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20/20

Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

county championship

county championship   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
145 words

...game has diminished in the context of international fixtures and the rise of one-day and evening-based forms of competition. In 2008 , data from the British Market Research Bureau confirmed the popularity of the Twenty20 format over the County Championship: 23 per cent of English adults (9.6 million) reported having followed Twenty 20, only 20 per cent still following the traditional County Cricket...

wushu

wushu   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
59 words

...A term referring to sporting practices and disciplines based on traditional Chinese martial arts. It was established in its modern form by the state policy of the People's Republic of China, in the mid 20th century. An International Wushu Federation was founded in Beijing in 1990 , and wushu has become a recognized sport of the International Olympic...

player migration

player migration   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
107 words

...sportspeople across national borders. There is a long history of player migration—black US boxers to England in the early 19th century, Indian cricketers to England in the late Victorian age, South American footballers to Europe in the mid 20th century, and black African footballers to European leagues in the later 20th century are just some examples. While player migration represents a principle of open opportunities and global markets in sport, it also leads to controversies concerning the national balance of sport teams, the rapidity of changed...

Cumberland and Westmorland wrestling

Cumberland and Westmorland wrestling   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
240 words

...contestants must wear white long-john pantaloons. Traditionally, in the 19th and 20th centuries such contests were a source of cash gain and local status. Organized championships were first held in 1904 , and the Cumberland and Westmorland Wrestling Association celebrated its centenary year in 2006 , by which time aspects of the sport were not just organized in local academies, but coaching was provided and public sector facilities made available for training. In the mid 20th century, as observed by anthropologist W. M. Williams in his case-study village...

Cold War

Cold War   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
149 words

...second half of the 20th century. It dominated international politics from the end of World War II to the end of the 1980s, when the Berlin Wall was dismantled and, from 1991 , most of the satellite states of the Soviet Union rejected the reigning political ideology of communism. The term has been attributed to US politicians and journalists in the late 1940s, but was also used by English writer George Orwell to refer to the clash of capitalist and communist ideologies. In sport, the history of the Olympics in the second half of the 20th century was...

gender differences

gender differences   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
166 words

...differences The difference in sports performance between men and women as a result of physiological, psychological, and social factors. As a general approximation, female performance is around 10 to 20 per cent lower than that of males, although the exact difference ranges from 40 per cent lower in heavyweight weightlifting to 10 per cent lower in sprinting. Part of the difference derives from biology: haemoglobin level, lean body mass, heart size, and anabolic hormone levels are all greater in males, and body fat levels are lower. Psychologically,...

rounders

rounders   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
80 words

...A nine-a-side outdoor bat-and-ball game, originating in Britain and called ‘base-ball’ in A Little Pretty Pocket Book ( 1744 ). The game is seen as an early form of what was developed into baseball . Rules were formalized in the early 20th century, with a version published by the Ling Association in 1931 . A National Rounders Association was founded in 1943 . Played by both boys and girls, it is a sport still conducive to spontaneous forms of...

Eysenck, Hans Jürgen

Eysenck, Hans Jürgen   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
87 words

...Hans Jürgen ( 1916–97 ) One of the most influential and widely cited psychologists of the 20th century, Eysenck spent his career in London, England, after fleeing Nazi Germany. His work on intelligence and personality was world-leading, though his claims concerning the relationship between genetics and personality sparked much controversy. His model for the analysis of personality and for the identification of traits has been applied in sport psychology, and the distinction between extrovert and introvert personalities has informed the analysis of...

Foucault, Michel

Foucault, Michel   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
100 words

...Michel ( 1926–84 ) A French philosopher-sociologist whose works on the history of sexuality and on the essentially power-laden nature of knowledge and its reproduction had worldwide impact in the social sciences in the last quarter of the 20th century. His notions of disciplinary power (picking up on Jeremy Bentham's notion of the panopticon ) and governmentality have been applied in a variety of sport contexts, from analysis of the use of physical education systems to control the body, to discussion of the nature of governmentality as articulated...

Monte Carlo Rally

Monte Carlo Rally   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
89 words

...most dangerous. It was first held in 1911 , and used as a means of testing new technologies in and designs of vehicles. The combination of glamour in the Mediterranean location with toughness and endurance in the driving made the Monte Carlo rally a symbol of early and mid 20th-century glamour, and for car manufacturers the rally was an important forum for exhibiting their...

wellness

wellness   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
98 words

...An optimal state of health. Wellness as a concept became commonly used towards the end of the 20th century and maintains that health is not simply the absence of illness and disease but is a continuum from death at one end, through absence of illness, to an optimal state of being at the other end. The World Health Organization defines wellness through two foci: ‘the realization of the fullest potential of an individual physically, psychologically, socially, spiritually and economically, and the fulfillment of one's role expectations in the family,...

Calcutta Cup

Calcutta Cup   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
90 words

...presented to the Rugby Football Union the previous year by the Calcutta Rugby Club, which had been formed in India in 1873 after a game of rugby between twenty Englishmen and twenty Scots or Celts. When the club disbanded, it used its funds to commission the cup, which has in the 20th century been contested within the programme of the Six Nations...

Jeffries, James Jackson

Jeffries, James Jackson   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
89 words

...James Jackson ( Jim ) ( 1875–1953 ) A US heavyweight boxing champion of the world , who was born in Ohio and moved to Los Angeles in 1891 , where he boxed as an amateur for several years, turning professional at 20, and winning the world title in 1899 , in a championship bout in Brooklyn, New York. He retired undefeated but his record was blemished by a comeback fight, for which he was flagged by racists and promoters as the ‘Great White Hope’, against black champion Jack Johnson...

ice skating

ice skating   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
211 words

...in 1894 . Ice-skating disciplines became a staple of the Winter Olympics programme in the 20th century, not least because of the outlet that it offered to women performers such as Sonja Henie , and the opportunity for spectators to see the female body in action. The combination of speed, balance, athleticism, and aesthetics has continued to ensure its niche in the winter sports calendar, though the popularity of recreational ice rinks receded in the later 20th...

aerobic

aerobic   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
215 words

...determined by direct measurement in the laboratory or estimated indirectly by a number of fitness tests such as the 20-metre shuttle (bleep) test. The maximum aerobic power is an individual characteristic and its size depends on a number of factors such as active muscle mass and inheritance. Maximal aerobic power is lower in women than men by about 10 per cent. In both sexes it can be improved by physical training and average increases of about 20 per cent are usually seen although there is considerable inter-individual variation in the response. The capacity of...

knur-and-spell

knur-and-spell   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
202 words

...A game played in the north of England, with a continuous popularity from the mid 1700s to the 1930s, surviving into the later 20th century in some forms as an element of heritage culture. The sport is based upon the striking of a pot knur—a small spherical ball, suspended on a string from a gallows-like contraption known as the spell—with a long stick, rather like a golf club. The sport was popular in particular in regions of north-east Lancashire and south Yorkshire, areas which produced some of the most notable ‘world champions’ of the sport....

punting

punting   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
110 words

...is used to propel and direct the vessel on the river. Although it was a work-based competitive activity among watermen of the River Thames in London in the late 18th century, it became popular as a sport among amateurs of the elite classes from the mid 19th century. Punting in the 20th century is a lucrative form of tourism in the English university cities of Oxford and Cambridge, where leisurely punts along the river afford views of the architecture of the colleges of the ancient universities, and evoke bucolic pastimes redolent of a privileged...

American College of Sports Medicine

American College of Sports Medicine   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
125 words

...‘scientific research, education, and practical applications of sports medicine and exercise science to maintain and enhance physical performance, fitness, health, and quality of life’. It is the largest organization of its kind in the world, and holds an annual conference for its 20,000 regional, national, and international chapter members at which research into all aspects of sport performance is presented by scientists from across the world. http://www.acsm.org/ The official site of the ACSM, including its Health and Physical Activity Reference...

delinquency

delinquency   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
109 words

...Antisocial and/or illegal behaviour, most widely associated with adolescent or young adult males (thus the term ‘juvenile delinquent’ that was widely used in criminological and policy studies of the mid 20th century). Sport has been seen in many places and at many historical moments to be a means of deterring or diverting young males from delinquency acts and the ambience—often of the gang—in which such acts are expected and commonplace. Boxers such as Mike Tyson , it has been said, traded the delinquent gang for the training gymnasium; but as his...

McLuhan, (Herbert) Marshall

McLuhan, (Herbert) Marshall   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
113 words

...(Herbert) Marshall ( 1911–80 ) A Canadian academic, literary scholar , and media theorist who, in the second half of the 20th century, achieved stellar celebrity status in an expanding globalizing media world, for his commentaries on the nature and significance of the contemporary media. McLuhan studied for a BA in literature and took a doctorate in literary-historical studies at the University of Cambridge, England, but his greatest impact came in his reflections on the mass media in the contemporary world. McLuhan's ideas about hot and cool media,...

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