You are looking at 1-20 of 82 entries  for:

  • Literary theory and cultural studies x
  • Social sciences x
clear all

View:

Overview

20/20

Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

double-consciousness

double-consciousness   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...A concept conceived by W. E. B. Du Bois in his landmark work Souls of Black Folk ( 1903 ) to describe the mental situation of African-American people in early 20th-century America. Du Bois argued that the exclusion of black Americans from mainstream American life meant that black people not only had consciousness of themselves as black, they also had consciousness of themselves as not-white as...

immanence

immanence   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...ground, but is not thereby anti-foundational . Spinoza is probably the most important philosopher of immanence—in his work, God is treated as immanent rather than transcendent, meaning that God does not sit on high judging humans, rather we are at one with His substance. In the 20th century the principal philosopher of immanence is Gilles Deleuze —although he substitutes being for God, his ontology is derived from...

ontology

ontology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...of things—at its most basic, or fundamental, it seeks to answer the question why there is something rather than nothing. It does not examine the existence of particular things; its focus is the more general level of the possibility and actuality of anything existing at all. In the 20th century, the most influential account of ontology is given by Martin Heidegger , in his extensive writings on the...

vitalism

vitalism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...It assumes there must be some ‘higher’ or ‘other’ dimension as well, such as the ‘soul’ or Henri Bergson 's notion of the élan vital . Vitalist principles have been at the heart of medical thinking since at least the time of the ancient Egyptians, but in the latter half of the 20th century fell into decline as scientists came to believe that the chemical and physical accounts of life were sufficient and anything beyond that was an unnecessary abstraction, or worse,...

Abstractionism

Abstractionism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...In art, a movement away from representation and mimesis towards a kind of imagery that aims to provoke a response for what it is rather than what it looks like. For this reason, it is also known as non-figurative art. Abstractionism can take a variety of forms—in the 20th century, the major forms of Abstractionism (to a greater or lesser degree) were: Avant-garde , Dadaism , Expressionism , Futurism and Surrealism . Artistic movements such as socialist realism rejected Abstractionism as unworthy of the goal of celebrating the achievements...

Expressionism

Expressionism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...A pan-European movement in the arts—especially painting—that developed in the first third of the 20th century. Rejecting impressionism and naturalism, expressionism is anti-realist in both approach and subject matter. It aims to ‘render visible’ (to use one of its leading artists Paul Klee 's famous phrase) that which escapes representational painting, such as the raw effects of emotion, sexuality and spirituality. Inspired by the writings of the founder of psychoanalysis , Sigmund Freud , which explore the hidden world of the unconscious ,...

analytic philosophy

analytic philosophy   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...designating a variety of different types of work that have in common their opposition to continental philosophy, metaphysics , and all post-Kantian thought (including critical theory ). Often known as Anglo-American philosophy because it originated in Britain at the turn of the 20th century with the work of Bertrand Russell , Alfred North Whitehead, and G. E. Moore (all of whom were influenced in this direction by the work of the German logician Gottlob Frege ), and because its practice tends to be confined to Anglophone countries, analytic philosophy...

gay

gay   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...Originally an adjective to describe a light-hearted, frivolous, or joyful attitude, it was used in the early part of the 20th century to refer to someone with an open-minded or unconventional approach to sexual propriety. And until the 1950s, this was its most widely recognized meaning; but in the middle part of the century it also began to be used as a synonym for homosexuality in general. This latter meaning emerged as the dominant meaning of the word in the 1970s. The annual Gay Pride parades held around the world in memory of the 1969 Stonewall riots...

metafiction

metafiction   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...the form of a work of fiction about either the reading or writing of fiction, as one finds (again quite famously) in Italo Calvino 's Se una notte d'inverno un viaggatore ( 1979 ), translated as If on a Winter's Night a Traveller ( 1981 ). The device is more common in late 20th-century fiction writing than it is in earlier periods and for this reason is often associated with postmodernism , although there is no direct correlation between the two. The device can also be witnessed in film and television. Further Reading: P. Waugh Metafiction: The...

Russian Formalism

Russian Formalism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...Formalism One of the most influential literary critical movements of the 20th century. Speaking very generally, Russian Formalism as a critical movement was interested in identifying the specific quality of language use that separated the literary text from the non-literary text. Their approach was scientific inasmuch as they thought it was possible to establish what it is precisely that distinguishes ordinary usages of language from the poetic. Unlike the later post-structuralists , the Russian Formalists treated poetry as an autonomous form of...

hermeneutics

hermeneutics   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...was to anchor meaning in the psychology of the author. Thus, Schleiermacher was the first to raise the question of authorial intention, which would remain central to textual studies until the middle of the 20th century, arguing that it has to be understood in context (a perspective that New Historicism maintains today). In the latter half of the 20th century, it is the work of Hans Georg Gadamer and Paul Ricoeur that has been most closely associated with hermeneutics. Further Reading: R. Palmer Hermeneutics: Interpretation Theory in Schleiermacher,...

hysterical sublime

hysterical sublime   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...quality, water supply, and so on) are, as Marx recognized, what must be overcome in order for human society to be able to satisfy its elementary needs. Until the middle of the 20th century, then, nature has been feared and admired in equal measure because of humanity's seeming inability to control its forces. But with the rapid advances technology made in the second half of the 20th century nature's pre-eminent position in western metaphysics began to slide and technology took its place. At first, machines like steam trains and motor cars made humans seem...

Senghor, Léopold

Senghor, Léopold (1906–2001)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...Léopold ( 1906–2001 ) Senegalese poet and politician . Regarded by many as one of the most important intellectuals in Africa in the 20th century, Senghor was the first president of Senegal, following its independence from France. Prior to that he was, like his friend Aimé Césaire (who represented Martinique in the same period) Senegal's representative in the National Assembly in France. Senghor met Césaire as a student in Paris. The two of them, along with fellow student Léon Damas , from French Guiana, founded the literary review L'Étudiant...

Epic Theatre

Epic Theatre   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...Theatre A highly politicized, Marxist -oriented form of theatre developed in Germany in the early part of the 20th century by Erwin Piscator . It is, however, Piscator's one-time collaborator Bertolt Brecht who is the better known exponent of Epic Theatre. Indeed Brecht's name is virtually synonymous with Epic Theatre, despite the fact that it had a number of other quite prominent adherents including both Mayakovsky and Meyerhold. Doubtless this is due to Brecht's fame as well as his extensive writings on the subject. Epic Theatre is typified by its...

Geneva School

Geneva School   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...School 1. A small group of linguists based in Geneva at the turn of the 20th century. The most prominent figure was Ferdinand de Saussure , whose work on the linguistic sign was a vital precursor to the founding of both structuralism and semiotics . Saussure's contribution to scholarship might never have been known were it not for the efforts of his former students, and fellow members of the Geneva School, Charles Bally and Albert Sechehaye . It was they who transformed incomplete lecture notes into the posthumously published Cours de...

German Expressionism

German Expressionism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...Expressionism A modernist film movement that developed in Germany in the first part of the 20th century, lasting roughly from 1919 until 1924 . The best-known examples of German Expressionist film are: The Cabinet of Dr Caligari (director Wiene , 1919 ), Metropolis (director Lang , 1926 ), and Nosferatu (director Murnau , 1921 ). Contemporaneous with the tumultuous Weimar period and the rise of German fascism, its dark, anti-realist aesthetic was inspired by the pan-European movement of Expressionism in the arts, typified by such diverse...

paranoid-critical method

paranoid-critical method   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...to create systematic objectifications of the delirious connections made by the unconscious. The Dutch architect Rem Koolhaas provides a fine account of this method in Delirious New York ( 1978 ), in which he argues that Dalí's view of things can be witnessed in a range of late 20th-century building projects (his key example is the reconstruction of London Bridge in Arizona). Paranoia, Koolhaas argues, is a delirium of interpretation in which every thing perceived serves to confirm the reality of the mind. It is a perpetual feeling of the shock of...

Auerbach, Eric

Auerbach, Eric (1892–1957)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...Eric ( 1892–1957 ) German literary critic and philologist . Along with Ernst Robert Curtius and Leo Spitzer he is generally regarded as one of the greatest exponents of philology of the 20th century. He is best known for his magisterial survey of realism in western literature, Mimesis ( 1946 ), which he wrote—famously—in exile in Istanbul without access to a library equipped for the study of European literature. Although his first degree was in law, he decided to pursue a career in literature and completed a doctorate in 1921 on Romance...

White, Hayden

White, Hayden (1928)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...career at the University of California Santa Cruz. White became internationally renowned with the publication of Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Europe ( 1973 ), a magisterial work that changed the shape of historiography in the latter part of the 20th century. Discussing the work of the great historians of the 19th century, Jacob Burkhardt , Benedetto Croce , G. W. F Hegel , Jules Michelet , Friedrich Nietzsche , and Leopold von Ranke , White argues that the writing of history is influenced by the choice of narrative...

existentialism

existentialism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...A mode of philosophy which emerged in the latter part of the 19th century and came into prominence in the middle part of the 20th century. It foregrounds the perplexing condition of the modern subject who, in the absence of God, is forced to contend with the meaninglessness of life. This does not necessarily mean that existentialism is a secular philosophy, though largely speaking it is, because the absence of God can be understood to mean that humans have forsaken God or that God has forsaken humans (i.e. God still exists, He just doesn't...

View: