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20/20

Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Transpacific Femininities

Transpacific Femininities   Reference library

Denise Cruz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
6,907 words
Illustration(s):
3

...by a recurring statistic: just as tens of thousands of men migrated to the United States in the first few decades of the 20th century , so were these years also accompanied by relatively few numbers of Asian women. Accounts of early- 20th-century Asian American experience, then, necessarily foregrounded literature that focused on communities of bachelor men, paper sons, and migrant laborers. In contrast, the second half of the 20th century was characterized by feminist and queer interventions into both this history of immigration and the politics of...

Asians and Asian Americans in Early Science Fiction

Asians and Asian Americans in Early Science Fiction   Reference library

John Cheng

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...and Arthur Zagat’s “In 20,000 ad! ” and “Back to 20,000 ad ” were the evolutionary extrapolation and expression of historical associations between African Americans and exploitative labor conditions within slavery and segregation. 8 The Robots were contrasted with their rulers, white-skinned, superintelligent Masters whose centuries of controlled breeding had led both to the Robots and their atrophied bodies, which existed only to house their enlarged brains, and this dystopian future represented critiques of not only early 20th-century race relations...

Filipino American Visual Culture

Filipino American Visual Culture   Reference library

Sarita Echavez See

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...culture and its sociohistorical origins, particularly in relation to the American conquest and colonization of the Philippines. Only in the late 20th century was the violent, devastating Philippine–American War ( 1899–1913 ) recognized as a genocidal race war, and scholarly claims about its relevance for contemporary phenomena in the US Filipino diaspora continue to be a source of controversy in the early 20th century . 23 For example, the ethnic studies scholar Dylan Rodríguez argues that the hyphenated subject (the “Filipino-American”) cannot exist...

Comedy, Humor, and Asian American Representation

Comedy, Humor, and Asian American Representation   Reference library

Caroline Kyungah Hong

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
11,355 words
Illustration(s):
5

...still stereotypical: For example, several sitcoms in the mid- 20th century featured “the stock Chinese bachelor character, a social type that has its origins in the discriminatory immigration policies of the late 19th century .” 24 But some of these parts were played by Chinese American performers who managed to seize some comic agency and transcend the stereotype of the obsequious Chinese servant, such as Sammee Tong, who played Peter Tong on Bachelor Father ( 1957–1962 ). 25 The mid- 20th century also saw the release of one of the first Hollywood...

The Chinese in West Indian Fiction

The Chinese in West Indian Fiction   Reference library

Anne-Marie Lee-Loy

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...Are While outsiders to the region seek to define the West Indies as an exotic place of otherness through their inclusion and representation of the Chinese presence, 20th-century West Indian fiction locates the Chinese and Chineseness alongside “the emergence of movements that claimed a multiracial and multiclass purview and placed a priority on the formation of national literature.” 3 Indeed, 20th-century West Indian fiction has been understood to be primarily concerned with mapping cultural identity within concepts of West Indian nationhood, even to the...

Asians and Asian Americans and the Performing Arts Prior to World War II

Asians and Asian Americans and the Performing Arts Prior to World War II   Reference library

Krystyn R. Moon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
7,082 words
Illustration(s):
8

...These productions evolved to reflect Asian immigrant experiences and sometimes incorporated American forms of musical, dance, and theatrical expression. By the early 20th century , this mix of traditions reached beyond immigrant communities as Asians and Asian Americans became part of the American entertainment industry. Early-20th-Century Entertainment Industry By the beginning of the 20th century , the American entertainment industry became more diversified and embraced new performance styles and technologies. The types of acts seen in the 19th...

Asian American Art and Modernism

Asian American Art and Modernism   Reference library

Tom Wolf

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
9,358 words
Illustration(s):
22

...American Art and Modernism The history of Asian American and Pacific Island art in the 20th century has been attracting increasing numbers of scholars thanks to its richness, its expansiveness, and the fact that it has been relatively unexplored. The term “Asian American” was first created in 1968 and has been gaining momentum ever since. Asian American artists have tended to be marginalized in mainstream accounts of 20th-century American art but, in developments that are analogous in scholarship about African American, Hispanic, and women artists,...

Indian Dance in Diaspora: US And Australian Contexts

Indian Dance in Diaspora: US And Australian Contexts   Reference library

Priya Srinivasan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...historical look at how South Asian performers and performances circulated in the late 19th and 20th centuries in the United States and Australia. It compares how dance practices, both in the United States and in Australia, are interwoven with 19th - and early 20th-century orientalism and anti-Asian immigration law, as primarily white dancers engaged with Indian dance practices to develop intercultural styles of Western contemporary dance. While the late 20th century has seen tremendous growth in diasporic Indian communities and the teaching and...

The Chinese Exclusion Act and Early Asian American Literature

The Chinese Exclusion Act and Early Asian American Literature   Reference library

Ben Railton

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...lives, communities, and legacies of Chinese immigrants and their descendants. These early Chinese American literary and cultural voices offer vital glimpses into the Exclusion Era and America at the turn of the 20th century . They also expressed a nascent awareness of complex cultural and ethnic issues that would later characterize much of later 20th - and 21st-century Asian American literature, culture, and community. Facilitated by changes in immigration law and policy after World War II, this growing Chinese American community expanded on and amplified...

Mixed Race Asian American Literature

Mixed Race Asian American Literature   Reference library

Jennifer Ann Ho

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...Turns ,” in this volume . 17. Marcel Proust’s A la recherche du temps perdu is an early-20th-century French novel translated into English as In Search of Lost Time , though earlier translations bore the title Remembrance of Things Past . 18. Barbara Christian, Black Feminist Criticism: Perspectives on Black Women Writers (New York: Teachers College Press, 1985), 226. 19. Lynda Barry, One! Hundred! Demons! (Seattle: Sasquatch Books, 2002). 20. Kip Fulbeck, Part Asian * 100% Hapa (San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books, 2006) . 21. Lawrence...

Global South Korea and the K-Pop Phenomenon

Global South Korea and the K-Pop Phenomenon   Reference library

Crystal S. Anderson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
6,814 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Idol Girl Group Flows in Japan in the Era of Web 2.0.” ejcjs 12, no. 2 (2012). Kim, Jeong-mee . “ Why Does Hallyu Matter? The Significance of the Korea Wave in South Korea .” Critical Studies in Television 2, no. 2 (2007): 47–59. Kim, Jung . “The Political Logic of Economic Crisis in South Korea.” Asian Survey 45, no. 3 (2005): 453–474. Kwon, Seung-ho , and Joseph Kim . “ The Cultural Industry Policies of the Korean Government and the Korean Wave .” International Journal of Cultural Policy 20, no. 4 (2014): 422–439. Lee, Jamie Shinhee . “Linguistic...

Human Rights and Asian American Literature and Culture

Human Rights and Asian American Literature and Culture   Reference library

Crystal Parikh

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
8,217 words
Illustration(s):
4

...from Europe in the late 19th and early 20th centuries . Furthermore, the Supreme Court overturned attempts to deny birthright citizenship to the children of such immigrants, such as in the 1898 decision of United States v. Wong Kim Ark . Nevertheless, the many anti-Asian legal measures, along with the experience of social segregation, racist violence, and harsh economic and labor conditions, had the effect of severely restricting national belonging for Asian migrants and their children throughout much of the 20th century . This was perhaps nowhere as...

Literary Perspectives on Asian Americans in the Midwest

Literary Perspectives on Asian Americans in the Midwest   Reference library

Thomas Xavier Sarmiento

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...see David D. Anderson, “The Origins and Development of the Literature of the Midwest,” in Dictionary of Midwestern Literature, Vol. 1, The Authors , ed. Philip A. Greasley (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001), 20–21 ; and David R. Pichaske, Rooted: Seven Midwest Writers of Place (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2009), 15–16, 20. 8. Philip J. Deloria, Indians in Unexpected Places (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004). 9. Bienvenido N. Santos, Scent of Apples: A Collection of Stories (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1979)....

Accents and Asian American Representation in Contemporary Culture

Accents and Asian American Representation in Contemporary Culture   Reference library

Shilpa S. Davé

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...to roles that incorporated (and often exaggerated) their accent.” 19 Latina/os and Latin American identity in the popular consciousness became associated with an exotic look, a foreign language, an accent, and music and dance numbers. 20 The racialization of Mexicans as white in immigration law in the early 20th century , however, did not subject them to the same. In terms of media, the restrictive representations of Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Filipinos, and South Asians paralleled their legal and social marginalization as aliens ineligible for...

The War on Terror and South Asian American Narrative Representation

The War on Terror and South Asian American Narrative Representation   Reference library

Anantha Sudhakar

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...reflect the civil rights issues that define—and divide—the United States. Since 9/11, South Asian Americans have become the subjects of intense public scrutiny and fascination, complicating the cultural capital afforded to the group’s position as “model minorities” in the late 20th century . In the 21st century , South Asian Americans also emerged as a racialized community that is the frequent target of xenophobia, surveillance, and profiling. As the War on Terror and Islamophobia continues to shape US foreign and domestic policy, South Asian American...

Asian American Graphic Narrative

Asian American Graphic Narrative   Reference library

Monica Chiu and Jeanette Roan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...2010); and Shiga , Demon , vols. 1–4 (New York: First Second, 2016–2017). 44. Jeanette Roan , “ ‘I Love Second Acts in Comics’: An Interview with Jason Shiga ,” Comics Journal website, June 20, 2016. 45. Mariko Tamaki , Keynote speech , Queers and Comics Conference, California College of the Arts, San Francisco, April 14, 2017, YouTube video, June 20, 2017. 46. Mariko Tamaki and Jillian Tamaki , Skim (Toronto: Groundwood, 2010); Mariko Tamaki and Jillian Tamaki , This One Summer (New York: First Second, 2014); Jillian Tamaki , ...

Yellowface Performance: Historical and Contemporary Contexts

Yellowface Performance: Historical and Contemporary Contexts   Reference library

Josephine Lee

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
9,420 words
Illustration(s):
7

...Gilbert and Sullivan’s opera, China, or Tricks Upon Travelers , performed at Mitchell’s Olympic Extravaganza in 1841 , featured white actors in the roles of “Ching Chong Chow” and “Fouchafee” as well as other characters named Prince Pretty Pill, Pig-Taili, and Skidamalink. 20 Nonetheless, the success of The Mikado paved the way for other successful productions to be brought to the United States from the London stage, such as Sidney Jones’s The Geisha ( 1896 ) and George Dance’s A Chinese Honeymoon ( 1899 ); it also encouraged shows written and...

Early Japanese American Literature, 1815–1900

Early Japanese American Literature, 1815–1900   Reference library

Andrew Way Leong

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...The Dawning of the Pacific Era,” The International History Review 20, no. 3 (1998): 549. 15. Timothy Hampton, Fictions of Embassy: Literature and Diplomacy in Early Modern Europe (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2012), 11. 16. Masao Miyoshi, As We Saw Them: The First Japanese Embassy to the United States (1860) (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979), 97. 17. Miysohi, As We Saw Them , 97. 18. Miyoshi, As We Saw Them , 99. 19. Miyoshi, As We Saw Them , 102. 20. Miyoshi, As We Saw Them , 101–102. 21. Miyoshi, As We Saw Them ,...

Transpacific Spaces and (East and Southeast) Asian Canadian Literature

Transpacific Spaces and (East and Southeast) Asian Canadian Literature   Reference library

Joanne Leow

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

... that corporeally embeds Wah’s persona into a space. Beginning with this evocation of diasporic space enables a consideration of possible routes into the transpacific spaces that have been depicted and produced by East and Southeast Asian Canadian writing in the latter part of the 20th century and the first part of the new millennium. Wah’s text offers ways to look through “doors and languages, skin recalling its own reconnaissance, cooked into the steamy food, replayed in the folds of elsewhere, always far away, tunneling through the centre of the earth.” 4 ...

Asian American Feminist Performance

Asian American Feminist Performance   Reference library

Lucy Mae San Pablo Burns and Mana Hayakawa

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...and defining the limits of their integration politically, socially, and culturally. Asian women writers such as Li and Chun grew up in the second and third decades of the 20th century , as the island was monopolized by the plantation economy, and economic, social, and political life was governed by the kamaaʻina haole oligarchy and “the Big Five.” These early decades of the 20th century are described by Adria Imada as a time when the “haole oligarchy in Hawaiʻi required Asian labor,” yet “it expressed fear of being outnumbered by Asians.” 60 In the...

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