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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Historiography in the Maghrib in the 19th and early 20th Century

Historiography in the Maghrib in the 19th and early 20th Century   Reference library

Sahar Bazzaz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
7,518 words

...in the Maghrib in the 19th and early 20th Century Literary Forms and Historical Consciousness in the Maghrib Before European Ascendance in the Maghrib. Historical literary production in the Maghrib extends back to the 12th century ce ( 7th century ah ) and comprises a rich corpus including dynastic chronicles ( tarikh ), biographies ( tarajim ), and hagiographies ( manaqib / rijjal ). Before the rise of a positivist historical tradition in the 20th century , Maghribi historiography was modeled upon a narrative form associated with the...

Newspapers as Sources for African History

Newspapers as Sources for African History   Reference library

Emma Hunter

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
10,862 words

...the first half of the 20th century , was small-scale, artisanal production. 36 By the mid- 20th century , however, new technology and injections of capital saw some newspapers appear in mass-produced form. 37 By the end of the 20th century , many newspapers were producing online editions, which opened up new potential to address distant audiences more quickly. The content of newspapers was shaped by copyright regimes and by the wider political context and material conditions in which editors operated. Editors in 19th - and early 20th-century Africa made...

Interactions among Precolonial Foragers, Herders, and Farmers in Southern Africa

Interactions among Precolonial Foragers, Herders, and Farmers in Southern Africa   Reference library

James R. Denbow

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
11,802 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Kari. “Kalahari Archaeology and the Bushman Debate.” Current Anthropology 38, no. 1 (1997): 104–112. Sadr, Kari. “Invisible Herders? The Archaeology of Khoekhoe Pastoralists.” Southern African Humanities 20 (2008): 179–203. Smith Andrew B. “Pastoral Origins at the Cape, South Africa: Influences and Arguments.” Southern African Humanities 20 (2008): 49–60. Wilmsen, Ed , and J. Denbow . “Paradigmatic History of San-Speaking Peoples and Current Attempts at Revision.” Current Anthropology 31, no. 5 (1990): 489–524. Linguistics Bostoen, Koen , and B...

Business Records as Sources for African History

Business Records as Sources for African History   Reference library

Dmitri van den Bersselaar

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
10,806 words

...to beyond the Millennium,” Journal of the South African Society of Archivists 45 (2012): 87; A. G. Tough , “The First Two Years of an Industrial Archive in a Developing Country,” Business Archives 46 (1980): 20–24; and Peter C. Mazikana , “The Management of Business Records and Archives in Zimbabwe,” Business Archives 63 (1992): 13–20. 64. This service was formerly known as Access to Archives (A2A). Dmitri van den Bersselaar 1. Geoffrey Jones , Multinationals and Global Capitalism: From the Nineteenth to the Twenty-First Century (Oxford: Oxford...

Ceramics, Foodways, and Consumption: Methods

Ceramics, Foodways, and Consumption: Methods   Reference library

Liza Gijanto

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
8,209 words
Illustration(s):
2

...DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1998), 20. 7. Technical style as defined by archaeologists involves all of the decisions made by the potter including clay and temper selection, the method used to construct the pot, how the pot is fired, and the decoration applied. 8. Susan Keech McIntosh , Excavations at Jenne-Jeno, Hambarketolo, and Kaniana (Inland Niger Delta, Mali), the 1981 Season (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), 212. 9. Frank, Mande Potters and Leatherworkers , 20. 10. Dean E. Arnold , Ceramic Theory and...

Numerical Data and Statistical Sources

Numerical Data and Statistical Sources   Reference library

Leigh Gardner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
9,648 words
Illustration(s):
2

...geographical variation and subnational inequalities in economic and political structures across the continent. This work has revealed a much more comprehensive quantitative picture of Africa’s history. Some lost corners still remain, and coverage has been uneven. The 19th and 20th centuries receive the most detailed analysis owing to the availability of data. 7 Some efforts to extrapolate backward remain controversial. Quantitative research relies heavily on records collected by colonial institutions and has been dominated by the study of British and...

South African Historical Writing to the End of the Apartheid Era

South African Historical Writing to the End of the Apartheid Era   Reference library

Christopher Saunders

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
7,107 words

...their successors well into the 20th century , the Great Trek and then the wars against the British in the late 19th century loomed large. The Afrikaners were presented as a people who had had to struggle to survive against the hostile forces of the perfidious British, the forces of nature, and the barbarous, untrustworthy indigenous peoples. Alongside this highly polemical writing, a more sober and scholarly tradition of history-writing, first in Dutch, then Afrikaans, began at the University of Stellenbosch in the early 20th century , by historians...

Stone Tools: Their Relevance for Historians and the Study of Historical Processes

Stone Tools: Their Relevance for Historians and the Study of Historical Processes   Reference library

Justin Pargeter

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
8,737 words
Illustration(s):
5

...Late- 19th - and early- 20th-century approaches emphasized “evolutionary” sequences among lithic assemblages. 31 Prior to the 1960s, major research questions in stone-tool studies were largely culture-history oriented. 32 They focused on describing similarities and differences among stone-tool industries and other archaeologically constructed entities. 33 Research in the mid- 20th century focused on categorical variation among stone tools, their assemblage structure, and sources of change and variability. 34 Later 20th-century research placed...

Environmental History and Historiography

Environmental History and Historiography   Reference library

Emmanuel Kreike

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
19,618 words

...to fears about a population explosion. 27 By the late 20th century , Africa became known as the “last wilderness continent.” Botanists and bio-prospectors roamed forest trails and queried traditional healers in a search for miracle plants. Nineteenth-and 20th-century descriptions of dense tropical forests, expansive savannas teeming with game, and expeditions to discover “missing link” populations of pristine Stone Age hunter/gatherers fed the image of Africa as wild and unspoiled. 28 In the late 20th century and early 21st century , Africa’s disease...

African Diasporas: History and Historiography

African Diasporas: History and Historiography   Reference library

Mohammed Bashir Salau

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
12,895 words

...term diaspora have either focused on a few internal African diasporas such as the Fula, Hausa, and Bornu diasporas, or on New World returnees. 45 , 46 While some works on the internal New African diasporas focus on the period before the 20th century , others place more emphasis on examining the period from the early 20th century to about the 1980s. Some scholars who focus on the latter period have addressed the struggles of the “more localized Afro-Americans” or have explored the cross-continental interrelations that shape modern African American life in...

Anthropology and the Study of Africa

Anthropology and the Study of Africa   Reference library

Jessica Johnson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
8,803 words

...the same is true elsewhere in Africa, Europe, and North America. Contemporary Anthropology of Africa. While it is possible, if perhaps ill-advised, to give a coherent account of the development of anthropology in Africa up to the mid- 20th century , it soon becomes an impossible task. Anthropology of Africa from the late 20th century onward is a diverse field, fractured into subdisciplines and regional specialisms. Anthropologists working in Africa today take their inspiration from a broad range of theoretical schools and engage to greater and lesser...

Africa in the World: History and Historiography

Africa in the World: History and Historiography   Reference library

Esperanza Brizuela-Garcia

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
9,468 words

...this long process of violent exchange resulted in the consolidation of ideas about Africa that emphasized the continent’s isolation and sociocultural backwardness, many of which were useful in the justification of European conquest and colonization of the African continent in the 20th century . 4 During the 19th century , the writing of history underwent a process that ultimately established its credentials as a discipline focused on the scientific exploration of the human experience. Writers of history became professional historians who were expected to receive...

Heritage and the Use of the Past in East Africa

Heritage and the Use of the Past in East Africa   Reference library

John Giblin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
14,165 words

...political elites have constructed versions of the past to suit contemporary and future aims for hundreds of years. It then outlines the colonial introduction of formalized Western heritage institutions and legislation in the early 20th century , the subsequent nationalization of these in the mid- 20th century , and the late- 20th - and early- 21st-century internationalization of heritage. These overviews are followed by a discussion of different approaches to heritage research including early studies of museums, traditions, heritage management,...

Quantitative Methods and Economic Statistical Sources for African History

Quantitative Methods and Economic Statistical Sources for African History   Reference library

Morten Jerven

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
12,951 words

...from African and Comparative Economic History,” Journal of International Development 20, no. 8 (2008): 996–1027 . 14. Hopkins, “New Economic History”; and Austin, “Reversal of Fortune Thesis,” 998. 15. Hopkins, “New Economic History,” 175. 16. Austin, “Reversal of Fortune Thesis,” 998, emphasis added. 17. Austin, “Reversal of Fortune Thesis,” 1019. 18. Austin, “Reversal of Fortune Thesis,” 997. 19. Hopkins, “New Economic History,” 177. 20. James Fenske, “The Causal History of Africa: A Response to Hopkins,” Economic History of...

Ethnographic Analogy in Archaeology: Methodological Insights from Southern Africa

Ethnographic Analogy in Archaeology: Methodological Insights from Southern Africa   Reference library

Mark McGranaghan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
14,144 words
Illustration(s):
3

...are made more explicit. For many early- 20th-century scholars, the assumption of the naturalness of the “art” category was sufficient in and of itself to explain the presence of practices that could—self-evidently—be described as “artistic.” This issue was perhaps particularly emphasized in southern Africa, where several rock art traits (such as countershading and naturalism) overlapped with those of western European “fine” art traditions. Art pour l’art (or art for art’s sake) explanations used these 19th - and 20th-century European traditions as a...

Reading the Archives as Sources

Reading the Archives as Sources   Reference library

David M. Gordon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
8,820 words

...archive is a set of discursive constructions that underlie the appearance of a linguistic reality. 5 Literary scholars of imperialism, such as Thomas Richards, have used the term archive to denote the imaginative constructions and forms of knowledge that underpinned 19th - and 20th-century European empires. 6 For the purposes of this article, a more conservative definition of archive familiar to historians is employed. Archives here are limited to institutional—that is, governmental and non-governmental—collections of documents. These may include digital...

The Dar es Salaam School of African History

The Dar es Salaam School of African History   Reference library

Gregory H. Maddox

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
7,736 words

...debates about the policy failures of ujamaa , it proved “successful politics” that “created as their context a robust sense of Tanzanian nationhood.” 20 Perhaps no historical topic exemplified the nationalist approach to history more than the issue of resistance to colonial domination and specifically the connections between resistance to conquest and the development of anticolonial nationalism in the 20th century . The Maji Maji uprising of 1905 inspired one of the most significant research projects associated with the school. Under the direction of...

Material Culture as a Historical Source

Material Culture as a Historical Source   Reference library

Robert Ross

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
11,023 words
Illustration(s):
1

...culture among her subjects. 16 In contrast to this were those who were concerned with questions concerning the adaptation European lifestyles by the African colonial elite. 17 Each of these approaches contains its own biases, which have to be taken into account. As the 20th century progressed, an increasing amount of effort and money was spent on advertising aimed at the African market, in a variety of colonial and postcolonial settings. For instance, from the early 1950s, there were three major monthly magazines in South Africa that targeted...

Christian History and Historiography

Christian History and Historiography   Reference library

Joel Cabrita

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
9,749 words

...evil spirits—that owed nothing to foreign missionary influence. 64 Prosperity and Healing in Africa. The success of these home-grown Pentecostal-Charismatic churches is best understood within the turbulent political context of the late 20th century and the early 21st century . The last decades of the 20th century saw the prevalent power of many autocratic regimes displaced by a “second democratic revolution,” in which more than half of sub-Saharan African states initiated political reforms and moved toward multiparty democracy. 65 But the...

Travelers’ Accounts as Sources

Travelers’ Accounts as Sources   Reference library

Adam Jones

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
7,053 words
Illustration(s):
3

...as valid unless it was proved otherwise.” She illustrates this with the case of the so-called Bush King, first described by a missionary in 1856 in connection with an annual cycle of ceremonies and thereafter mentioned repeatedly, at first by other visitors and then, in the mid- 20th century , by anthropologists and Dahomeyan scholars. The concept of a Bush King, she notes, fitted “comfortably” with Dahomey’s ideology of doubling, yet oral traditions suggest that there never existed a real person with this office. Historians of Africa should heed Bay’s...

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