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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Judaism and Sustainability

Judaism and Sustainability   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,214 words

...God's commandments (Deut. 11:17; 1 Kgs. 8:35–36; Isa. 5:5–6; Zech. 14:17). The Jewish tradition also devotes much attention to the continued availability of natural resources. A biblical commandment forbids the Israelites to destroy fruit trees when laying siege to a city (Deut. 20:19–20). This prohibition is discussed in great detail in rabbinical literature, which extends it to all wanton destruction, including one's own possessions. The Talmudic sage R. Zutra declares it forbidden to make uneconomical use of fuel (Bavli Shabbat 67b). The leading medieval...

Christianity (3) – New Testament

Christianity (3) – New Testament   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
4,086 words

...4:2–3). John stresses the physical, human aspects of Jesus, including fatigue, tears and hunger (John 11:33, 35, 38; 19:28). Jesus was resurrected with a physical body that could be touched and could eat fish (John 20:17, 20–28; 21:9–14). Yet his body was transformed to transcend normal human limits so he could pass through closed doors (John 20:26). Jesus' resurrected body is a foretaste of the resurrection bodies of believers, whom Jesus will raise physically to eternal life, yet without disease or death (John 5:28–29; 6:40; 11:24–25). This implies a...

Tikkun Olam – A Jewish Imperative

Tikkun Olam – A Jewish Imperative   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
673 words

...war (Deut. 20:19–20), the talmudic sages made a general ruling that we are not to waste or unnecessarily destroy anything of value. • We are to imitate God in his attributes of compassion, justice, and mercy (Talmud: Sotah 14a) – since God is concerned about the Earth and its creatures, we should be as well. • We are to “work the land and to guard it” (Gen. 2:15) This Torah teaching indicates that the dominion that people are given is not one of domination, but rather of responsible stewardship. • “Justice, justice shall you pursue” (Deut. 16:20) The...

Jesus and Empire

Jesus and Empire   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,885 words

... Antiquities 20.168; Acts 5:36–37). Many of these styled themselves after Moses, presumably in fulfillment of prophetic expectation (thus Deut. 18:18), and consequently were active in sacredly charged geographies. Thus, one led his followers to Mt. Gerizim, to initiate a Moses-inspired revolt against Roman overlords ( Antiquities 18.85–87). Another, Theudas (Acts 5:36; Josephus, Antiquities 20.97–98), led a crowd across the Jordan River, imagining himself as Moses leading his people to liberation. Josephus ( Jewish War 2.261–63; also Ant . 20.169–71) names...

Creation Story in the Hebrew Bible

Creation Story in the Hebrew Bible   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,087 words

...Israelite religious reformers hack and hew Asherim – wooden pillars or trees at sacred sites that represent the goddess Asherah – to purify the cult (Ex. 34:13; Deut. 7:5; 12:3; Jer. 2:26–27). God may consider living trees a personal threat to Israel (Ezek. 20:46–47; Isa. 10:33–34; Jer. 7:20). And wilderness becomes hostile to human existence as well (Gen. 21:15–16; Ex. 23:28–30; Joshua 5:6). Genesis' second creation story gives a contrary view. The story opens with creation thirsting for water to realize its potential (Gen. 2:4–5). God allies with...

Creation's Fate in the New Testament

Creation's Fate in the New Testament   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
841 words

...2:1–11), or reestablishing supporting relations between species (fish provide the coin to pay state tax, Matt. 17:24–27) – restore nature's fertility. Those parts of nature resisting Jesus' call of fertility, like the withered fig tree, are removed (Matt. 21:18–22; Mk. 11:12–14, 20–26). Jesus' miracles in nature reveal nature's divine character previously hidden, thus reestablishing nature's abundant fertility by which it expresses divine creation. The incarnation of God in human form is more than the creator's passion for creation, it argues for God's...

Hebrew Bible

Hebrew Bible   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
3,421 words

...down in the Mishnah early in the third century by Rabbi Judah the Prince. Since then, Jewish law has continued to develop through rabbinical interpretation. Among these biblical laws is the prohibition against destruction of fruit trees when laying siege to a city (Deut. 20:19–20). Jewish tradition derives from this verse a prohibition against the destruction or waste of any resource. Another commandment refers to maintaining the constancy of species by forbidding the mating of two different types of animals, or sowing one's field with two different...

Rainbow Family

Rainbow Family   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
902 words

...Family In the summer of 1972 , while hippie back-to-nature idealism was still in full bloom, a crowd of some 20,000, mainly young counterculturists, gathered near Granby, Colorado, for a several-days-long “gathering of the tribes” inspired by some of the legendary hip music festivals (especially the Vortex Festival near Portland, Oregon, in 1970 ), the San Francisco “Be-In” of 1967 , rural hip communes, and other such countercultural phenomena. The gathering would have no central stage, no paid or featured entertainers, and no fee for admission. It...

Christianity (7a) – Theology and Ecology (Contemporary Introduction)

Christianity (7a) – Theology and Ecology (Contemporary Introduction)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,214 words

...be liberated from its environmental and social suffering. Inspired by biblical covenant traditions (e.g., Gen. 9:8–17; Ex. 20:1–17), this promise provides a basis for hope amidst widespread destruction. In response, the faithful are expected to uphold newly interpreted covenant obligations. For example, they should not steal from future generations (sustainability; cf. Ex. 20:15), nor covet unnecessary material goods (sufficiency; cf. Ex. 20:17). Also, as in the ancient Sabbath tradition, they should respect land, animals, and people by allowing them to recover...

Anarcho-Primitivism and the Bible

Anarcho-Primitivism and the Bible   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
2,771 words

...stones for Me, do not construct it from hewn stone; if you use a tool on it you will defile it” (Ex. 20:25). Scripture has plenty to say about the danger of manufactured objects, particularly in the well-known prohibitions on image-making. But this taboo is more anti-fetishistic than anti-iconic, recognizing that “made objects” inevitably become mystified and sacralized, thus taking on more value than their makers (a classic statement is found in Isa. 43:9–20). This insight was later resurrected in Marx's theory of commodity fetishism in capitalism, as Guy...

Christianity (2) – Jesus

Christianity (2) – Jesus   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,965 words

...teach spiritual truth. Parables featuring seeds, weeds, wheat, yeast, fish and trees teach about the kingdom of God (Mark 4; Matt. 13; Luke 13:6–9; 21:29–30). Varied results from sowing seed in different kinds of soils illustrate diverse responses to Jesus' message (Mark 4:1–8, 13–20). Jesus used natural objects to illustrate moral and spiritual lessons. Bread and wine were sacramental symbols of the new covenant instituted through Jesus' redeeming death on the cross (Mark 14:22–25). He made an unfruitful fig tree wither as a visual parable of judgment on...

Castaneda, Carlos

Castaneda, Carlos (1925/31?–1998)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
696 words

...a Yuma Indian mother and a Yaqui Indian father from Sonora, Mexico. When he was ten, Don Juan was taken to Mexico by his parents who were subsequently killed in the Yaqui-Mexican wars. He then grew up with relatives in southern Mexico. According to Castaneda, at the age of 20, Don Juan met Julian Osorio , a son of European immigrants, who had himself been initiated by nagual Elias Ulloa into a lineage of brujos that reputedly went back 25 generations. Becoming part of this tradition, Don Juan eventually acquired four disciples: Taisha Abelar,...

Eco-magic

Eco-magic   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
544 words

...Eco-magic is an evolving practice that blurs into a whole ideology of change. Starhawk, a witch and political activist, “offers the principles of magic not as a belief system … but as an alternative descriptive system that can help develop a psychology of liberation” ( 1987 : 20). Because eco-magic is a strategy that a conventional opponent will find hard to counter, it has been perceived as a tool of the oppressed. Any magical tradition or technique can be adapted to eco-magic and practitioners work with a wide variety of deities. Rituals can be public or...

Jackson, S. Wesley “Wes”

Jackson, S. Wesley “Wes” (1936)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
636 words

...view of nature as an object to be exploited for short-term human gain, he draws regularly upon biblical and theological imagery in advocating a biocentric worldview. For example, the title of an early collection of essays, Altars of Unhewn Stone ( 1987 ) recalls the Exodus 20:25 injunction that Moses build an altar of unhewn stone “for if thou lift up thy tool upon it, thou has polluted it” (in Jackson 1987 : 9). In other words, the imposition of human technology upon nature is desecration. He likes to point out that the first commandment of the Bible...

Rock Art – Hadzabe/Sandawe (Eastern Africa)

Rock Art – Hadzabe/Sandawe (Eastern Africa)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
681 words

...of the central Tanzanian rock art to this ritual experience of altered states of consciousness. B. W. Smith Further Reading Knight, Alec , et al. “ African Y Chromosome and mtDNA Divergence Provides Insights into the History of Click Languages. ” Current Biology 13 (2003), 1–20. Leakey, Mary . Africa's Vanishing Art: The Rock Paintings of Tanzania . London: Hamish Hamilton, 1983. Lewis-Williams, J. David . “Beyond Style and Portrait: A Comparison of Tanzanian and Southern African Rock Art.” In Rainer Vossen and Klaus Keuthmann , eds. Contemporary...

Sierra Treks

Sierra Treks   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
679 words

...humanity is inseparable from faithfulness to all creation. Lois Ann Lorentzen Further Reading Abbey, Edward . Desert Solitaire: A Season in the Wilderness . New York: Ballantine, 1968. The Bible . Genesis 1–9, Job 38–42, Psalm 24, John 1:1–18, Romans 8:18–25, Colossians 1:15–20. Leopold, Aldo . A Sand County Almanac . Oxford University Press, 1949. Lorentzen, Lois Ann . “ Paradise Paved. ” Sojourners 29:6 (2000), 28–36. Nash, Roderick . Wilderness and the American Mind . New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1982. Wilkinson, Loren , ed. Earthkeeping:...

Christianity (7i) – An Evangelical Perspective on Faith and Nature

Christianity (7i) – An Evangelical Perspective on Faith and Nature   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,541 words

...and government of the universe; which is before our eyes as a most elegant book, wherein all creatures, great and small, are as so many characters leading us to see clearly the invisible things of God, even his everlasting power and divinity, as the apostle Paul says (Romans 1:20) … Second, He makes Himself more clearly and fully known to us by his Holy and divine Word, that is to say, as far as is necessary for us to know in this life, to His glory and our salvation. The consequences of learning both from the Word and the world means that an evangelical...

Jewish Intertestamental Literature

Jewish Intertestamental Literature   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
4,633 words

...years (Ex. 23:10; 25:4–6; Lev. 25:8–22) require the land to lie fallow every seventh and fiftieth year (1 Macc. 6). Since the land is holy, God's people must be holy in order to dwell in the land (Jub. 15:28; 20:4; 50:5; Wis. 12:3–11; 1QS 1:5; 8:3). The land is defiled by the sins of those who dwell there (Jub. 7:33; 16:5–6; 23:18; 4 Ez. 9:19–20; 2 Bar. 44:9). Persistent sin causes God to remove his blessing from the land so it becomes less fruitful and even desolate (Jub. 23:18; CD 2:9–11; 4:10; 2 Bar. 62:4–5; 66:2–5). The Qumran sectarians believed that...

Rock Art – Australian Aboriginal

Rock Art – Australian Aboriginal   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,311 words

...Art – Australian Aboriginal Aboriginal people of Australia have a rich heritage of carving and painting on rocks, extending back well more than 20,000 years. Rock art, Australia's oldest surviving art form, expresses the Aborigines' social, economic and religious concerns through the centuries. In the form of petroglyphs (carvings) and pictographs (paintings), rock art is found across the continent. It served a variety of functions, and provides the earliest illustration of Aboriginal beliefs, technologies and activities. Australia is a particularly rich...

Aztec Religion – Pre-Columbian

Aztec Religion – Pre-Columbian   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
3,643 words

...to the vigesimal (based on the number 20) system of the tonalpohualli (“day count”) calendar, one had to be careful, for example, that the baptismal ritual of a newborn child would not fall into one of the “bad” days: the “sprinkling of the head with water” ( nequatequilitztli ) was postponed, accordingly, until a good combination of one of the 20 day-signs and numbers (1–13) was at hand. Based on their astronomic tradition, the Aztecs knew the solar year of 365 days ( xihuitl ), but the logical combination of 20 day-signs and 13 numbers led to an...

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