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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Busa

Busa   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

... Ethnic group of Nigeria. The Busa, also known as the Busagwe and the Busanse, primarily inhabit northwestern Nigeria , although some live in northeastern Benin . They speak a Niger-Congo language and are one of the Bariba peoples. Though population estimates vary widely, some 20,000 people consider themselves Busa. See also Ethnicity and Identity in Africa: An Interpretation ; Languages, African: An Overview...

Rodgers and Hammerstein

Rodgers and Hammerstein   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...20 July 2012). Hischak, Thomas S. The Rodgers and Hammerstein Encyclopedia . Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2007. Hsu, Alex. “The Harmonious Partnership of Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II.” MIT Angles 2011. http://mitangles.wordpress.com/hsu/ (accessed 20 July 2012). Most, Andrea. You’ve Got to Be Carefully Taught: The Politics of Race in Rodgers and Hammerstein's South Pacific . Theater Journal 52, no. 3 (2000): 307–337. http://muse.jhu.edu/login?%20auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/theatre_journal/v052/52.3most.html (accessed 20...

African Immigrants, Recent

African Immigrants, Recent   Reference library

John A. Arthur

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...2000. Martin, Daniel C., and Michael Hoefer. “Refugees and Asylees: 2008.” Annual Flow Report, June 2009. United States Office of Immigration Statistics, Policy Directorate, Department of Homeland Security. http://www.riwn.org/uploads/files/1248761397_DHS%20OIS%20Annual%20Flow%20Report%20Refugee%20and%20Asylees%202008.pdf . Owusu, Thomas Y. “The Role of Ghanaian Immigrant Associations in Toronto, Canada.” International Migration Review 34, no. 4 (2000): 1155–1181. John A....

Kpelle

Kpelle   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

... Ethnic group of West Africa; also known as Guerzé, Nguerze, Ngere, and Pele. The Kpelle primarily inhabit northern and central Liberia . Representing roughly 20 percent of the population, they are the largest single ethnic group in the country. Kpelle also live in Sierra Leone and in Guinea , where they are sometimes called the Guerzé. Their total population is about one million. They speak a Mande language. The patrilineal Kpelle have traditionally lived in several chiefdoms. Though chiefs settle disputes and perform political functions, the Poro...

Olajuwon, Hakeem

Olajuwon, Hakeem (1963–)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...averaging 20.6 points and 11.9 rebounds per game. Over the next decade, Olajuwon led the Rockets to two NBA titles ( 1993–1994 , 1994–1995 ), winning most valuable player ( MVP ) awards for the regular season ( 1993–1994 ) and for both championship finals. He also played in numerous All-Star games. In 1996 he was named one of the NBA’s fifty greatest players of all time. That same year, he played on the U.S. “Dream Team” that won gold at the Olympic Games. He is one of only thirty-one players in the history of the NBA to score more than 20,000 points in...

Cacheu, Guinea-Bissau

Cacheu, Guinea-Bissau   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...Guinea-Bissau The historic commercial center of present-day Guinea-Bissau. Shortly after the Portuguese first reached the Cacheu River in 1446 , lançados—Portuguese outcasts often married to African women—settled 20 kilometers (12 miles) upriver on the south bank, in the Cacanda region inhabited by Papei, Manjaco, and other peoples. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries Cacheu became a center for the trade in slaves from Kaabu and other areas, but relations among the Portuguese, lançados, and Africans were often rocky. Eventually, the Portuguese...

Kakwa

Kakwa   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...homeland was incorporated into Equitoria, a territory controlled by the Egyptian Khedive Isma’il until 1889 . The following year, much of the area became part of the Ugandan Protectorate. Currently, approximately 100,000 Kakwa live in Uganda, while another 40,000 live in Sudan and 20,000 reside in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Kakwa villages have traditionally been organized around a core of related men and their wives, and governed by councils of elders. Rural Kakwa depend primarily on agriculture for subsistence and income—corn, millet, and cassava...

Koumbi Saleh, Mauritania

Koumbi Saleh, Mauritania   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...Muslim traders prayed in the dozen mosques. A large main street twelve meters (forty feet) wide ran the length of this settlement. A distinct, Soninké-dominated royal compound, less well built, probably existed ten kilometers (six miles) from the main town. Approximately 15,000 to 20,000 people probably lived at Koumbi Saleh at its peak, when the town prospered from the sale of gold and slaves to trans-Saharan traders. Sources state that the Almoravid Berbers destroyed the royal town in 1076 . The Almoravids may have brought Muslim rule to ancient Ghana ....

Lilongwe, Malawi

Lilongwe, Malawi   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...house in Lilongwe, he continued to reside in the presidential palace in Blantyre. With a population of 922,894 ( 2009 estimate), Lilongwe is the second largest city in Malawi after Blantyre. In the 2000s, Lilongwe has been a center for the HIV/AIDS epidemic, with an estimated 20 percent of the population considered HIV-positive. See also Indian Communities in Africa ; Urbanism and Urbanization in Africa . Bibliography Cole-King, P. A. Lilongwe: A Historical Study. Government Press, 1971. Ari...

Malabo, Equatorial Guinea Malabo, Equatorial Guinea

Malabo, Equatorial Guinea Malabo, Equatorial Guinea   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Current Version:
2010

...Isabel in 1843 , the town served as the administrative and commercial center of Spain’s only colony in sub-Saharan Africa; it became best known as “death’s waiting room,” because of the oppressive tropical climate and disease. By 1960 the town’s population had reached nearly 20,000. But after Equatorial Guinea’s independence in 1968 , there was a rapid departure of 7,000 Spanish residents. Following years of dictatorial rule, this exodus nearly destroyed the town’s economy, which had been sustained primarily by a small fishing industry, a distillery, and...

Mozambican National Resistance

Mozambican National Resistance   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...of support, due to their disaffection with the ruling party Front for the Liberation of Mozambique ( FRELIMO )’s socialist policies. Despite waning South African support (due to international pressure and domestic reform), by the late 1980s RENAMO numbered between 15,000 and 20,000 troops and had brought the Mozambican government to its knees. Negotiations concluded with a 1992 ceasefire and demobilization, and by the national elections in 1994 RENAMO had transformed itself into a political party and the primary opposition in Mozambique’s new...

Namib Desert

Namib Desert   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...in the world. Some parts of the Namib Desert are spectacularly scenic. The Sossusvlei region, located in the Namib-Naukluft National Park, is known for its huge sand dunes, some of which rise as much as 60 to 240 m high (about 200 to 800 ft) and span 16 to 32 km long (about 10 to 20 mi). The Namib-Naukluft National Park is also home to the Naukluft Mountains and Sesriem Canyon. Robert...

Sukuma

Sukuma   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...they were expected to grow export crops such as tea and coffee. At first resentful, the Sukuma later excelled at commercial farming under British colonial rule and grew prosperous from sales of cotton, tobacco, and grain crops. Today Sukumaland, which covers over 52,000 sq km (20,000 sq mi), continues to be one of the most important farming areas in Tanzania. The Sukuma have a rich oral literature and engage in many dance rituals. The Sukuma are the largest ethnic group in Tanzania, with an estimated 5.5 million members. See also Bantu: Dispersion and...

Alcatraz Island, Occupation of (1969)

Alcatraz Island, Occupation of (1969)   Reference library

Kent Blansett

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Island, Occupation of (1969) On 20 November 1969 , more than eighty American Indians from the organization Indians of All Tribes (IAT) claimed Alcatraz, an island in San Francisco Bay, as Indian land by right of discovery. The occupation lasted a total of nineteen months as thousands of indigenous people from all across the Americas made their collective stand for treaty and human rights on Alcatraz. Two of the most important leaders for the IAT were college students: Richard Oakes, an Akwesasne Mohawk from San Francisco State College, and LaNada...

Servicemen’s Readjustment Act

Servicemen’s Readjustment Act   Reference library

William M. Tuttle Jr.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...or “GI Bill,” as it is commonly known, authorized payments for tuition, books, and living expenses for up to four years of college or vocational school, low-interest mortgages for homeowners, loans for veterans to buy farms and start businesses, and a “readjustment allowance” of $20 per week while veterans sought employment. In important ways, the GI Bill shaped the economic and social history of postwar America . More than a million veterans enrolled in colleges in 1946 —half of that year’s total enrollment. By 1956 , almost 10 million men and women had...

Carter, Elliott

Carter, Elliott (1908)   Reference library

Caroline Reyes

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...a term often associated with Carter's compositions, although not coined by the composer himself. Although rhythmic ratios of 3 to 2 are frequently present in music from the common practice period, Carter extends this idea to ratios as complex as 7 to 3, 8 to 3, 15 to 8, and 21 to 20. Although these small-scale rhythmic complexities are distinctive in his compositions, Carter's works are also characterized by large-scale temporal elements inspired by his view of other modernist music as “static.” [ See also Copland, Aaron ; Ives, Charles ; and Music . ]...

Falwell, Jerry

Falwell, Jerry (1933–2007)   Reference library

Loren A. Broc

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Baptist Church, remaining its pastor until his death. That same year he began The Old-Time Gospel Hour , which became a nationwide radio and television ministry; in 1971 he founded a college that grew to become Liberty University. By 2011 his church claimed a membership of 20,000, and the university claimed an enrollment of over 60,000 residential and online students. Falwell's larger significance for American religion and culture, however, lies in his political activism, which sought to bring the fundamentalist community out of the self-imposed social...

Knopf, Alfred A.

Knopf, Alfred A. (1892–1984)   Reference library

Beth Luey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...1960 , Alfred and Blanche sold their company to Random House. [ See also Advertising ; Cather, Willa ; Hofstadter, Richard ; Hughes, Langston ; Literature ; Mencken, H. L. ; and Print Culture . ] Bibliography Hellman, G. “Publisher: Alfred A. Knopf.” The New Yorker 24 (20, 27 November, 4 December 1948). Madison, Charles A. Book Publishing in America. New York: McGraw–Hill, 1966. Beth...

Austin, Mary

Austin, Mary (1868–1934)   Reference library

Kyhl Lyndgaard

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...books and two hundred articles. Born Mary Hunter in Illinois, Austin seems to have experienced a childhood as conventional as her later years were unconventional. The loss of her father and a sister brought great changes, leading to a homesteading attempt in California at age 20. Including The Land of Little Rain , Austin's early work centered on traditional lifeways in the American West; examples are the novel The Flock ( 1906 ), the story collection Lost Borders ( 1909 ), and the play The Arrow-Maker ( 1911 ). She first engaged with the literary...

Quine, W. V. O.

Quine, W. V. O. (1908–2000)   Reference library

Lars Enden

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

.... ] Bibliography Quine, W. V. O. From a Logical Point of View . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1980. Quine, W. V. The Time of My Life: An Autobiography . Cambridge, Mass.: Bradford Books, 1985. Willard Van Orman Quine . http://www.wvquine.org/ (accessed December 20, 2011). Quine's official home page, maintained by his son, Douglas Quine. Lars...

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