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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Guénon, René

Guénon, René (1886–1951)   Reference library

Ibrahim Kalin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
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688 words

...mysticism. Bibliography Alleau, René , and M. Scriabine . René Guénon et l’Actualité de la Penseé Traditionnelle: Actes du Colloque International de Cérisy-La-Salle; 13–20 Julliet 1973 . Paris: Dervy Livres, 1981. Robin, Jean . Réne Guénon: Temoin de la Tradition . Paris: G. Tredaniel, 1986. Waterfield, Robin . Réne Guénon and the Future of the West: The Life and Writings of a 20th-Century Metaphysician . Wellingborough, U.K.: Crucible, 1987. Ibrahim...

Murādī, al-

Murādī, al-   Reference library

Julio Samsó

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
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598 words

...of strings, wheels with a diameter of three spans, weights reaching six and a half pounds (three kilograms). This tradition was later followed in the Maghrib and in Europe. The book describes five mechanical toys (machines 1–5), eighteen clocks moved by water (machines 6–15, 17–20, 27–30), four war machines (machines 21–24), two water-lifting devices (machines 25–26), and a sundial (machine 31), followed by four appendices. Machine 16 is missing in the manuscript. The sundial described in machine 31 seems to be an equatorial dial used as if it were...

ʿIrāqī, Abu al-Qāsim al-

ʿIrāqī, Abu al-Qāsim al-   Reference library

Hadi Jorati

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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2014
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Religion, Science and technology
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867 words

...Acquired Concerning the Cultivation of Gold , The Arabic text edited with a translation and introduction by E. J. Holmyard . Paris: Paul Geuthner, 1923. Al-Jaladakī, Aydamir ibn Abd Allah . Nihāyat al-ṭalab fī sharḥ al-Muktasab fī zirāʿat al-dhahab . [17—?], Arabic MSS Suppl. 20. New Haven, Conn.: Beinecke Rare Books and Manuscripts Library, Yale University. Holmyard, E. J. “Abu’l-Qasim al-Iraqi.” Isis 8, no. 3 (July, 1926): 403–426. Holmyard, E. J. Alchemy . London: Penguin Books, 1957. Katip Çelebi, Haji Khalifa . Kashf al-ẓunūn ʻan asāmī al-kutub...

Jābir ibn Aflaḥ

Jābir ibn Aflaḥ   Reference library

Julio Samsó

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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2014
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712 words

... Almagest .” In A Shared Legacy: Islamic Science East and West , edited by E. Calvo , M. Comes , R. Puig , and M. Rius , pp. 181–189. Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona, 2008. Lorch, Richard . “The Astronomical Instruments of Jābir ibn Aflaḥ and the Torquetum.” Centaurus 20, no. 1 (1976): 11–35. Lorch, Richard . “The Astronomy of Jābir ibn Aflaḥ.” Centaurus 19, no. 2 (1975): 85–107. Swerdlow, N. M. “Jābir ibn Aflaḥ’s Interesting Method for Finding the Eccentricities and Direction of the Apsidal Line of Superior Planets.” In From Deferent to Equant...

Ṣūfī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, al-

Ṣūfī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, al- (903–986)   Reference library

R. H. van Gent

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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2014
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881 words

...Al-Ṣūfī‘s work closely follows Ptolemy’s descriptions of the constellations for which he largely depended on Isḥāq ibn Ḥunayn’s translation (c. 890 ) of the Almagest . The stellar coordinates, as given in the Almagest (Books 7 and 8) for the epoch 885 Nabonassar [= 20 July 137 ], were corrected for the effect of precession to the epoch 1276 Alexander [= 1 October 964 ] by adding 12º 42' to the ecliptic longitudes. Although Ptolemy’s stellar positions were otherwise left unchanged, al-Ṣūfī systematically reobserved the brightness (magnitude) of...

Ibn al-ʿAwwām

Ibn al-ʿAwwām   Reference library

Salah E. Zaimeche

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
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955 words

...learning in the West. Bibliography Harvey, J. Medieval Gardens . London: B.T. Batsford, 1981. Hyams, E. A History of Gardens and Gardening . London: J.M. Dent, 1971. “Ibn al-ʿAwwām.” In Biographie Universelle , new ed., by J. F. Michaud and L. G. Michaud , Vol. 20, pp. 267–268. Paris: Madame C. Desplaces, 1857. Ibn al-ʿAwwām . Le livre de l’agriculture d’Ibn al-Awwam . 2 vols. Translated from the Arabic by J. J. Clement-Mullet . Paris: A. Franck, 1864–1867. Ibn al-ʿAwwām . Libro de agricultura . Edited by J. A. Banqueri . Madrid: Imprenta...

Khwārizmī, al-

Khwārizmī, al-   Reference library

Jeffrey A. Oaks

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
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4,714 words

...proofs al-Khwārizmī multiplies sample binomials. He then explains how to add and subtract expressions with diminished terms (i.e., apotomes, both numerical and algebraic). The examples are: add 200 − 10 to 20 − 200 ; subtract 200 − 10 from 20 − 200 ; add 100 + x 2 − 20 x to 50 + 10 x − 2 x 2 ; subtract 50 + 10 x − 2 x 2 from 100 + x 2 − 20 x . Al-Khwārizmī gives geometric proofs for the answers to the second and third examples only after a detour on operations with square roots. For the last example he remarks that “there is no suitable figure for...

Environment

Environment   Reference library

İbrahim Özdemir

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
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2,287 words

...universe, despite all its natural causes, would be nothing, as suggested by Annemarie Schimmel ( 1994 ). Nature, then, is an arena wherein God’s beautiful names are manifested as His signs. In this way, the Qurʾān invites humans to read the universe as signs of God ( 41:53 ; 51:20–21 ). In the Qurʾānic perception of nature, God shows signs at every moment, āyah after āyah , to those who have the intelligence to grasp them as signs. What are usually called natural phenomena such as rain, snow, the structure of the heavens and the earth, alternation of day...

Sexuality

Sexuality   Reference library

Yasmin Amin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
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1,044 words

...). Eschatology. The sexual imagery in the Qurʾān extends to the afterlife as a reward for the believers in paradise, where they will be given beautiful ḥūr (houris) with huge eyes who are untouched by man or jinn (verses 37:48–49 , 38:52 , 55:56 , 55:72 , 44:54 , 52:20 , 56:22 ), while others will be served by beautiful boys ( ghilmān, wildān ; verses 52:24 ; 76:19 ; 56:17 ). Mutʿah. Mutʿah (lit. "enjoyment" or "pleasure") is a term for a temporary marriage, contracted for a fixed period ranging from a few hours to a century and is somewhat...

Women in Science

Women in Science   Reference library

Ayad Al-Qazzaz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
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1,261 words

...Afkhami, Mahnaz . Faith and Freedom: Women’s Human Rights in the Muslim World . Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1995. Bachelet, Michelle . “Women in Science and Technology in Muslim Countries.” United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women . 20 September 2011. http://unwomen.org . Beck, Lois , and Nikki Keddie , eds. Women in the Muslim World . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978. Fernea, Elizabeth Warnock , and Basima Qattan Bezirgan , eds. Middle Eastern Muslim Women Speak . Austin: University of Texas...

Abdus Salam

Abdus Salam (1926–1996)   Reference library

Pervez Hoodbhoy

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
1,111 words

...with a projected endowment of $1 billion collected from oil-rich countries, came to naught after he was banned from entering Saudi Arabia. Kuwait and Iran gave only small amounts of money for supporting their scientists at the ICTP. Salam died in Oxford at age seventy on 20 November 1996 after a debilitating illness and was buried in Rabwah, Pakistan. He is uncelebrated in the country today because of his religious affiliation; the world “Muslim” was scratched away from his tombstone by a court order. Bibliography Fraser, Gordon . Cosmic Anger: Abdus...

Compass

Compass   Reference library

Petra G. Schmidl

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
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1,325 words

...European sources on the directive power of the magnet and of the magnetic compass. Schmidl, Petra G. “Medieval Arabic Sources on the Magnetic Compass.” In Science and Technology in the Islamic World. Proceedings of the XXth International Congress of History of Science (Liège, 20–26 July 1997), vol. 21. Edited by S. M. Razaullah Ansari , pp. 195–208. De Diversis Artibus, vol. 64, N.S. 27. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2002. An overview of the earliest Islamic sources, with black-and-white pictures of a selection of instruments fitted with a magnetic...

Observatories

Observatories   Reference library

Yavuz Unat and Salim Ayduz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
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3,408 words

...Mustafa , M. Ṣinasi Acar , and Atilla Bir . Takiyüddin’in gözlem araçları . Istanbul: Türkiye İş Bankası, 2011. The observations and equipment of Taqī al-Dīn. Kennedy, E. S. “Al-Kāshī’s Treatise on Astronomical Observational Instruments.” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 20, no. 2 (1961): 98–108. Kennedy, E. S. “A Survey of Islamic Astronomical Tables.” Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 46, no. 2 (1956): 123–177. Kennedy, E. S. , trans. The Planetary Equatorium of Jamshid Ghiyath al-Din al-Kashi . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University...

Cause and Effect

Cause and Effect   Reference library

M. Cüneyt Kaya

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
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3,323 words

...knowledge about something contingent on knowing its cause: “We think we have knowledge of a thing only when we have grasped its cause” ( APost . 71 b 9–11; cf. APost . 94 a 20). The notion that proper knowledge is knowledge of the cause is repeated in the Physics : “We think we do not have knowledge of a thing until we have grasped its why, that is to say, its cause” ( Phys . 194 b 17–20). Aristotle criticizes the pre-Socratic philosophers’ explanations of change, which were based on material or formal causes, and offers his general account of the four causes...

Design Argument

Design Argument   Reference library

Nidhal Guessoum

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
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3,131 words

...of providence” ( dalīl al-ʿināyah ). They often related these concepts to the Qurʾānic scripture; the first idea is, for instance, exemplified by the verses 25:61–62 and 78:6–16 , the second idea can be found in 86:5–6 and 88:17–20 , while many other verses contain a combination of the two, for example, 2:20–22 and 23:12–21 . Abū al-Ḥasan al-Ashʿarī presented DA arguments in Kitāb al-Lumaʿ fīal-radd ʿala ahl al-zaygh wa-al-bidaʿ (The Sparks: A Refutation of Heretics and Innovators; 1955 ) ; basing his work on the Qurʾān, he argued that it is...

Mīr Dāmād

Mīr Dāmād   Reference library

Mehdi Aminrazavi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
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1,519 words

...of the “School of Iṣfahān.” Works. Mīr Dāmād’s magnum opus is Qabasāt ḥaqq al-yaqīn fī ḥudūth al-ʿālam (Firebrands of the Truth of Certainty: On the Createdness of the World). His choice of the word Qabasāt , which means brand or firebrand, was based on the Qurʾānic verses 20:10 and 27:7 and is also indicative of his interest in Suhrawardī and the extent to which he had been influenced by him and the School of Illumination ( ishrāq ) that began with the latter’s thought. Qabasāt , written in highly technical and dense philosophical language, is...

Mullā Jāmī

Mullā Jāmī (1414–1492)   Reference library

Bilal Kuşpınar

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
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1,838 words

...Lewis , Ch. Pellat , and J. Schacht , pp. 432–433. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 1965. Okumuş, Ömer . “Câmî.” In Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslâm ansiklopedisi , vol. 7. Istanbul: Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı, 1993. Ritter, Helmut . “Câmî.” In İslâm ansiklopedisi , vol. 3, pp. 18–20. Istanbul: İstanbul Millî Eğitim Basımevi, 1945. Taşköprülüzâde, Ahmad . al-Shaqāʾiq ak-nuʿmānīyah fī ʿulamaʾ al-Dawlat al-ʿUthmānīyah [ eş-Şekāʾiku n-numānīye fī ulemāʾi d-Devleti lʿOsmānīye ]. Edited by Ahmad Subhī Furāt . Istanbul: Jāmiʿat Istānbūl, 1985. Togan, Z. Velidi...

Muʿtazilah

Muʿtazilah   Reference library

Racha el Omari and M. Sait Özervarlı

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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2014
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Religion, Science and technology
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1,878 words

...hears, sees, and knows through His essence and not through the Attributes. On the other hand this principle implies God’s transcendence ( tanzīh ) so that verses describing God in human terms or as having a body, such as His “having a hand” ( 10:48 ) or “sitting on the throne,” ( 5:20 ) also must be understood metaphorically. The Mu‘tazilah stress God’s absolute transcendence, refusing to attribute to Him any of the properties of a body, such as being localized, being in motion, or having a form. The double implications of their first principle—namely that God’s...

Piri Reis

Piri Reis (d. 1553)   Reference library

İdris Bostan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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2014
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1,677 words

...at his post, he was assigned the task of confronting the rebellious local ruler of Aden, Ali b. Süleyman, and taking the city back into Ottoman possession. Piri Reis set sail from Suez on 29 October 1547 at the command of sixty vessels and landed at the harbor of Mocha. On 20 December 1548 , Piri Reis landed a siege train together with Ottoman troops and reoccupied the city of Aden through an all-out attack on the fortress’s fortifications ( 12 February 1549 ). Piri Reis undertook his second naval expedition against Hormuz, the most influential...

Transmission of Indian Science and Philosophy

Transmission of Indian Science and Philosophy   Reference library

Alok Kumar

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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2014
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1,849 words

..., which was translated by Martin Levey into English ( Kindī, 1966 ). According to Levey, about 13 percent of materia medica in the book is from the Indian region. In his view, “many of the Persian materia medica may more properly be considered to be Indian” ( Kindī, 1966 , p. 20). In that case, the Indian materia medica in al-Kindi’s work increases to about 31 percent. Philosophy. After the Muslim conquest of India, several rulers, including Akbar ( 1542–1605 ), Jahāngīr ( 1569–1627 ), and Dārā Shukōh ( 1615–1659 ), facilitated translations of Indian literature...

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