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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Web 1.0/Web 2.0

Web 1.0/Web 2.0   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Web 1.0/Web 2.0 . The terms Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 are typically used to compare different stages in the development of the World Wide Web (invented in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee). As the numbers suggest, Web 1.0 is used to refer to the first stage in the development of the web, whereas Web 2.0 (a term coined in 1999 ) denotes a later stage, which became prominent in the mid-2000s. At the heart of the comparison between Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 is a perceived shift with respect to the web’s interactivity. Web 1.0 is seen as a read-only, comparatively...

Praeteritio

Praeteritio   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
121 words

...can be motivated by the speaker's wish to pass quickly over inconvenient circumstances of his case, as when in Tristram Shandy ( 1760–1767 ), Sterne's narrator drops several subjects and playfully leaves a character “to recover, and get home from Marseilles as he can” (6.20). Praeteritio is a strategy of ironic dissimulation, disingenuously enumerating details that tact forbids to dwell on. “Why should I mention his decrees, his acts of plunder, his acquisition …?” ( Cicero , 2 Philippica 25.62). [ See also Figures of speech .] — Heiner...

Simile

Simile   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
239 words

...is often defined as a simile in an elliptic form, the simile denotes a relationship of likeness expressis verbis . Meeting the demands of perspicuity, it has proven to be a suitable means of instruction. Notable is the use of the simile by Jesus in the New Testament, as in Mt . 20.1: “For the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is an householder.” The simile can be used as a form of rhetorical amplification, as is demonstrated by the “epic simile” of Homer, as well as the epideictic similes in the Bible's Song of Solomon . The simile is an isosememe...

Hebrew rhetoric

Hebrew rhetoric   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,596 words

...Israel has violated the covenant Israel will therefore be punished. Hebrew rhetoric appeals only occasionally to the emotions ( pathos ), as, for example, in the preaching of Hosea (11.1–4, 8–9) and Jeremiah (3.19–20; 31.15–20). Ēthos appeals are similarly rare, seen occasionally in Jeremiah's confessions to Yahweh ( Jer . 8.6; 12.3; 18.20), but not usual in public discourse. [ See Ēthos .] The place of ēthos is taken largely by authority, which is the dominant element in Hebrew rhetoric, and the driving force in almost all prophetic preaching. Yet in...

Color

Color   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,511 words

...oratorum 8). In Orator 42, eloquence is said to be “raised upon the nourishment” provided by rhetorical exercises in school and “derives its color and strength” from them. This metaphor of speech (or text)-as-body also persists into the imperial age (cf. Inst . 8 pr. 18–20, 8.3.6). Perhaps related is the common use of color to mean directly the “overall complexion” or “style” or “tone” of speaking. Seneca says that Labienus spoke with the “ color of old oratory, and the Vigor of new” ( Cont . 10 pr. 5); Quintilian likewise discusses how the ...

Identification

Identification   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
1,881 words

...As Burke reasoned, “A is not identical with his colleague, B. But insofar as their interests are joined, A is identified with B. Or he may identify himself with B even when their interests are not joined, if he assumes that they are, or is persuaded to believe so” ( RM , p. 20). Because of estrangement, people yearn to belong to one another and to institutions. “ ‘Belonging’ in this sense is rhetoric” ( RM , p. 28). People “belong” to one another through identification. For this reason, “rhetorical language is inducement to action (or to attitude,...

Epideictic genre

Epideictic genre   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
4,507 words

...to be delivered in the law courts and sought to convince a jury of the litigant's innocence or guilt regarding a past action (cf. Rhetoric 1358b1–20). [ See Deliberative genre ; and Forensic genre .] The third genre, epideictic (sometimes called “demonstrative”), however, was without a distinct or fixed setting; it mostly concerned the present, but might also invoke the past and the future ( Rhetoric 1358b18–20); and this in turn left its audience less clearly defined. Aristotle refers to the recipient of this speech simply and noncomitally as “spectator”...

Kairos

Kairos   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
3,001 words

...what presses the rhetor forward to speak but also what constitutes the value of speech. Second, kairos is figured temporally and tied to a Pythagorean conception of the universe modeled on the number seven, the number of Opportunity (Aristotle, Metaphysics 985b.30; 990a.20; 1078b.20). According to Rostagni ( 1922 ) and Untersteiner ( 1954 ), this worldview converges in Gorgias, the fifth-century bce rhetorician who possibly wrote a treatise entitled On the Right Moment in Time . As a master word, kairos is both the context and the guide for the...

Secular piety

Secular piety   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,076 words

...Motives . Burke explains that “A is not identical with his colleague, B. But insofar as their interests are joined, A is identified with B. Or he may identify himself with B even when their interests are not joined, if he assumes that they are, or is persuaded to believe so” (p. 20). Just as decorum in traditional rhetoric blends contradictions, so Burke's identification allows people, by assuming that interests are joined, to stress unity in what might otherwise be perceived as a divisive situation or idea. Through secular piety, people can frame their world...

Controversia and Suasoria

Controversia and Suasoria   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,407 words

...from the seven extant suasoriae in the elder Seneca's ( c.55 bce –c.39 ce ) collection of excerpts from Roman declamations ( Oratorum et rhetorum sententiae divisiones colores ). These brilliant performances of the leading teachers, and indeed even of equestrian Romans ( c.20 bce to 40 ce ), show a culture of wit, literary allusion, and high stylization, and so provide a fundamental insight into the literature of the Julio-Claudians, but, it must be said, they are polished, virtuoso performances to be appreciated by an audience who had all composed...

Credibility

Credibility   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,660 words

...of the speaker. Aristotle (384–322 bce ). His Rhetoric begins with very critical remarks about the preoccupation of orators and writers of rhetorical handbooks with a rhetorical strategy that relies mostly on the speaker's ability to influence the audience's emotions (1.1.1354b20). In his own rhetorical theory, he limits the role of emotions by adding, and assigning greater importance to, two other modes of persuasion: the rhetorical syllogism or enthymeme (1355a7), and the character ( ēthos ) of the speaker, which he calls the most important mode of...

Hypertext

Hypertext   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
1,344 words

...and reading. The essays are thoughtful and suggestive. Their commentary and predictions are no less interesting in light of the fact that most were written prior to 1994 and can now be evaluated in light of the advent and growth of the World Wide Web. Landow, George P. Hypertext 2.0 . Baltimore, 1997. As the definitive work on hypertext to date, this book describes the development, nature, and applications of hypertext, primarily in the period just prior to its use on the World Wide Web. Applying the critical theories of Deleuze and Guattari, Derrida, Barthes,...

Art

Art   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
3,767 words

...“because the supreme sorrow could not be portrayed by his brush” ( quoniam summum illum luctum penicillo non posset imitari ) (Cicero, Orator 21. 72–74). Quintilian, in his discussion of the place of memory ( memoria ) in the art of the orator ( Institutio oratoria 11.2.17–20; 21–22; 23–26) offers an account of the role of both mental images ( imagines ) and pictorial images ( picturae, simulacra ), the latter in the sense of artifacts produced for the purpose of arresting, holding onto the former. The focus in this case is on the mental image rather...

History

History   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
7,099 words

...(e.g., 12.25a–25b and 36.1). Diodorus Siculus , a Greek historian who was roughly contemporary with Sallust, complained about the number and length of the speeches that some historians inserted into their works, saying that they cause too great an interruption of the narrative (20.1.1–2.3). The classic example of a speechifying historian is Dionysius of Halicarnassus, who wrote in Greek and published the first book of his Roman Antiquities in 7 bce . Dionysius was also a literary critic, and in his essay On Thucydides (18.34–48), he makes it quite...

Homiletics

Homiletics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,354 words

...statement of neo-orthodox attack on rhetorical homiletics with brief survey of earlier German theorists. Buttrick, David . Homiletic: Moves and Structures . Philadelphia, 1987. Influential modern treatment with extensive bibliography. Fant, C. E., Jr. and W. M. Pinson, Jr. 20 Centuries of Great Preaching: An Encyclopedia of Preaching . 13 vols. Waco, Tex., 1971. Hirst, Russel . “ Ethos and the Conservative Tradition in Nineteenth-Century American Protestant Homiletics.” In Ethos: New Essays in Rhetorical and Critical Theory , edited by James S....

Occasion

Occasion   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,586 words

...and place of the event (see Cicero's Orator 71), which are all aspects of occasion. [ See Decorum .] The sophistic treatise known as Dissoi logoi or Dialexeis , which apparently dates from the beginning of the fourth century bce , enunciates a temporal kairotic ideal (2.20) as a general guide for human conduct. Alcidamas , a student of Gorgias, writes of rhetorical kairos primarily in its temporal sense. By contrast, his contemporary Isocrates ( 436–338 bce ), a student of both Gorgias and Prodicus, conceived of kairos in oratory as proper...

Stasis

Stasis   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,622 words

...” Philologus 108 (1964), pp. 80–101. Braet, Antoine C. “ Variationen zur Statuslehre von Hermagoras bei Cicero. ” Rhetorica 7 (1989), pp. 239–259. Braet, Antoine . “ The Classical Doctrine of Status and the Rhetorical Theory of Argumentation. ” Philosophy and Rhetoric 20 (1987), pp. 79–93. Braet, Antoine . De klassieke statusleer in modern perspectief. Een historisch-systematische bijdrage tot de argumentatieleer . Groningen, The Netherlands, 1984. Calboli Montefusco, Lucia . La dottrina degli “status” nella retorica greca e romana . Hildesheim,...

Contingency and Probability

Contingency and Probability   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
10,817 words

...a stability and regularity which is intrinsic to the nature of the thing which is the ground for the eikos proposition derived from that nature. A stabilized, but contingent (i.e., not necessary), fact can be known ( Metaphysics 1027a20–21), and it can even be used in a demonstrative syllogism ( Analytica priora 32b20 ff.). Obviously eikos is something relatively stabilized and knowable ( Analytica priora 70a4 ff.) and, as such, offers ground for reasonable inference to further knowledge. ( Grimaldi , 1980 , p. 62) Thus, one begins to read the...

Reception theory

Reception theory   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
3,991 words

...von Bunyan bis Beckett . Munich, 1972; The Implied Reader: Patterns of Communication in Prose Fiction from Bunyan to Beckett. Baltimore, 1974. Iser, Wolfgang . “ The Current Situation of Literary Theory: Key Concepts and the Imaginary. ” New Literary History 11 (1979), pp. 1–20. Jauss, Hans Robert . “ Paradigmawechsel in der Literaturwissenschaft. ” Linguistische Berichte 3 (1969), pp. 44–56. Jauss, Hans Robert . Kleine Apologie der ästhetischer Erfahrung . Konstanzer Universitätsreden 59. Constance, Germany, 1972. Jauss, Hans Robert . Toward an...

Speech

Speech   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
3,110 words

...practices in both the university and business environments, while it has greatly increased with the easy availability of electronic data retrieval systems, was not new to the second half of the twentieth century. W. Barnett Pearce , writing in Speech Communication in the 20th Century (edited by T. W. Benson , Carbondale, Ill., 1985, pp. 255–281) pays tribute to the work done earlier in the century before turning his attention to the massive amounts of research now available and concluding from that research that the power of the discipline lies in...

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