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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

20th century

20th century: 1900 - 1999  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...the peace conference in Paris, mainly concerned with the terms to be imposed on Germany, hold their first session Paris Peace Conference (1919–20) A Dictionary of Contemporary World History 3 First World War 1910s Politics War Europe France Wars since 1900 1919 1919 February - Hitler returns to Munich and in the prevailing mood of post-defeat resentment begins to take an interest in extremist politics Hitler, Adolf (b. 20 Apr. 1889) A Dictionary of Contemporary World History 3 First World War 1910s War Europe Germany Wars since 1900 1919 1919 February - the...

Industrialization

Industrialization   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,380 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...there was a major discontinuity in the form of population increase. Taking England and Wales alone, population rose from below 6.5 million in 1751 to almost 18 million in 1851 . The trebling of Britain's population in just over a century, if we take the figure to 1861 (20.1 million), seems the most startling parallel to economic growth. However, as has long been recognized, England and Wales did not possess the only rapidly increasing populations in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Other European populations were also growing,...

Viewing

Viewing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,051 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...manifestations of the ongoing debate over the nature and function of art exhibition and the social composition of its viewing public. The boisterous early years of the Society of Artists exhibition are a case in point. In 1761 their exhibition was so popular and their estimated 20,000 viewers so rambunctious that thirteen pounds and six shillings were laid out afterwards to repair windows broken during the show. In an attempt to regulate not only behaviour but also the class of people attending its show, the Society instituted a one-shilling admission fee...

Democracy

Democracy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,165 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...*policing, 7 ]. Violent protests and radical political agitation were most likely to occur in periods of crisis created by economic depression at home and revolution abroad. Bad harvests and industrial depression were particularly severe in the mid- and late-1790s, 1810–13 , 1816–20 , and 1829–32 , while the American and French *wars [2] produced high taxes, inflation, financial instability, and an economy distorted by wartime demands and commercial warfare. Soon after the end of the Napoleonic war in 1815 the economy went into recession, and stayed...

Natural Philosophy (Science)

Natural Philosophy (Science)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,186 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...study of nature and morality; but moral philosophy was also said to depend on observations and reasoning from experiments. Short, and circular, responses such as these immediately create unease, especially when the work, in the case of the Britannica , contained long articles (20–110 pages) on subjects such as astronomy, *botany , chemistry, mechanics, and optics. Indeed, the entries on ‘natural philosophy’ refer the reader to these articles on the various sciences. Hence the contemporary encyclopedias do not offer a simple account of the meaning of...

Antiquarianism (Popular)

Antiquarianism (Popular)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,164 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...thought to have been used as materials for sermons. Warton too dealt with the ‘Gesta’ in an appendix, though more decorously. A democratic ‘Citizen Shakespeare’ indeed made real headway in the 1790s, the decade of the *Boydell Shakespeare Gallery, a generous commercial *viewing [20] venture to give the public a worthy illustrated version of the national poet. With Steevens once more in charge of the text, the overall impact of the unfinished but widely dispersed project, abandoned in 1802 , was already Doucean, just as Douce's disaggregated Shakespeare...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,949 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...manuals, the *Royal Academy , and a small group of élite practitioners, patrons, and connoisseurs. During the following decades a middle-class, commercial cultural market revolutionized architectural media. New art periodicals like Elmes 's Annals of the Fine Arts ( 1816–20 ) and the Library of the Fine Arts ( 1831–2 ) published on architecture, as did more general magazines like the Quarterly Review , the Edinburgh Review , the Westminster Review , the Foreign Quarterly Review, Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine , the Athenaeum, Fraser's Magazine,...

Music

Music   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the mass of people, as it would a generation later [ see London *keyboards ]. Most aspects of musical life which we loosely associate with nineteenth-century Britain were similarly incipient or underdeveloped. Amateur choral societies, which began to flourish in most towns of 20,000 people or more by mid-century, were in 1830 thin on the ground and predominantly male: the Concert of Ancient Music, for example, still had a professional choir with boy trebles. Similarly the entirely male brass band ‘movement’ had scarcely begun [ see *military bands ]....

Painting

Painting   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,778 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Heinrich Ramberg and Pietro Martini which depicted that year's *Royal Academy exhibition at Somerset House, crowded with people and paintings. By this date the Academy, set up in 1768 , had already become Britain's most powerful institution of the visual arts [ see *viewing, 20 ]. As well as providing its forty full and twenty associate members with a prestigious institutional base, it also functioned as a school for a new generation of British painters, offering a range of classes in drawing, *architecture [28] , and anatomy to scores of enrolled...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,520 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...no doubt reflects the importance of courtship in the lives of the readers, and of marriage as the one sure means to economic survival for many. The average age of marriage for the majority of the lower orders in most of Britain (excluding Ireland) was quite late, around the mid-20s, and the extensive period during which courtship loomed large was reason enough for young women to want to read or consult fortune-tellers about the subject of marriage, and to be reassured that they could have recourse to supernatural help in seeing, or even finding, their future...

Prints

Prints   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,058 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and exploitation of new technologies and artificial attempts to confer value on new products. The lives of printmakers were, therefore, dominated by unstable hierarchies. Printmaking had itself a place, though a low one, within the hierarchy of the visual arts [ see *viewing, 20 ]. With the foundation of the *Royal Academy in 1768 , line-engravers hoped that they would achieve recognition and be allowed full membership within this self-proclaimed professional élite. This was denied to them on the grounds that they were ‘mechanics’ and not practitioners...

Revolution

Revolution   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,734 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...It was forced to conduct a mass mobilization, trebling the number of men in its armed forces from the highest total of the American war. It was also forced to expand the militia and to endorse the creation of a *volunteer force throughout the country. In 1803–4 something like 20 per cent of the adult male populations of the rural counties and 35 per cent of the more industrial and urban counties were enlisted in the volunteers. The result was a country in arms, with a substantial proportion of the British male public holding weapons, something which Pitt...

Slavery

Slavery   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,891 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to competition (though within the restrictions of contemporary *mercantilist ideals), led to a rush of slavers, investors, and associated British industries eager to satisfy the slave-owners's needs. In the first half of the eighteenth century, British slavers delivered some 20,000 Africans each year. For the rest of the century the figures rose to between 35,000 and 40,000 annually. Between the end of the Royal African Company's slave trading monopoly in 1698 and the abolition of the British trade in 1807 , perhaps 11,000 ships were dispatched from...

Utopianism

Utopianism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,929 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...human labour. Antipathy to urban growth had been a constant in utopian thought. More had commended the rotation of population between country and city, and as recently as the 1790s the Godwinian An Essay on Civil Government had proposed a limitation of cities to a population of 20,000. Owen's communities were to have only a few thousand inhabitants, and thus, he hoped, the sense of immediacy and intimacy of a village could be preserved. His communitarianism was thus chiefly rooted, like the agrarian ideals of Spence, William *Cobbett , and the great ...

War

War   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,919 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...resolve. In London the numbers could be truly enormous—200,000 watched the King review the volunteers in Hyde Park in 1803 . But the crowds were proportionately just as large in the provinces: 60,000 were said to have attended the Leeds ‘military festival’ in 1795 ; in Wiltshire 20,000 came to see colours presented to the local yeomanry regiment in 1798 . The sheer volume of counter-invasion propaganda, most of it directed at the lower orders, itself indicates the strength of the drive for mass mobilization. Moreover, the language and imagery of these...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...The dignity of labour was underlined not only by the fact that Christ had come to earth as a working man but also by a theology which posited a special relationship between God and the working classes. After Peterloo, a Halifax reformer had insisted in the Manchester Observer ( 20 November 1819 ) that ‘the Voice of the People is the Voice of God’ and that the ‘common people constitute the bulk and strength of the Kingdom’. By 1839 a more precise idea had developed: while God had created the earth as potential abundance, it was labour which actually turned...

Sensibility

Sensibility   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,039 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...attractions of shopping and commercialized entertainments such as balls, *masquerades , and *concerts drew women irresistibly out of the home into the newly ordered urban spaces, such as *pleasure gardens , *theatres [24] , and museums [ see *music, 26 and *viewing, 20 ]. Assemblies had begun to meet regularly in the earliest resort towns before 1700 , and soon weekly assemblies—for cards, dancing, and conversation—were being held in London and throughout the network of provincial towns. Here were public nodal points for women, debating...

Wilkes, John

Wilkes, John (1725–1797)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
931 words

...he was discharged on grounds of privilege as a member of Parliament, and he had the satisfaction of seeing the Court of Common Pleas declare unlawful the issuance of general warrants for searches of unspecified premises. He was nevertheless expelled from the House of Commons on 20 January 1764 , when its members rejected a claim that proceedings against him for libel had been in breach of parliamentary privilege. In his absence (he had crossed to the European continent in late 1763 ), Wilkes was outlawed on 1 November by the Court of King's Bench for...

Fonseca Pimental, Eleonora

Fonseca Pimental, Eleonora (1752–1799)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
551 words

...is, the intellectual and political relationship between institutional power and the working classes. Eleonora de Fonseca's presence on the front line during the months of the Neapolitan Revolution made it impossible for her to escape its aftermath. She was hanged on 20 August 1799 ; every witness remarked her serene composure while facing death. [See also Italy and Naples .] Croce, Benedetto . Eleonora de Fonseca Pimental e il Monitore. In La rivoluzione napoletana del 1799: Biografie, racconti, ricerche . Naples, 1998. The best history to...

Hippel, Theodor Gottlieb von

Hippel, Theodor Gottlieb von (1741–1796)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
700 words

...biography based on the archival sources available to the West before the opening of the archives in Eastern Europe. Lindemann-Stark, Anke , and Joseph Kohnen . Zwischen Vergessen und Wiederentdecken. Bibliographie zu Theodor Gottlieb v. Hippel . Das achtzehnte Jahrhundert 20.2 (1996), 197–220. The most up-to-date critical bibliography; includes primary sources. Isabel V....

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