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20/20

Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Injury and Assault

Injury and Assault   Reference library

Klaus-Peter Adam

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
5,927 words

...physical assaults of enemies against an exemplary prophetic character (see Jer 11:19 ; 17:18 ; 20:10 ). The enemies intend to injure and to kill Jeremiah ( Jer 18:20 , 22–23 ). His desire for divine revenge is based on the principle of retributive justice ( Jer 11:20 ; 18:23 ; 20:11–12 ). This is also at work in Job’s complaint, when he portrays himself as unjustly injured in a partly physical dispute with unequal opponents (see Job 2:3 ; 9:17 , 19–20 , 23 , 28–29 ). Job sees himself “injured” by Yhwh ( Job 9:34 ) in the absence of a “judge” or...

Punishment and Restitution

Punishment and Restitution   Reference library

Trevor W. Thompson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
8,280 words

...; Lev 19:26 , 31 ; 20:6 , 27 ; cf. LNB §7; MAL A §47); (2) sacrificing to other gods ( Exod 22:20 ); (3) working or making fire on the sabbath ( Exod 31:12–17 ; 35:2–3 ; cf. Exod 20:8–11 ; Num 15:32–36 ; Deut 5:14 ; cf. Jer 17:19–27 ; Neh 13:15–22 ); (4) sacrificing one’s children to Molech ( Lev 20:1–5 ; giving a child to a ruler in the Septuagint); (5) acting as a necromancer ( Lev 20:27 ; practicing gastromancy and enchantment in the Septuagint); (6) blasphemy ( Lev 24:10–16 , 23 ; cf. Exod 22:28 ; cf. Exod 20:3–5 ); (7) entering the...

Legal Rhetoric

Legal Rhetoric   Reference library

Dale Patrick

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
8,050 words

...Commandments. Within the commandments in Exodus 20:1–17 , Exodus 20:5–6 , 7b , 10b , 11 , and 12b are paranesis or motive clauses. Exodus 20:5–6 follows the prohibitions against recognizing any god but Yhwh and against making images. Exodus 20:5 prohibits worshipping (bowing down to) images, which can be taken to supplement the prohibition of making images. The plural object has no antecedent in Exodus 20:4 , but seems to refer to the “gods” in Exodus 20:3 . The upshot is that Exodus 20:5a combines the two commandments (as Jews, Roman...

Book of the Covenant

Book of the Covenant   Reference library

Eckart Otto

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
5,919 words
Illustration(s):
1

...with its revision which in Exodus 20:22–23 linked the Covenant Code to the Decalogue and in Exodus 23:14–19 to Exodus 34:10–26 set a frame to the Covenant Code. The postexilic redactors also revised the structure of the Covenant Code, so that it became a divine constitution for a new Israel after the exile. The new center of the revised Covenant Code, framed by the cultic stipulations in Exodus 20:22–23 ; 23:13 , 19 , 20–33 , became the social ethical and religious stipulations in Exodus 22:20—23:9 and served as the conclusion of the...

Deuteronomic Law

Deuteronomic Law   Reference library

Daniel I. Block

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
9,528 words

... 25:5–9 ), the expression usually applies to fellow Israelites, as opposed to non-Israelites ( 15:3 ; 23:20–21 [ET 19–20]; 24:7 , 14 ). According to the Deuteronomic Law all leaders must treat the rest of the Israelites as “brothers”: kings ( 17:15 , 20 ), levitical priests ( 10:9 ; 18:2 , 7 ), prophets ( 18:15 , 18 ), judges ( 1:16 ); and those with economic power are “brothers” to their servants ( 15:2–3 , 7 , 9 , 11–12 ; 23:20–21 [ET 19–20]; 24:7 , 14 ). From a sociological perspective, this egalitarian impulse may derive from the simple...

Justice

Justice   Reference library

Walter J. Houston

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
3,748 words

...the courts. Exodus 20:16 ; 23:1–3 , 6–8 ; Leviticus 19:15 ; Deuteronomy 5:20 ; 16:18–20 ; 17:6 ; 19:15–21 . There was little hope of redress from the courts, which were corrupt; village courts were dominated by the leading families and the royal courts by the ruling elite. The texts therefore demand genuine justice from the judges: no bribery ( Exod 23:8 ; Deut 16:19 ), no partiality to the great, nor favoritism even to a poor person ( Exod 23:6–7 ; Lev 19:15 ; Deut 16:19 ); but simple justice ( Exod 23:7 ; Deut 16:20 ). From witnesses...

Decalogue

Decalogue   Reference library

Edward L. Greenstein

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
6,004 words

...commentary of Abraham Ibn Ezra on 20 ; cf. Greenstein in Holtz, 1984 , pp. 249–253)—the Decalogue. The set of laws presented in Exodus 34:10–27 constitutes a renewal of the covenant, following the rupture entailed by the Israelites making and worshiping the Golden Calf. Exodus 20 . The Decalogue as presented within the Sinai theophany is dramatic—nowhere else in ancient Near Eastern literature does a deity address an entire people. But it is also awkward and ambiguous. Nothing in the narrative of Exodus 19–20 prepares the audience for the...

Sermon on the Mount

Sermon on the Mount   Reference library

David C. Sim

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
3,390 words

...stipulate that the demand for mercy overrides the sabbath rest. The final verse in this initial section ( v. 20 ) contains a warning. Unless the righteousness of Jesus’s disciples exceeds that of the scribes and the Pharisees, they will not gain entrance to the Kingdom of Heaven. The notion of righteousness here is integrally tied in with faithful observance of the Law. The antitheses. The initial material concerning the Torah in Matthew 5:17–20 is followed by the so-called Antitheses ( vv. 21–48 ). In this section the Matthean Jesus relates his own...

Asylum

Asylum   Reference library

John F. Quant

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
3,717 words

... Joshua 20 , which uses the technical term “blood avenger” in the context of murder or manslaughter. There is no mention of altars, cities, or an appeal to law, however; instead, the woman seeks asylum for her son directly from the king. No other options are mentioned or entertained ( McKeating, 1975 ). Joshua 20 narrates the establishment of the six Cities of Refuge in accordance with the law in Numbers 35 . The Masoretic text of Joshua 20 mixes the language of Numbers 35 and Deuteronomy 19 using both terms for “unwittingly” ( 20:3 ). The...

Law in the Prophets

Law in the Prophets   Reference library

Tova Ganzel

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
4,111 words

... 7:31 ; 19:5 ; 32:35 ; Ezek 16:20 ; 20:31 ). Cultic laws. These laws, including rules pertaining to sacrifices and other rituals, purity, and impurity, are found in the vast majority of the prophets ( Isa 1:11–13 ; 6:5 ; 17:8 ; 19:19 ; 19:21 ; 22:21 ; 22:24 ; 24:2 ; 27:9 ; 30:28 ; 35:8 ; 40:16 ; 43:23–24 ; 52:1 ; 52:11 ; 56:7 ; 66:3 ; 66:20 ; Jer 3:16 , 6:20 ; 7:2 ; 7:21 ; 14:12 ; 17:1 ; 17:26 ; 26:2 ; 27:19 ; 33:11 ; 33:18 ; 41:5 ; 52:17–23 ; Ezek 8:3–5 ; 8:14–16 ; 9:2–3 ; 11:1 ; 20:40 ; 22:8 ; 22:26 ; 39:14 ; ...

Sexual Legislation

Sexual Legislation   Reference library

Carolyn Pressler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
9,072 words

...It is a “great sin” ( Gen 20:9 , cf. 39:9 ; for Ugarit and Egypt, see Moran, 1959 , pp. 280–281; Rabinowitz, 1959 , p. 73). Moreover, adultery is the only sexual offense included in Decalogue ( Exod 20:14 ; Deut 5:18 ). Casuistic laws consistently treat adultery as a capital offense. The deep concern with which biblical authors viewed adultery is reflected in all three parts of the Hebrew canon (Torah, Prophets, and Writings) and in a wide range of genres, including proverbs (e.g., Prov 3:16 ; 5:3 , 20 ; 7:5 , 20 ; 22:14 ), prophecy (e.g., ...

Capital Punishment

Capital Punishment   Reference library

Aryeh Amihay

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
2,882 words

...In the space of five verses, Leviticus 20 mandates an execution by stoning along with a karet punishment for a person who gives his seed to the Molech ( Lev 20:2 ) and a karet only for a person who consults clairvoyants or wizards ( Lev 20:6 ). The Inadvertent Killer. The inadvertent killer is a curious case, since the law accepts the basic notion of lex talionis but attempts to both regulate and restrain it through intention. Its four formulations ( Exod 21:13–14 ; Num 35 ; Deut 19:1–13 ; Josh 20 ) reveal a development of rules for...

Same-Sex Relations

Same-Sex Relations   Reference library

Robert Matthew Calhoun

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
4,480 words

...expansively understood “homoerotic narratives,” see Jennings, 2003 ; 2005 .) Hebrew Bible. The legal passages that deal with same-sex relations are Leviticus 18:22 and 20:13 , both part of the body of law known as the Holiness Code ( Lev 17:1—26:46 ). The topic also arises in two narrative passages, Genesis 18–19 (the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah) and Judges 19–20 (Gibeah’s sin and Israel’s punishment of the Benjaminites). Leviticus 18 prohibits various kinds of illicit sexual activity that the opening and concluding exhortations ( vv. ...

Testimony and Witness

Testimony and Witness   Reference library

Bruce Wells

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
5,687 words

...5:20–26 ]). The specific issue there is a false statement made in the form of an oath of denial concerning a property dispute. Apart from the required sacrifice of an unblemished ram, the penalty is mild: restoration of the property to its rightful owner plus a fine of 20 percent of the property’s value. A more severe penalty appears to be reserved for those guilty of false accusation. One of the Ten Commandments (the ninth in most traditions; the eighth for Lutherans and Catholics) forbids an individual from being a “false witness” ( ʿēd šāqer in Exod 20...

Laws of Lipit-Ishtar

Laws of Lipit-Ishtar   Reference library

Claus Wilcke

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
3,693 words

...§d25( 20 ): Who saves a child from a well, “[creates a likeness(?) of its] feet.” This is the end of B 1 xiv, which is followed by a lacuna of 32–38 lines (the top of B xv). {After this, Roth places N ii (eight lines), which is not part of the Laws of Lipit-Eshtar but of another law code (see above). These lines concern child raising. §d26( 20a ): Fragmentary. §d27( 20b ): A “raised” (adopted/apprenticed?) child may return to its mother on proof in court that the “raiser” has not “raised” it in correspondence with his potentials/means. §d28( 20c ):...

Dead Sea Scrolls

Dead Sea Scrolls   Reference library

Alex P. Jassen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
7,945 words

...manuscript from Cave 11 (11Q20) ( Charlesworth, 2011 ). This manuscript is dated to the beginning of the first century c.e. and was copied by the same scribe responsible for Pesher Habakkuk (1QpHab). Though there are some points of divergence, 11Q20 on the whole agrees with 11Q19 in cases of textual overlap and is therefore best understood as a second copy of the text. Three additional manuscripts are related to the Temple Scroll , though the nature of their relationship to the text represented in 11Q19–20 is unclear ( Charlesworth, 2011 )....

Law in the Writings

Law in the Writings   Reference library

F. Rachel Magdalene and Bruce Wells

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
7,965 words

...of accurate weights and measures ( Prov 11:1 ; 20:23 ) and justice in the judicial system ( Prov 12:17 ; 14:25 ). Proverbs argues, however, that there is more to a righteous life than mere adherence to the law. Wisdom is equally important and includes a range of virtues that enhance the life of law-abiding individuals: diligence ( Prov 6:6–11 ; 10:4 ), generosity ( Prov 14:31 ; 22:9 ), judicious speech ( Prov 17:28 ; 21:23 ), humility ( Prov 18:12 ; 22:4 ), and sexual fidelity ( Prov 5:18–20 ) among others. Understanding the relationship between...

Trial Procedure

Trial Procedure   Reference library

Shalom E. Holtz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
4,693 words

...seem to assume this summoning role on behalf of the divine tribunal (e.g., Isa 41:21 ; 44:7 ; 45:20–21 ) ( Holtz, 2011 ). Several texts show an aggrieved party “crying out” (√ ṣ-ʿ-q ) directly to the king (e.g., 1 Kgs 20:38–39 ; 2 Kgs 6:26 ; 8:3 , 5 ). The use of other verbs for crying out/protesting (e.g., √ z-ʿ-q , √q-r-ʾ , √ š-w-ʿ [D stem (Piel)])—whether alone or, especially, in combination with ḥāmās (“violence”; see Jer 20:8 ; Hab 1:2 ; Job 19:7 )—have been interpreted as similar descriptions of presenting the complaint...

Taxation

Taxation   Reference library

Geoffrey Parsons Miller

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
2,920 words

...were placed in forced labor for the state ( Josh 16:10 ; 17:13 ; Judg 1:28 , 30 , 33 , 35 ; 2 Sam 12:30 ; 1 Kgs 9:20–22 ). The system was important enough that we learn of a high administrative position devoted to managing the labor force ( 2 Sam 20:24 ; 1 Kgs 4:6 ). Foreigners were also taxed when the dominant country annexed another country. For example, the Persians taxed the Jewish population in Jerusalem ( Ezra 4:20 ). The burden of Persian taxation appears to have been heavy: Nehemiah laments that the land’s abundant produce was destined...

Disability

Disability   Reference library

Jeremy Schipper

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
3,129 words

... 21:23–25 ; Lev 24:19–20 ; Deut 19:21 ). The injuries under discussion range in severity from those that probably would not qualify as disabilities, such as the loss of a tooth or a non-debilitating wound ( Exod 21:25 ; cf. 1 Kgs 20:37 ; Song 5:7 ), to those that resulted in acquired disabilities, such as the loss of an eye or a foot ( Exod 21:24 ; Deut 19:21 ). Holiness legislation classifies both types of injuries as blemishes and specifically mentions fractures, the loss of an eye, and the loss of a tooth ( Lev 24:19–20 ). Yet these texts do not...

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