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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Vindicating Dominican Latinidad through Pedro Henríquez Ureña’s First New York Stay

Vindicating Dominican Latinidad through Pedro Henríquez Ureña’s First New York Stay   Reference library

Sharina Maillo-Pozo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...early- 20th-century latinidad in the United States, especially in New York City—the primary US destination for Latin American and Caribbean revolutionaries, political figures, intellectuals, travelers, diplomats, and writers who sought financial help and support in the fight for independence from Spain in the 19th century , refuge as exiles, or exposure to the cosmopolitanism of New York City. The use of Latina/o rather than Hispanic, Hispanomericanos, Americanos , Spanish, and Spanish Americans—all in common use in the 19th and early 20th...

Dominican Ethnic Identities, National Borders, and Literature

Dominican Ethnic Identities, National Borders, and Literature   Reference library

Lorgia García Peña

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...ethnic Haitian background. Intellectuals like Balaguer played an important role in drafting the ideology of the dictatorship, especially in relation to race, culture, and national borders, by drawing on 19th-century Hispanophile and on early 20th-century eugenicist theories. Like Balaguer, many other important 20th-century intellectuals worked to sustain the nationalist rhetoric of “the preservation of Dominican essence,” allegedly threatened by Haitian immigration. In this racist climate, the massacre then came to be a “solution” to the national threat...

New Mexico Newspapers

New Mexico Newspapers   Reference library

Vanessa Fonseca-Chávez

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...to Hispanic New Mexican women until after statehood. 35 Hispanic New Mexican women writers of the 20th century came to prominence in the generation following that of the los periodiqueros . Their class status and access to education made their upbringing similar to that of the male-dominated editors, and their exposure to politics afforded them opportunities to participate in the public sphere in ways they were not previously granted. The early 20th century became a pivotal time for New Mexican Hispanic women to transition from a primarily domestic...

Mexican American (Chicana/o)

Mexican American (Chicana/o)   Reference library

Frederick Luis Aldama

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...power.” 19 In the biographical overview in the Modern Library edition of her 1885 published work, The Squatter and the Don , she is identified as “the first writer of Mexican origin to write and publish in English-language novels in the United States.” 20 Other scholars have focused on excavating 20th-century moments when Chicana/o letters shaped into thickening nodes of presence. For instance, in Border Renaissance , John Morán González considered 1936 to be the “watershed in the development of Mexican American literature.” 21 There was a massive...

Late 19th-Century Latina/o Letters: A Heterogeneous Archive

Late 19th-Century Latina/o Letters: A Heterogeneous Archive   Reference library

Anita Huizar-Hernández

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...la tempestad), published together in 1892 in the Santa Fe, New Mexico, newspaper El Boletín Popular . 18 Like Ruiz de Burton’s novels, Chacón’s novelettes were rediscovered in the 20th century , in his case by the scholars Francisco A. Lomelí and Donaldo W. Urioste. 19 This rediscovery prompted Lomelí to declare Chacón “the ‘first Hispanic’ novelist in the United States.” 20 Chacón’s novelettes represent his commitment to cultivating an independent literary tradition among his community. In the introduction to the two works, Chacón writes, Son (las novelas)...

US Latina/os and the White Imagination

US Latina/os and the White Imagination   Reference library

Lee Bebout

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...and written imaginings into a celluloid reality with the “greaser” films like Broncho Billy and the Greaser ( 1914 ) and D. W. Griffith’s Martyrs of the Alamo ( 1915 ). Throughout the 20th century , Latina/o immigrants and US Latina/os have long been imagined as unassimilable, foreign, and/or un-American within the US press and other media. During the early 20th century , this discourse often took the form of the Mexican Problem. Finding expression in news media, social science scholarship, and political speech, the Mexican Problem anthologized...

Latina/o Environmental Justice Literature

Latina/o Environmental Justice Literature   Reference library

Kamala Platt

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...Preservation in John Rechy’s The Miraculous Day of Amalia Gómez ,” American Quarterly 74, no. 1 (Spring 2018): 20. 89. Vásquez, “They Don’t Understand Their Own Oppression,” 20. 90. Vásquez, “They Don’t Understand Their Own Oppression,” 37. 91. John Rechy, The Miraculous Day of Amalia Gómez (New York: Arcade Publishing, 1991). 92. Vásquez, “They Don’t Understand Their Own Oppression,” 24. 93. Ybarra, Writing the Goodlife , 20. 94. Vásquez, “They Don’t Understand Their Own Oppression,” 21. 95. Joni Adamson, Mei Mei Evans, and Rachel Stein, ...

Masculinity and Machismo in US Latinx Literature

Masculinity and Machismo in US Latinx Literature   Reference library

Ricardo L. Ortiz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...who has only a brief cameo in the narrative, but whose actual work in the world created the conditions of social, political, and cultural existence with which her invented characters had to deal. Masculinity and Machismo in Chicanx Literature: 20th- and 21st-Century Interventions “Early-” to mid- to late- 20th-century Chicanx literature quite often took its cues from the terms of patriarchal gender politics described by Ruiz de Burton and Paredes, either layering onto this foundation accounts of the struggles of that political order to maintain its...

Late 19th-Century Periodical Print Culture in the US-Mexico Border Region

Late 19th-Century Periodical Print Culture in the US-Mexico Border Region   Reference library

Donna M. Kabalen de Bichara

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...Elisa Speckman Guerra (Mexico, DF: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 2005), 83–86. 15. American Star , September 20, 1847, HNDM. 16. American Star , September 20, 1847, HNDM. 17. El Monitor Republicano , March 29, 1848, HNDM. 18. Martha Celis de la Cruz, “Reseña Histórica de El Monitor Republicano ,” June 3, 1988. HNDM, 1. 19. “Literatura polémica,” Celis de la Cruz, “Reseña Histórica,” June 3, 1988, HNDM, 1. 20. “No sea posible ya resistir con éxito.” El Monitor Republicano , March 28, 1848, HNDM. 21. “Tejas, ni los Estados de...

Central American-American Identity and Politics

Central American-American Identity and Politics   Reference library

Maritza E. Cárdenas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

... 20th century . 12 Creating a Diaspora: Central American Migration in the Late 20th Century Political policies, ideologies, and practices that govern the sociocultural life of the isthmus have fueled a steady migration flow of its inhabitants to the United States. Although transnational migration from Central America to the United States has been occurring since the 19th century , the largest migratory movements have occurred within the last forty years. There were several economic, political, and environmental factors during the latter half of the 20th...

From Nationalist Movements to Transnational Solidarities: Comparative and Pan-Latina/o Literary Studies

From Nationalist Movements to Transnational Solidarities: Comparative and Pan-Latina/o Literary Studies   Reference library

Marta Caminero-Santangelo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...Latina/o ethnic groups. The corpus of US Latinx literature is thus marked by a movement from parallel although differentiated concerns to an emergent panethnic group sensibility. Late 19th- to Early 20th-Century Anti-Imperialist Proto-Latinx Writing While it is often observed that “Latino literature” was not a legible category until the late 20th century —when it cohered as part of the legacy of the Chicana/o and Nuyorican movements—Latin Americans and people of (differing) Latin American origin residing in the United States in the 19th century ...

Literary Representations of Migration

Literary Representations of Migration   Reference library

Marisel Moreno

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...also determines how this experience is perceived and conveyed in literature. Until the mid- 20th century most migrants arrived in the United States by train or ship, and later on commercial flights. Yet it is important to remember that the mode of transportation is determined by a range of factors that includes an individual’s status, capital, location, and US immigration policy toward the country of origin at that specific historical juncture. Since the late 20th century, undocumented Mexican, Central American, and South American migrants have risked...

Grillo, Evelio

Grillo, Evelio   Reference library

Kenya C. Dworkin y Méndez

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...future into their hands. They saw in him great potential and virtually plucked him out of Ybor City, so that he could attend an all-black high school in Washington, DC. The renowned Dunbar High School was considered the country’s best black high school in the first quarter of the 20th century . Many of its professors were black and had earned master’s degrees and doctorates from prominent white schools, such as Harvard College, to which African Americans had only very recently gained extremely limited access. Ironically, Grillo himself experienced colorism at...

Californio Testimonios

Californio Testimonios   Reference library

Rosaura Sánchez

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...led to research on the fiction of María Amparo Ruiz de Burton and other lesser known 20th-century texts that deal with the past and that now have been recovered thanks to the work done by the University of Houston Recovery Project. Other sources of testimonios have also been uncovered. The Federal Writers’ Project of the 1930s and 1940s, for example, attracted the attention of writers in New Mexico, like Tey Rebolledo and María Teresa Márquez, who made these early 20th-century testimonios available to readers today. Testimonios have become an...

Cano, Daniel

Cano, Daniel   Reference library

Jayson Gonzales Sae-Saue

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...Loyalties ( 1995 ), and Death and the American Dream ( 2009 ). Drawing from personal war experiences and family oral histories, Cano’s novels interject into US histories by offering correctives to dominant narratives that ignore lived experiences of US minorities in the early 20th century or exclude Mexican and Mexican American lives from national political dramas such as the Vietnam War. In doing so, Cano’s literary corpus collectively imagines intersections between the United States, Mexico, and Vietnam, thereby communicating history from a Mexican...

Alfaro, Luis

Alfaro, Luis   Reference library

Paul Allatson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...in Text and Presentation 2007 , ed. Stratos A. Constantinidis (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2008), 124 . 44. Peter Marks, “ Luis Alfaro, Playwright of ‘Oedipus el Rey,’ On Mission to Change Face of Theater ,” Washington Post , February 20, 2011. 45. Luis Alfaro, “Oedipus, el Rey,” Theatre Bay Area Magazine 36, no. 6 (2011): 20 . 46. Christina Anderson, “ Interview with Luis Alfaro ,” Bruja, Sessions with Magic Scribes, Magic Theatre Productions, 2012. 47. Melinda Powers, “Syncretic Sites in Luis Alfaro’s Electricidad ,” Helios 38, no. 2 (2011): 194 ,...

Asian Dimensions of Caribbean Latina/o Identity and Cultural Production

Asian Dimensions of Caribbean Latina/o Identity and Cultural Production   Reference library

Kathleen López

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...regions and constituting the second-largest foreign community after the Spanish. By the middle of the 20th century , Chinese had settled throughout Latin America and the Caribbean, with the largest populations in Cuba, Peru, and Mexico. 2 In addition to Chinese, Japanese and Koreans have also had a significant presence in Latin America and the Caribbean. Mainland Japanese and Okinawans settled mostly in Mexico, Peru, and Brazil beginning in the early 20th century and were also recruited to develop agriculture in the Dominican Republic in the 1950s. A...

Latin American-American Literature

Latin American-American Literature   Reference library

Rose Phillips

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...Institute of Geography and History 111 (1991): 67–84 . 48. Watt Stewart and William Marshall French, “The Influence of Horace Mann on the Educational Ideas of Domingo Faustino Sarmiento,” The Hispanic American Historical Review 20, no. 1 (1940): 12–31 . 49. Stewart and French, “The Influence of Horace Mann,” 20. 50. Stewart and French, “The Influence of Horace Mann,” 17. 51. Hector Felix Bravo, “Domingo Faustino Sarmiento,” in Prospects: The Quarterly Review of Comparative Education 24, no. 3 (1994): 489 . 52. Goodrich, “From Barbarism to...

Martí, José

Martí, José   Reference library

Alfred J. López

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

... (Havana: Centro de Estudios Martianos, 2001), 20:47. All translations are the author’s unless otherwise noted. 2. Martí, Obras completas , 1:61, 1:74. 3. Martí, Obras completas , 1:93. 4. Martí, Obras completas , 16:48. 5. Esther Allen, ed. and trans., Jose Martí: Selected Writings (New York: Penguin, 2002). For Martí’s original in Spanish, see Martí, Obras completas , 16:63–66. 6. Martí, Obras completas , 6:15. 7. Martí, Obras completas , 6:20. 8. Martí, Obras completas , 6:20. 9. Martí, Obras completas , 6:17. 10. ...

Spanish Language in Chicana/o Literature

Spanish Language in Chicana/o Literature   Reference library

Jesús Rosales

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...collection that is half in English and half in Spanish. In both languages, the poems express the transition of moving from a Mexican cultural environment to an Anglo-American one, a concurrent theme of the period. 20th-Century Mexican American Literature, 1900s–1950s As a result of the political turmoil of the early decades of the 20th century that led Mexico to a bloody civil war, many Mexican nationals left their home country to escape persecution and the denial of their freedom of speech. A group of writers and journalists that came to the United...

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