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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

‘Clever Hans’

‘Clever Hans’   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
153 words

...Hans’ . A famous horse once thought to possess powers of telepathy. The horse (of a Russian trotting-horse breed), which lived in Berlin at the beginning of the 20th century, could apparently perform arithmetic in the presence of its owner by tapping a hoof on the ground to count out the answer. Fraud seemed unlikely since the owner and trainer, Herr von Osten, would allow people (free of charge) to watch the animal perform and even to question it themselves. The phenomenon was investigated in 1904 by O. Pfungst , a student of the psychologist C....

Hebb, Donald Olding

Hebb, Donald Olding (1904–85)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
184 words

...locations. He gave learning a physical basis in modified conductivities with use of synapses, and generally promoted a strongly physiology-based empiricist theorizing. His book The Organisation of Behaviour ( 1949 ) was among the most influential books on brain and mind in the 20th century. It is both a clear account of the power of interactive neural nets to learn and generalize, and recognize or remember complex scenes or situations from small samples, but also to form concepts with ‘cell assemblies’. Hebb's work is the basis and direct inspiration of...

information rate of vision

information rate of vision   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
973 words

...also yields a value of 5 × 10 5 bits per second, though their method includes capacity in terms of targets with different shades of grey. Neither of these estimates includes colour information, but it is unlikely that the additional information due to colour is more than about 20 per cent, making 6 × 10 5 bits per second in all. Jacobson estimated the capacity for the ear at about 10 4 bits per second. Thus the central region of the retina has about 50 times the capacity of the ear and the whole visual system has about 500 or 600 times the aural...

religious experience

religious experience   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,175 words

...about, at least in part, by the effects of the elimination or intervention of sensory nerve impulses (deafferentation). Throughout the 20th century and today there are leading defenders of the cognitive value of religious experience. Early proponents of a non‐naturalist account of religious experiences include Rudolf Otto ( 1869–1937 ), Evelyn Underhill ( 1875–1941 ), and W. T. Stace ( 1886–1967 ). Since the mid‐20th century, the prominent defenders of the view that religious experience counts as evidence against naturalism and in favour of some...

doubting

doubting   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
349 words

...four’, or Descartes's famous ‘cogito’ (‘I am thinking’), and it does not seem possible to construct any worthwhile system of knowledge on such meagre foundations. The difficulty of seriously maintaining a position of philosophical scepticism was highlighted by G. E. Moore in the 20th century, and earlier by David Hume . Hume observed that ‘Nature is always too strong for principle, and though a Pyrrhonian may throw himself and others into a momentary … confusion by his profound reasonings, the first and most trivial event in life will put to flight all his...

Driesch, Hans Adolf Eduard

Driesch, Hans Adolf Eduard (1867–1941)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
293 words

...that the fate of a cell is not determined in the early developmental stages. In 1896 , he became the first to demonstrate embryonic induction. After serving as the Gifford lecturer at Aberdeen in 1907–8 , Driesch was appointed professor of philosophy at Heidelberg ( 1911–20 ), and subsequently at Cologne and Leipzig. Driesch's early interest in biology was gradually overshadowed by his involvement in philosophy. The discovery, in sea urchins, that a portion of an early embryo could develop into a complete, though smaller than normal, organism...

a priori

a priori   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
307 words

...and such statements about the natural world as ‘Every event has a cause’, were not analytic but nevertheless had the hallmarks of being a priori. The central question that his philosophy addressed was how such synthetic a priori truths were possible, whereas the strategy of his 20th-century empiricist critics was to argue that there are no a priori truths that are not analytic. (Published 1987) J. E. Tiles Frege, G. (1959). The Foundations of Arithmetic . Trans. J. L. Austin , section 3. Kant, I. (1929). The Critique of Pure Reason . Trans. N....

facial expressions: origins

facial expressions: origins   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
809 words

...he was the kindest of men and most deeply attached to his family. In the 20th century it became fashionable to deny any genetic influence on human behaviour and it was claimed that all behaviour patterns, including facial expressions, were purely the result of cultural learning. Darwin's earlier ideas were rejected and in the 1930s psychologist Otto Klineberg's conclusions were summarized by the phrase: ‘what is shown on the face is written there by culture’. In the second half of the 20th century this school of thought was discredited and new research...

migraine

migraine   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
989 words

...dysfunction (‘vertebrobasilar migraine’), when there is dysfunction of the nerves that control eye movements (‘ophthalmoplegic migraine’), or when there is a unilateral weakness of the limbs (familial ‘hemiplegic migraine’). The disturbances, sensory or otherwise, usually last for 20–30 minutes and are followed by a headache which, although often unilateral, may involve both sides of the head, and which is often severe and pulsating in character. When both the sensory disturbances and the pain are unilateral they can involve the same or opposite sides of the...

conscious resting state

conscious resting state   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
509 words

...areas also show among the most important decreases of activity in various states of transient or permanent unawareness such as vegetative state, slow wave *sleep , general *anaesthesia , or absence seizures ( Laureys 2005 ). In the average adult brain, the brain accounts for 20% of the oxygen consumption of the body, despite the fact that it represents only 2% of body weight. Relative to this high rate of ongoing or basal metabolism, the amount of dedicated task‐related activity is relatively small. These findings led to the concept of a ‘default mode’...

intelligence differences

intelligence differences   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,455 words

...to find how many underlying traits are needed to account for the associations among the test scores. Over the 20th century the suggestions ranged as follows: one (Spearman), a huge number ( Thomson ), about seven unrelated intelligences ( Thurstone ), perhaps 120 distinct abilities ( Guilford ), seven to nine-and-a-half ( Gardner ) (Neisser et al. 1996 ). The answer that most researchers accept today was available in the first half of the 20th century, from the British psychologists Philip E. Vernon and Sir Cyril Burt . Both suggested that human...

attention, neural basis

attention, neural basis   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,590 words
Illustration(s):
5

...as during directed attention in the presence of visual stimulation, consisting of the FEF, the SEF, and the SPL (Fig. A20a, b). As in visual cortical areas, there is an increase in activity in these frontal and parietal areas due to directed attention in the absence of visual input. However, (1) this increase in activity is stronger in SPL, FEF, and SEF than the increase in activity seen in visual cortex (as exemplified for FEF in Fig. A20c), and (2) there is no further increase in activity evoked by the attended stimulus presentations in these parietal and...

after‐effects, perceptual

after‐effects, perceptual   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,772 words
Illustration(s):
2

...constitutes a gender‐neutral face, and the two photographs on either side of the neutral face are versions biased toward female (left) and toward male (right). Maintain fixation on the right‐hand photograph for 20 s or so and then look at the middle photograph—for the first few seconds, it should look more ‘female’. Next, adapt for 20 s to the left‐hand photograph and notice how the appearance of the gender‐neutral face now looks more ‘male’. Photographs courtesy of Tamara Watson and Colin Clifford, University of Sydney. Perceptual after‐effects may...

subnormality

subnormality   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,714 words

...shown that above IQ 55 ability to survive in the community is not very closely related to intelligence. Below this IQ level a relatively small proportion of people will be found to be socially independent, possibly between 10 and 20 per cent. The prevalence of subnormality The prevalence of subnormality At the beginning of the 20th century, the prevalence of subnormality was thought to be increasing, because the views of Francis Galton ( Hereditary Genius , 1869 ) and Karl Pearson were uncritically applied to the concept of intelligence. It was supposed,...

Burton, Richard Francis

Burton, Richard Francis (1821–90)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
561 words

...where he continued to travel to Africa. In the following years, Burton was also posted as consul to Santos, Brazil ( 1865–9 ), and then to Damascus in the Middle East. His final post was in Trieste ( 1872–90 ), where he continued to write extensively. Burton died in Trieste on 20 October 1890 . Following his death, Isabel, his wife, burned his diaries and current manuscripts, providing her own whitewashed version of his life, depicting him as a good Catholic, faithful husband, and wronged and misunderstood adventurer. His books and translations include the...

Gage, Phineas

Gage, Phineas (1813–60)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
644 words

...the renewal of interest in functional localization in the second half of the 19th century. A detailed theory of the functions of the frontal cortex in terms of its role in attention, planning, decision making, socialization and the control of emotional expression had to await the 20th century, for the behavioural effects of frontal lobotomy and the advent of neuropsychological and neuroimaging techniques. Although his behaviour could not be understood in his own time, Phineas Gage has become the classical example of the psychological effects of damage to the...

hair cells

hair cells   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
587 words
Illustration(s):
1

...controls the release of neurotransmitter from the hair cell and this influences the rate at which action potentials are sent along the (post-synaptic) afferent nerve fibre to higher brain centres. Although hair cell stereocilia are deflected at acoustic frequencies (up to 20 kHz in humans), the electrical properties of the hair cell membrane smooth the rapidly changing potential to a slower rate which can be transmitted by the nerve axons to the brain. Thus information about which hair cell has been stimulated is carried by a specific set of nerve...

artificial life

artificial life   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
670 words

..., when Hero of Alexandria described working models of animals and humans, using hydraulics and pneumatics. From the Middle Ages on, technological developments in clockwork led to increasingly sophisticated automata that aroused admiration for their lifelike properties. In the late 20th century, technological developments in computing allowed people to attempt to recreate different aspects of the properties of living organisms in simulations. The field of artificial life became identified under that name from a workshop organized by Chris Langton in Los Alamos...

Russell, Bertrand Arthur William

Russell, Bertrand Arthur William (1872–1970)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
666 words

...Bertrand Arthur William , third Earl Russell Bertrand Arthur William ( 1872–1970 ). By general consent the most distinguished philosopher of the 20th century, Bertrand Russell made fundamental contributions to logic, and influenced equally academic and popular philosophy, as well as appreciation of psychological issues and social questions. Starting from a broadly idealist philosophical position ( The Problems of Philosophy , 1912 ), he became a thoroughgoing empiricist, after the manner of John Locke , in later books such as Human Knowledge: Its...

sex differences in intelligence 2

sex differences in intelligence 2   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
563 words

...differences in intelligence 2 . Sex differences in general intelligence and in specific abilities have been investigated since the early years of the 20th century. By around 1990 a general consensus had emerged that there is no difference between males and females in general intelligence, reasoning ability, and verbal comprehension, but there are differences in a number of specific abilities. Males perform better on average in spatial, visualization, and mathematical ability, and in general knowledge, while females perform better on average on verbal...

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