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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Èshù

Èshù   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
950 words
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1

...Many-Colored Cap? Transformations of Eshu in Old and New World Mythologies .” Journal of American Folklore 100 (1987): 261–275. Owomoyela, Oyekan . “ Tortoise Tales and Yoruba Ethos .” Research in African Literatures 20, no. 2 (1989): 165–180. Pemberton, John . “ Eshu-Elegba: The Yoruba Trickster God .” African Arts 9, no. 1 (1975): 20–27, 66–70, 90–92. Phillips Stevens...

Boulaga, Fabien Eboussi

Boulaga, Fabien Eboussi   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,172 words

...vocabulary” the philosophy underlying their being, behaviors and anthropological objects (art, oral literature, etc.), and “it is we who are able to tell them in a precise manner what their intimate conception of beings is” as claimed by Tempels ( La Philosophie bantoue , pp. 20–21), this whole ontology is an incoherent “description” of an inconsistent, if not inexistent reality. If Tempels’s claim is right, then between Bantu “mythical thinking” and its understanding or systematization by Tempels there is no objective or intellectual mediation to...

Clarke, John Henrik

Clarke, John Henrik   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

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Current Version:
2010

...Howard University Press, 1974. Schomburg, Arthur . “The Negro Digs Up His Past.” In The New Negro: An Interpretation , edited by Alain Locke . New York: A. and C. Boni, 1925. Thomas, Robert McG . “John Henrik Clarke, Black Studies Advocate, Dies at 83.” New York Times (July 20, 1998): A13. Wells, H. G . The Outline of History . London: Cassell, 1920. Justin J....

Robeson, Paul

Robeson, Paul   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,009 words
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1

...awards while he was alive. Three decades after his death, he has received more than 500 prestigious posthumous awards. The least known aspect of Robeson’s ingenuity is his linguistics breakthrough. As a brilliant scholar of languages and world cultures, Robeson spoke more than 20 languages, including a number of African languages, Arabic, Chinese, German, Russian, and Yiddish. An accomplished musicologist, he discovered common links in music through the pentatonic scale—a five-tone scale characteristic of both Chinese and African traditional music. He also...

Art History and Criticism

Art History and Criticism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,378 words

...in Gauguin’s emphasis on the Tahitian body and landscapes, as opposed to Picasso’s fascination with “magical” African artifacts. William Rubin wrote extensively on Picasso and the Primitivism movement in the two-volume catalogue for his major 1984–1985 exhibition Primitivism in 20th Century Art: Affinity of the Tribal and the Modern. Ultimately, Picasso’s impressions of African artifacts were based solely on seeing the artifacts at the Trocadero, detached from functional meaning, authorship, and cultural context. Indeed, in early museums such as the...

Cabral, Amilcar

Cabral, Amilcar   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,127 words

...by the overcoming or correct solution of the internal contradictions between the various categories categorizing this reality.” To highlight his point, Cabral pointed out to the audience that the success of the Cuban Revolution in 1959 proved the validity of his theory. On 20 February 1970 , Cabral delivered a lecture titled “National Liberation and Culture” at Syracuse University as part of the Eduard Mondlane Memorial Lecture Series. According to Cabral, imperialism can only be maintained by the “permanent, organized repression of the cultural life...

Ibeji

Ibeji   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,103 words
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1

...some cases they are dressed in garments that mirror honorific adult attire. They are tucked into wrappers and taken to market. They are danced with a mixture of devoted tenderness and bowed reverence. Carved from the anointed wood of the ire tree, ere ibeji range in height from 20 to 30 centimeters. In form, they are typically stocky and frontally oriented, with their arms carved at their sides and their feet attached to a rounded base. Their proportions, consistent with other kinds of Yoruba sculpture, emphasize the head as the locus of the soul and the...

Pan-Africanism

Pan-Africanism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,198 words
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...Esedebe, P . Pan-Africanism: The Idea and Movement, 1776–1991 . 2d ed. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1994. Protocol Relating to the Establishment of the Peace and Security Council of the African Union, http://www.africa-union.org/root/AU/organs/psc/Protocol_peace%20and%20security.pdf , 2002. Jeffrey...

Autocracy and Authoritarianism

Autocracy and Authoritarianism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,415 words

...and the Third Term Agenda: Nigeria’s Democracy at the Crossroads .” The Constitution: A Journal of Constitutional Development 6, no. 3 (2006): 57–77. Omotola, Shola J . “ Explaining Succession and Legitimacy Crisis in Africa: Colonialism Revisited .” Research for Development 20, no. 2 (2004): 67–98. Omotola, Shola J . “‘ Garrison’ Democracy in Nigeria: The 2007 General Elections and the Prospects of Democratic Consolidation .” Commonwealth and Comparative Politics 47, no. 2 (2009): 194–220. Omotola, Shola J . “ Political Globalization and Citizenship:...

Berber

Berber   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,135 words

...script called Tifinagh. Berbers claim not only their ancient territory from Egypt to the Atlantic, but a large diaspora in Europe and the Americas as well. They encompass sizeable linguistic groups: up to 40 percent of the population of Morocco; 30 percent for Algeria; up to 20 percent each for Tunisia and Libya; and 2 percent for Egypt. Thamazigt speakers are found from Senegal to Chad, Mali to Burkina Faso, and in part of the Afro-Asiatic family that includes Semitic, Cushitic, Ancient Egyptian, and Hausa. Genetic evidence situates them on the continent...

Creole, Créolité

Creole, Créolité   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,014 words

... 37, no. 1 (2004): 19–26. Bernabé, Jean , Patrick Chamoiseau, and Raphaël Confiant . “ In Praise of Creoleness ” ( Eloge de la Créolité ). Callaloo 13, no. 4 (1990): 886–909. Jourdan, C . “ Pidgins and Creoles: The Blurring of Categories .” Annual Review of Anthropology 20 (1991): 187–209. Stoddard, Eve , and Grant H. Carrwell . “Cosmopolitan or Mongrel? Créolité , Hybridity and ‘Douglarisation’ in Trinidad.” European Journal of Cultural Studies 2, no. 3 (1999): 331–353. Taylor, Lucien . “ Créolité Bites: A Conversation with Patrick Chamoiseau,...

Dreams

Dreams   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,272 words

...Press, 1991. Charsley, Simon . “ Dreams and Purposes: An Analysis of Dream Narratives in an Independent African Church .” Africa 57, no. 3 (1987): 281–296. Curley, Richard T . “ Dreams of Power: Social Process in a West African Religious Movement .” Africa 53, no. 3 (1983): 20–38. Dillon-Malone, Clive . “ Mutumwa Nchimi Healers and Wizardry Beliefs in Zambia .” Social Science and Medicine 26, no. 11 (1988): 1159–1172. Jedrej, M. C. , and Rosalind Shaw , eds. Dreaming, Religion and Society in Africa . Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1992. Jung,...

Eurocentrism

Eurocentrism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,281 words

...in Africa: The Nigerian Experience . Aldershot, U.K.; Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate, 2006. Pierterse, J. N . White on Black: Images of Africa in Western Popular Culture . New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992. van Lave, T . The World Revolution in Westernization: The 20th Century in Global Perspective . New York: Oxford University Press, 1987. Jeremiah I....

Gordimer, Nadine

Gordimer, Nadine   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,064 words

...racial belonging. The struggles to implement this system by the Afrikaner political elite and the persistent attempts at resisting and subverting this system are what dominate the themes and style of Nadine Gordimer’s writings. Nadine Gordimer was born to Isidore and Nan Gordimer 20 November 1923 in Springs, South Africa. She was schooled at the Convent of Our Lady of Mercy and studied for a year at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. Among her earliest writings are Face to Face , a collection of short stories that was published in 1949 ,...

Harris, William Wadé

Harris, William Wadé   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,354 words

...from America. After his release in 1913 , Harris walked barefoot to Cote d’Ivoire, where he found a receptive audience. Within a year, he baptized 100,000 to 120,000 people, whereas the Catholic mission, despite official sponsorship, was only able to baptize 400 Africans in 20 years. Many Africans, who resented Govenor Angoulant’s pacification methods and were bewildered by the social and economic changes introduced by the imposition of French rule, embraced Harris’s message to abandon the gods that had failed them and the fetishes and charms of their...

Mazrui, Ali

Mazrui, Ali   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,320 words

...18 March 2006, p.7; 4 March 2006, p.7. Sunday Nation (Nairobi, Kenya), 19, February 2006, p.12; 7, October 2001, p.19; 28, January 2001, p.17; 24, September 2000, p.8; September 26, 1999, p.10; 13, December 1998, “Lifestyle”, p. 4; 6, September 1998, p.14; 6, October 1991, p.7; 20, November 1994, p.12. Kenneth S. Ombongi and Marcel...

Sacrifice

Sacrifice   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,196 words

...sacrifice to their God alone or through intermediary spirits. There is common agreement, however, that one’s God is the ultimate recipient of sacrificial offerings. [ See also Divination .] Bibliography Adewale, S. A. “ Sacrifice in African Traditional Religion .” Ibadan 20, no. 2 (1988): 91–106. “ God and Sacrifice in the Traditional Religion of the Kasena and Dagaba of Northern Ghana .” Journal of Religion in Africa 11, no. 3 (1980): 172–187. Idowu, E. Bolagi . Olodumare: God in Yoruba Belief . London: Longmans, 1962. Mbiti, John S . African...

Sodipo, J. Olubi

Sodipo, J. Olubi   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,256 words

...Philosophie in der modernen Welt: Gedenkschrift fur Prof. Dr. med. Dr. phil , edited by Alwin Diemer . Frankfurt and New York: Peter Lang, 1988. Sodipo, J. Olubi . “ Notes on the Concepts of Cause and Change in Yoruba Traditional Thought .” Second Order 2, no. 2 (July 1973): 12–20. Sodipo, J. Olubi . “Philosophy, Science, Technology and African Traditional Thought.” In Philosophy and Cultures , edited by H. O. Oruka and D. A. Masolo . Nairobi, Kenya: Bookwise Publishers, 1983. Sodipo, J. Olubi . “Some Philosophical Aspects of the African Historical...

Tribe

Tribe   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,062 words

...eds. Au Coeur de l’Ethnie: Ethnies, Tribalisme et État en Afrique . Paris: Decouverte, 1985. Asad, Talal , ed. Anthropology and the Colonial Encounter . New York: Humanities Press, 1973. Dubow, Saul . “ Ethnic Euphemisms and Racial Echoes .” Journal of Southern African Studies 20, no. 3 (1994): 355–370. Ekeh, Peter . “ Social Anthropology and Two Contrasting Uses of Tribalism in Africa .” Comparative Studies in Society and History 32, no. 4 (1990): 660–700. Evans-Pritchard, Edward . The Nuer: A Description of the Modes of Livelihood and Political...

Democracy

Democracy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
3,620 words

...such as Omar Bongo (41 years in power), Muammar Gaddafi (39), Gnassingbe Eyadema (38), Eduardo Dos Santos (28), Robert Mugabe (28), Hosni Mubarak (27), Yoweri Museveni (22), Paul Biya (25), Denis Sassou Nguesso (20), Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali (21), King Makhosetive Mswati (21), Lansana Conte (20), Milton Obote (15), Idi Amin , Kibaki , and Nunjoma , among others. Despite the shortcomings of democracy in Africa, it is characterized by constitutional rule and periodic elections. This means that the constitution must be the...

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