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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Sarah

Sarah   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...in Abraham's story as well: Twice she is taken as a wife by another man (the Pharaoh of Egypt; Abimelech, King of Gerar) on account of her beauty and is rescued from this threat to her sexual purity by God. In both stories ( Gn. 12.10–20 , 20 ), Abraham passes Sarah off as his sister in order to save himself; Genesis 20.12 explains that she is indeed his half-sister, sharing a father but not a mother. Sarah reappears several times in the Apocrypha and pseudepigrapha in her role as Abraham's wife and Isaac's mother. In Jubilees (second century bce )...

Q Source

Q Source   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...(i.e., by fire), and cleansing “like purifying waters” (1QS iv.20–21). [See John the Baptist ; Rule of the Community .] This is, however, one of a number of parallels between the New Testament's accounts of John the Baptist and the Qumran texts (leading some to speculate whether John himself might once have belonged to the Qumran community). Similarly, the absolute ban on divorce in Q ( Lk. 16.18 par.) can be compared with an apparently similar ruling in the Damascus Document (CD iv.20–v.5) and in Temple Scroll a (11Q19 lvii.17–19). However, such a...

Biblical Chronology

Biblical Chronology   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...using primarily the phrasing formulas of the biblical genealogies ( Gn. 5.1–32 , 11.10–32 ): “X person begot, at Y years of age, so and so.” The outline starts with Isaac's marriage (at the age of 40; Gn. 25.20 ), his fatherhood (at the age of 60; Gn. 25.26 ), Abraham's admonition to his sons ( Isaac 's age being 65; cf. Jub. 20), Isaac's sending his son Jacob to Mesopotamia, Jacob's years in Canaan (69; Jub. 19.13, 27.19), and the years of service that he traded for the hands of both Leah and Rachel (14 years; Gn. 31.41 ). Fragment 3...

Miriam

Miriam   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

..., the sister of Moses and Aaron, one of the leaders of the Israelites in the wilderness. In Exodus 15.20–21 she is described as a female prophet who leads the Israelite women in a victory song after the defeat of the Egyptians at the Sea of Reeds. Unfortunately, the text of Miriam's song is not given. In Numbers 12 she is stricken with leprosy after she and her brother Aaron challenge the supremacy of Moses, and Numbers 20.1 describes her death and burial. Miriam is also traditionally identified as the unnamed sister ( Ex. 2.4–10 ), who...

Amman Museum

Amman Museum   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...a 1 No number assigned 1Q18 Jubilees b 1–5 No number assigned 1Q19 Noah 1, 3 No number assigned 1Q20 Genesis Apocryphon 1–8 No number assigned 1Q22 Words of Moses 1–28, 31, 33–37, 41–45, 47–49 J 5928 1Q23 Enoch Giants a 1–22, 24–31 J 5928 1Q27 Mysteries 1–17 J 5928 1Q28a Rule of the Congregation Cols i-ii No number assigned 1QM War Scroll 1–2 J 5928 1Q34 Liturgical Prayer 1 J 5928 1Q35 Hodayot b 1–2 J 5928 (Numbered 1Q33 on the museum plate) 1Q36 Hymns 1–18, 20–25 J 5928 1Q37 Hymnic Compositions? 1–6 J 5928 1Q70 Unclassified fragment 1–32 J 5928 3Q15 Copper...

Kings, First and Second Books of

Kings, First and Second Books of   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

..., and 22.28–31 and 2 Kings 5.26 ; 6.32 ; 7.8–10 , 20 ; 8.1–5 ; 9.1–2 ; 10.19–21 fragments 18–94 are unidentified. The text of 2 Kings 7.20–8.5 in 6QKings is sometimes shorter than the Masoretic Text ( Baillet , 1962 ). Furthermore, three fragments of the Book of the Kings (4Q235) in the Nabatean script have been preserved. [See Nabatean .] The Isaiah scrolls also have a bearing on the text of Kings in the passages they have in common ( Is. 36.1–39.8 , 2 Kgs. 18.13–20.19 ). Isaiah a from Cave 1 at Qumran (1QIsa a ) preserves the...

Philo Judaeus

Philo Judaeus (c.25/20 bce–c.50)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...Love of Virtue 84 141–42 20 Love of Humanity 84–87 8.11.1 139–40 Cf. CD vi.20–vii.1 Common Property 85–86 8.11.4–5, 10–13 122, 127 20 1QS i.11–13; v.1–2; vi.13–23 (1QS vii.6–8; CD ix.10–16; xiv.12–13) Houses Open to Other Essenes 85 8.11.5 124 Treasury with Elected Treasurer 86, 87 8.11.10 122–23, 125, cf. 134 22 1QS vi.18–20; CD xiii.15–16; xiv.12–17 Winter and Summer Clothes Cf.86 8.11.12 38–39 Cf. 125 Food 86, 91 8.11.5, 10–11 34–37 130–33, 139 1QS vi.4–6; 1Q28a ii.17–22 Treatment of the Ill 87 8.11.13 Cf. CD vi.20–21; xiv.12–17 Treatment of the...

῾Ein-El-Turabeh

῾Ein-El-Turabeh   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...el-Tarbi ). It appears that this site should be identified with the Nibshan mentioned in Joshua 15.62 . Explored and excavated by Ian Blake in 1966 , the site is divided into two parts: a nearly square structure, 15 by 13 meters (49 by 42 feet), and a courtyard, 19 by 20 meters (62 by 66 feet), which adjoins the structure's northern side. The entrance to the courtyard was also on the northern side, and guard rooms were erected adjacent to the courtyard gate. On the northern side of the courtyard and on the southern side, rows of pillar foundations...

Ben Sira, Book of

Ben Sira, Book of   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

... 7.1 ; 7.2 ; 7.4 ; 7.6 ; 7.17 ; 7.20 ; 7.21 ; 7.23–25 ; 18.31b–19.3b ; 20.5–7 ; 20.13 ; 20.22–23 ; 25.8 ; 25.13 ; 25.17–24 ; 26.1–3 ; 26.13 ; 26.15–17 ; 25.8 ; 25.20–21 ; 36.27–31 ; 37.19 ; 37.22 ; 37.24 ; 37.26 ; 41.16 MS D, 36.29–38.1a MS E, 32.16–34.1 MS F, 31.24–32.7 ; 32.12–33.8 More recently portions of the Hebrew text were found among the discoveries at Qumran and Masada. Small fragments from Cave 2 at Qumran (2Q18) preserve a few words from Ben Sira 6.14–15 (or 1.19–20 ) and 6.20–31 . Maurice Baillet, the editor (...

Solomon

Solomon   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...the Prophets started to come true for Israel in the days of Solomon, while the fulfillment of the corresponding curses started in the time of Jeroboam I (MMT section C 17–20). This recalls the explanation of Solomon's name in 1 Chronicles 22.9 : “his name shall be Solomon and I will give peace and quiet to Israel in his days.” Because the context of MMT section C 17–20 (C 12–16 and 20–22) stresses that these fullfilments would happen at the End of Days, this characterizes Solomon's reign at least as proleptic to the eschaton . Since Solomon is attested in...

Genesis, Commentary on

Genesis, Commentary on   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...Abraham, about which little can be said, follow: They appear to be concerned with the Covenant of the Pieces ( Gn. 15.9 , 15.17 ; 4Q252 ii.11–13); the twelve princes ( Gn. 17.20 ; 4Q252 iii.1–2); the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah ( Gn. 18.31–32 ; 4Q252 iii.2–6), in which there is halakhic interpretation using phrases from Deuteronomy 13.16–17 , 20.11 , and 20.14 ; and the binding of Isaac ( Gn. 22.10–12 ; 4Q252 iii.6–10). Then there seems to be reference to the blessing of Jacob ( Gn. 28.3–4 ; 4Q252 iii.11–14). Discussion of the...

James, Letter Of

James, Letter Of   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...The term “way” ( Jas. 5.19–20 ) is used of ethical and halakhic teaching from Proverbs 4.14 through to the Didache (cf. 1QS iii.13–iv.26, viii.15). The characteristics of wisdom ( Jas. 3.14 ) are echoed in several Jewish texts ( Prv. 8 ; Wis. 7 ; cf. 1QS iv.3–8). The description of the teacher ( Jas. 3.1 ) is an echo of the standard Jewish role of both priest and sage; at Qumran this role is variously taken up by both mevaqqer (“guardian”; CD xiii.7–8) and maskil (“wise teacher”; 1QS ix.12–20). James 2.10 insists on the keeping...

High Priests

High Priests   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

..., 26.20 , 31.10 ) or ha-kohen ha-gadol ( Lv. 21.10 ; Num. 35.25 , 35.28 ; Jos. 20.6 ; 2 Kgs. 22.4 , 22.8 , 23.4 ; Hg. 1.1 , 1.12 , 1.14 , 2.2 , 2.4 ; Zec. 3.1 , 3.8 , 6.11 ; Neh. 3.1 , 3.20 , 13.28 ; 2 Chr. 34.9 ; Sir. 50.1 ), but mostly in postexilic texts. Apparently, the titular use of ha-kohen ha-gadol became established by the adoption of the pagan title archiereus (Gr.)—used for the head of the state religion—as the title for the Jewish high priest, beginning with the Hasmonean Jonathan ( 1 Mc. 10.20 ). Thus...

Job, Book of

Job, Book of   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...of twenty-two and six fragments, respectively. 4QJob a preserves parts of Job 31.14–19 , 32.3–4 , 33.10–11 , 24–26 , 28–30 , 35.16 , 36.7–11 , 13–27 , 32–33 , 37.1–5 , 14–15 . The fragments of 4QJob b preserve parts of Job 8.15–17 , 9.27 , 13.4 , 14.4–6 , 31.20–21 . The text of 4QJob a is written stichometrically, each line usually containing two cola. In several instances Job a differs from the Masoretic Text, including divergences in orthography, grammatical forms, and readings. Although these manuscripts contain relatively little...

Sin

Sin   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...to the Bible, to sin is to fail to meet requirements of God ( cf. Ex. 20.20 ), either by outright violations of his commandments or by failing to fulfill personal (?) obligations to him. Sin includes a range of offenses from inappropriate cultic procedures to violations of the dignity and rights of others. Any of these offenses can impede the relationship between God and his people, leading to God's rejection of his people, his wrath, and retribution ( Is. 64.7 ; Jer. 14.20–21 ; Ps. 51.11 ). God, who is the source of holiness, will not tolerate sin,...

Sons of Dawn

Sons of Dawn   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...the term “novice” would fit the context well. It would imply that certain limitations were placed upon full members of the community concerning business procedures with those still holding a probationary status. Noteworthy for this interpretation is Rule of the Community (1QS vi.17–20) where the mixing of a novice's goods and finances with those of full members is forbidden. Bibliography Baumgarten, J. “ The ‘Sons of Dawn’ in CDC 13.14–15 and the Ban on Commerce among the Essenes. ” Israel Exploration Journal 33 (1983), 81–85. Kister, M. “ Commentary to...

Luke, Gospel Of

Luke, Gospel Of   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...of goodwill” ( Lk. 2.14 ) referred to humans or to the deity. The discovery of the same phrase at Qumran where it means “people whom God favors” (1QH a iv.32–33 [xvii.20–21], xi.9 [iii.8]) has settled the debate. Another section of the narrative that is redolent of Qumran is the presentation of John the Baptist ( e.g., 3.1–20 ; cf. Lk. 3.4 and 1QS viii.12–16; Lk. 3.16 and 1QS iv.20–21). However, we must not overdraw this portrait since Luke , like the Jewish Antiquities of Josephus ( 18.116–19 ), presents John more as a Hellenistic moral reformer...

Samuel, First and Second Books of

Samuel, First and Second Books of   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...from women” [Masoretic Text 21.5]), the scroll has an additional clause, which completes the sentence “then you may eat of it,” while the Septuagint reads “if the soldiers abstained from women, they/one may eat.” The number of passages that are at variance ( 1 Sm. 20.29 , 20.31 , 20.32 , 20.36 , 21.5 , 21.9 ) seems significant. Hence Samuel b is best considered independent of both the Masoretic Text and the Septuagint (Tov, 1980 , p. 64); the readings it shares with the Septuagint most probably represent the ancient text against the Masoretic Text....

Berakhot

Berakhot   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...7.i.2–3 and 6), reflect the idea of commitment to the laws of God by all the faithful of the covenant ( cf. Ps. 103.20–22 ). Stylistically, the blessings of God and the curses of Belial (4Q286 1–7, 4Q287 b ) are structured as catalogs, in various forms of poetic parallelism and repetition of linguistic forms. The liturgical nature of this work is characterized both by its catalog structure and by poetic repetition ( cf. Ps. 29 , 103.20–22 ; Prayer of Azariah and the Song of the Three Young Men , 22; and esp. Ps. 148.7–13 and the Sabbath hymn of the...

Granvelle, Antoine Perrenot De

Granvelle, Antoine Perrenot De (1517–1586)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
390 words

...Antoine Perrenot De ( 1517–1586 ), French prelate and adviser to Philip II of Spain. Born in Besançon on 20 August 1517 , he was the son of Nicholas Perrenot de Granvelle, a leading counsellor of Emperor Charles V . Educated at Padua and Louvain, Antoine Perrenot was appointed bishop of Arras in 1538 and served the emperor and his son Philip II in various capacities until 1560 . In that year Philip made Perrenot archbishop of Mechelen, which meant that, under the king's new program of church reform, he would be primate of the Netherlands....

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