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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Granvelle, Antoine Perrenot De

Granvelle, Antoine Perrenot De (1517–1586)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
390 words

...Antoine Perrenot De ( 1517–1586 ), French prelate and adviser to Philip II of Spain. Born in Besançon on 20 August 1517 , he was the son of Nicholas Perrenot de Granvelle, a leading counsellor of Emperor Charles V . Educated at Padua and Louvain, Antoine Perrenot was appointed bishop of Arras in 1538 and served the emperor and his son Philip II in various capacities until 1560 . In that year Philip made Perrenot archbishop of Mechelen, which meant that, under the king's new program of church reform, he would be primate of the Netherlands....

Hooper, John

Hooper, John (1555)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
362 words

...). That account and the radical reforms that Hooper advocated by personal example and through his writings all contributed to his reputation as a hero of the English Puritan movement. Primary Sources Hooper, John . Early Writings . Edited by Samuel Carr . Parker Society, vol. 20. Reprint, New York, 1968. ——. Later Writings . Edited by Charles Nevison . Parker Society, vol. 21. Reprint, New York, 1968. Secondary Source Foxe, John . Acts and Monuments . Edited by S. R. Cattley , 4th rev. and corr. ed. by J. Pratt . London, 1877. Contains a stirring...

Querini, Vincenzo

Querini, Vincenzo (1479–1514)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
376 words

...In Miscellanea Giovanni Mercati , vol. 4, pp. 407–424. Vatican City, 1946. Minnich, Nelson , and Elisabeth G. Gleason . Vocational Choices: An Unknown Letter of Pietro Querini to Gasparo Contarini and Niccolo Tiepolo, April, 1512 . Catholic Historical Review 75 (1989), 1–20. Useful bibliography. Elisabeth G....

Böhme, Jakob

Böhme, Jakob (1575–1624)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
843 words

...succeeded in expressing his lucid spiritual experience with great vigor and prophetic authority. His main works are Beschreibung der Drey Principien Göttliches Wesens ( De Tribus Principiis ; 1619 ), Von dem Dreyfachen Leben des Menschen ( De Triplici Vita Hominis ; 1619/20 ), Von der Menschwerdung Jesu Christi ( De Incarnatione Verbi ; 1620 ), Von der Geburt und Bezeichnung aller Wesen ( De Signatura Rerum ; 1621/22 ) and the two great works of his maturity, the tract Von der Gnaden-Wahl ( De Electione Gratiae ; 1623 ) and the extensive...

Charles IX of Sweden

Charles IX of Sweden (1550–1611)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
409 words

...Sweden (r. 1599–1611 ). His importance in the prolonged and often convoluted history of the Reformation in Sweden lies in three areas: his resistance to the Catholic tendencies of his brother, John III , and his nephew, Sigismund I ; his roles in the Uppsala Meeting (25 February- 20 March 1593 ), which defined the liturgical forms and confessional position of the church in Sweden; and his battles with the clergy over a variety of issues following the success of the revolution against Sigismund in 1598/99 , which left Charles first regent and subsequently king...

Cruciger, Caspar

Cruciger, Caspar (1504–1548)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
478 words

...Aus Quellen erzählt . Leipzig, 1862. There being no modern biography, Pressel and Schmidt continue to serve as standard treatments of Cruciger's life and thought. Wengert, Timothy . Caspar Cruciger, 1504–1548: The Case of the Disappearing Reformer . Sixteenth Century Journal 20 (1989), 417–441. A careful rehabilitation of Cruciger's literary reputation, noting how subsequent generations attributed much of Cruciger's work to Melanchthon. Robert...

Dentière, Marie

Dentière, Marie (1561)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
424 words

.... The Religion of the ‘Femmelettes’. In That Gentle Strength , edited by L. Coon , K. Haldane , and E. Sommer . London, 1990, pp. 149–175. Rilliet, Albert , ed. La Guerre et deslivrance de la ville de Genesve . Mémoires de la Société d'Histoire et d'Archéologie de Genève, vol. 20. Geneva, 1881. Irena...

Grumbach, Argula Von

Grumbach, Argula Von (1490)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
502 words

...recipients allowed them to be published. They and her subsequent letters appeared in numerous editions in late 1523 and 1524 . Impressive are not only her courage but also her considerable knowledge of the Bible, from which she argued, though she read and wrote only German. On 20 September 1523 she addressed the theologians of the University of Ingolstadt, calling Seehofer's evangelical beliefs correct. She offered to appear before them and defend Luther's and Philipp Melanchthon 's teachings further. “Aren't you all ashamed,” she wrote, “that you have...

Herbertszoon, Hermannus

Herbertszoon, Hermannus (1540–1607)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
470 words

...to which these historians pointed. Berg, A. J. van den . Herman Herberts (ca. 1540–1607) in conflict met de gereformeerde kerk. In Kerkhistorische opstellen aangeboden aan prof. dr. J. van den Berg , edited by C. Augustijn , P. N. Holtrop , and G. H. M. Posthumus Meyjes , pp. 20–29. Kampen, 1987. Overview of Herbertszoon's life and his relevance to the history of Dutch Calvinism; includes references to source material. Hibben, C. C. Gouda in Revolt: Particularism and Pacifism in the Revolt of the Netherlands, 1572–1588 . Utrecht, 1983. Shows Herbertszoon...

Hergot, Hans

Hergot, Hans (1527)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
441 words

...by Michael Blum of Leipzig. In March 1527 two students had been arrested by the Leipzig city council for the same reason. The fugitive printer who had fled the city was to be arrested. Hergot was interrogated at the Court of Dresden and was executed as a rebel in Leipzig on 20 May 1527 , following a sentence of the Leipzig Council. “ Hans Hergot und die Flugschrift ‘Von der newen Wandlung eynes christlichen Lebens.’ Leipzig, 1977. Facsimile edition with annotations. Foreword by Max Steinmetz and appendix by Helmut Claus. Hoyer, Siegfried . Zu den...

Ickelshamer, Valentin

Ickelshamer, Valentin (1500?–1547)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
451 words

...and of the Schmalkald War. Nothing further is known about him. He died sometime in Augsburg during the second half of 1547 . Looß, Sigrid . Der Rothenburger Schulmeister Valentin Ickelshamer: Position und Leistung . Zeitschrift für bayrische Kirchengeschichte 60 (1991) 1–20. Provides a critical summary of the research to date and new sources on Ickelshamer's biography and works. Verzeichnis der im deutschen Sprachbereich erschienenen Drucke des XVI. Fahrhunderts . Stuttgart, 1983–. See vol. 9, nos. 24–35. Sigrid, Looß Translated from German by ...

Mitmánek, Václav

Mitmánek, Václav (c.1510–c.1553)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
465 words

... (History of Bohemia, 1526–1547). 2d ed. Prague, 1971. Critical analysis of Mitmánek's confessional policies 1539–1543. See especially pp. 197–206. Krofta, Kamil . “ Václav Mitmánek a Bratří” (Václav Mitmánek and the Czech Brethren) . Časopis Musea Království českého 91 (1917), 2–20, 143–156. A slightly one-sided apology of Mitmánek's relation to the Bohemian Brethren, minimizing the ideological differences between both parties. Krofta, Kamil , ed. Doktor Václav Mitmánek panu tatíkovi milému (Letters Written by Václav Mitmánek to His Father). Prague, 1931....

Naumburg, Declaration of

Naumburg, Declaration of   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
431 words

...Declaration of . Negotiated and signed by German Lutheran princes who met at Naumburg (Thuringia) from 20 January to 8 February 1561 , the Declaration of Naumburg was a product of the theological conflicts that agitated German Lutheranism during the second half of the sixteenth century. At Naumburg the princes were attempting to build consensus in their territories through resubscription to the Augsburg Confession. The princes were concerned about the continuing disagreements over theology, as well as Roman Catholic accusations that the Lutherans had...

Polanco, Juan Alonso De

Polanco, Juan Alonso De (1517?–1576)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
398 words

... 1573 , but his alleged Jewish ancestry and Gregory XIII 's desire that the new general not be another Spaniard probably worked against him; the electors chose a Belgian, Everard Mercurian . Dowling, Richard H. Juan de Polanco, S.J., 1517–1576 . Woodstock Letters 69 (1940), 1–20. Brief biography. Englander, Clara . Ignatius von Loyola und Johannes von Polanco: Der Ordensstifter und sein Sekretär . Regensburg, 1956. Studies the interaction of Loyola and Polanco. O'Malley, John W. The First Jesuits . Cambridge, Mass., 1993. Ravier, André . Ignatius of...

Acts of Supremacy

Acts of Supremacy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
686 words

...own all the honors, jurisdictions, authorities, profits, and dignities that belonged to the church. The 1534 act was one of a series of acts that established the Reformation in England. The way for the supremacy was prepared by the Act in Restraint of Annates (23 Henry VIII, c. 20), the Act in Restraint of Appeals (24 Henry VIII, c. 12), and the 1532 Submission of the Clergy, which was given statutory force by a further act (25 Henry VIII, c. 19). The Act of Supremacy borrowed the concept that England was an empire from the Act in Restraint of Appeals, a...

Campion, Edmund

Campion, Edmund (1540–1581)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
636 words

...disputations between Campion and leading Anglican controversialists (e. g., Alexander Nowell and William Whitacre). Throughout Campion was given no warning, permitted only a Bible for consultation, and allowed to respond only to objections raised by his opponents. Tried on 20 November on the charge of high treason, he was found guilty and sentenced to death. He was executed at Tyburn on 1 December. In the subsequent martyrologies published by the English Catholics to justify their cause and to embarrass the Elizabethan government, Campion was...

Heyden, Gaspar Van Der

Heyden, Gaspar Van Der (1530–1586)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
681 words

...was offered the cloister at Frankenthal (south of Worms) from Elector Frederick III of the Palatinate. Together with Dathenus, Heyden became pastor in Frankenthal. In the summer of 1566 he returned to the Netherlands. From Antwerp, where an iconoclastic riot had broken out on 20 August, Heyden went to the northern Flemish towns of Axel and Hulst. There he preached from 24 to 29 August and organized further iconoclastic riots. In Antwerp again he joined those resisting the drift of the Reformed toward the Augsburg Confession. After the failure of the...

Murner, Thomas

Murner, Thomas (1475–1537)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
530 words

...his works are believed to be his own. His literary roles as exorcist of fools ( Narrenbeschwörung , 1512 ), guildmaster of rogues and rascals ( Schelmenzunft , 1512 ), and critic of love-possessed women and men ( Mühle von Schwindelsheim , 1515 , and Gauchmatt , 1519/20 ) were inspired by Brant, but Murner is more provincial and realistic in his approach to human folly and more severe in his condemnation of it. In response to three major tracts of Luther ( 1520 ), Murner urged caution in the emphasis on scripture to the neglect of beliefs and...

Riethoven, Maarten Van

Riethoven, Maarten Van (1511–1583)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
674 words

...1565–1626 . Handelingen van het Genootschap voor Geschiedenis 50 (1963), 7–67. Has much to say about the role of Riethoven in establishing the first seminary, which set a pattern for so many others in the Low Countries. Schrevel, A. de. Rythovius. In Biographie Nationale , vol. 20, cols. 725–763. Brussels, 1908–1910. A relatively lengthy, informative sketch, in French. Verhoeven, P. H. Maarten van Riethoven, eerste bisschop van Ieper: Geschiedkundige levensschets . Wetteren, Belgium, 1961. The major biography of Riethoven, but it is hampered, as are all...

Schatzgeyer, Kaspar

Schatzgeyer, Kaspar (1463–1527)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
551 words

... Andreas Osiander over the Mass, prayers for the dead, and other Catholic rituals, as well as Osiander's personal attacks against him. That same year Schatzgeyer began to compose a larger work in Latin, Traductio Satanea , covering all disputed Catholic teachings. Only chapter 20, on predestination, remained unwritten at Schatzgeyer's death; the greater part was published in Latin and in German translation, as were most of the works. While missing their mark, in the sense that Schatzgeyer's conciliatory approach failed to reconcile Luther and the Catholic...

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