in 1724 in Opera Omnia , Leiden. principal literature Ahsmann, M. “Noodt, Gerard (1647–1725).” In Juristen: Ein biographisches Lexikon von der Antike bis zum 20. Jahrhundert , edited by M. Stolleis , pp. 471–472. Munich, Germany: Beck, 2001. Ahsmann, Margreet , and R. Feenstra . Bibliografie van hoogleraren in de rechten aan de Leidse Universiteit tot 1811 . Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche Rechtswetenschap 7, no. 1, Bibliografie...

Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
949 words

...The small expatriate community was subject to magistrates courts and small-debts courts, with appeals to the Central Court. In the northeastern half of PNG ( Kaiser Wilhelm's Land), controlled by Germany ( 1884–1914 ), German laws applied and the Imperial Ordinance of July 20, 1887 allowed the German New Guinea Company to supervise governance through an Imperial District court and nine administrative districts, each with its own court. After British Military Rule ( 1914–1921 ), New Guinea became a Class “C” League of Nations mandate territory under...

Theft and Robbery

Theft and Robbery   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
819 words

...Describes the different types of offenses and the respective punishments, with further literature, p. 350. Hagemann, Hans-Rudolf . “Vom Diebstahl im altdeutschen Recht.” In Festschrift für Hermann Krause , edited by Sten Gagnér , Hans Schlosser , and Wolfgang Wiegand , pp. 1–20. Cologne, Germany: Böhlau, 1975. Vividly written overview of older representations of the cultic aspects of the offense of theft punishable by death in Germanic times. Hälscher, Hugo . Das preussische Strafrecht . Vol. 3, part 2: System des preussischen Strafrechtes, pp. 388–422...

Rahn in Islamic Law

Rahn in Islamic Law   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
1,667 words

... and translated by Michael Silverthorne. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1991. See pp. 103–104 (section 1.15.15). Stryk, Samuel (1640–1710). Continuatio altera usus moderni pandectarum, a libro XIII. usque ad XXII . Halle, Germany, 1735. See pp. 577–675 (on D.20.1–20.6). secondary works Coing, Helmut . Europäisches Privatrecht . 2 vols. Munich, Germany: Beck, 1985–1989. See Vol. 1, pp. 319–340, and vol. 2, pp. 414–429. Pos, Anton . Hypotheek op roerend goed . Deventer, Netherlands: Kluwer, 1970. Windscheid, Bernhard , and Theodor Kipp . ...

Personal Status Law

Personal Status Law   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
3,852 words

...of the law shall be punished with imprisonment and/or a fine (23- bis ). A significant innovation is the provision calling for the appointment of a third arbitrator in order to solve disputes between spouses (art. 11). The last legislative act is Law 1 ( 2000 ), whose Article 20 substantially changes the regulation of the khulʿ (repudiation through compensation). If spouses do not agree on divorce, the wife may request from the court permission to ransom herself from her husband by forfeiting all of her lawful financial rights and returning the dowry...

Final Process

Final Process   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
2,215 words

...immorality and inefficacy of civil imprisonment were being voiced by the mid-seventeenth century. At the margins, restrictions were introduced over the course of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (such as immunities for sailors in His Majesty’s service owing no more than £20). Notoriously, abuses developed (whether by judgment creditors or judgment debtors, sheriffs, or jailers), leading, in the nineteenth century, to the virtual abolition of civil imprisonment as part of the same broad reforming impulse that expanded proprietary execution. After...

Exile in Chinese Law

Exile in Chinese Law   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
1,313 words

...(in a provision more generous than that of the Tang) might accompany him (Ming Article 15; Qing Article 15). Women were not sent into exile alone, but instead received a beating of one hundred blows and redeemed the balance of the punishment (Ming Article 19; Qing Article 20). The codes also permitted offenders to remain at home to look after aged or infirm paternal grandparents or parents, should there be no other adults in the family (Ming Article 18; Qing Article 18). [ See also Mutilation in Chinese Law ; Poison (Gu) ; and Punishment and Status...

Fiji

Fiji   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
1,341 words
Illustration(s):
1

..., but this was declined. Unsuccessful attempts to develop local centralized government followed and during this period William Thomas Pritchard, the first British Consul to Fiji, operated a de facto justice system, establishing Consular Courts and a Mercantile Court. On March 20, 1874 , Cakobau again offered to cede Fiji and on October 10, 1874 , it became a British dependency, with the islands of Rotuma joining the colony on May 13, 1881 . Common law, rules of equity, and United Kingdom statutes of general application in force on January 2, 1875 ,...

Individual Effort of Legal Reasoning (Ijtihād)

Individual Effort of Legal Reasoning (Ijtihād)   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
1,223 words

... 16 (1984): 3–41. Kamali, Mohammad Hashim . Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence . Rev. ed. Cambridge: Islamic Texts Society, 1991. Chapter 19. A third edition was published in 2003. Peters, Rudolph . “ Idjtihâd and Taqlîd in 18th and 19th Century Islam. ” Die Welt des Islams 20 (1980): 131–146. Vogel, Frank E. Islamic Law and Legal System: Studies of Saudi Arabia . Leiden, Netherlands and Boston, Mass.: E. J. Brill, 2000. Chapters 1–4. Rudolph...

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