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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Busa

Busa   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

... Ethnic group of Nigeria. The Busa, also known as the Busagwe and the Busanse, primarily inhabit northwestern Nigeria , although some live in northeastern Benin . They speak a Niger-Congo language and are one of the Bariba peoples. Though population estimates vary widely, some 20,000 people consider themselves Busa. See also Ethnicity and Identity in Africa: An Interpretation ; Languages, African: An Overview...

Kpelle

Kpelle   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

... Ethnic group of West Africa; also known as Guerzé, Nguerze, Ngere, and Pele. The Kpelle primarily inhabit northern and central Liberia . Representing roughly 20 percent of the population, they are the largest single ethnic group in the country. Kpelle also live in Sierra Leone and in Guinea , where they are sometimes called the Guerzé. Their total population is about one million. They speak a Mande language. The patrilineal Kpelle have traditionally lived in several chiefdoms. Though chiefs settle disputes and perform political functions, the Poro...

Olajuwon, Hakeem

Olajuwon, Hakeem (1963–)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Current Version:
2010

...averaging 20.6 points and 11.9 rebounds per game. Over the next decade, Olajuwon led the Rockets to two NBA titles ( 1993–1994 , 1994–1995 ), winning most valuable player ( MVP ) awards for the regular season ( 1993–1994 ) and for both championship finals. He also played in numerous All-Star games. In 1996 he was named one of the NBA’s fifty greatest players of all time. That same year, he played on the U.S. “Dream Team” that won gold at the Olympic Games. He is one of only thirty-one players in the history of the NBA to score more than 20,000 points in...

Cacheu, Guinea-Bissau

Cacheu, Guinea-Bissau   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Current Version:
2010

...Guinea-Bissau The historic commercial center of present-day Guinea-Bissau. Shortly after the Portuguese first reached the Cacheu River in 1446 , lançados—Portuguese outcasts often married to African women—settled 20 kilometers (12 miles) upriver on the south bank, in the Cacanda region inhabited by Papei, Manjaco, and other peoples. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries Cacheu became a center for the trade in slaves from Kaabu and other areas, but relations among the Portuguese, lançados, and Africans were often rocky. Eventually, the Portuguese...

Kakwa

Kakwa   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Current Version:
2010

...homeland was incorporated into Equitoria, a territory controlled by the Egyptian Khedive Isma’il until 1889 . The following year, much of the area became part of the Ugandan Protectorate. Currently, approximately 100,000 Kakwa live in Uganda, while another 40,000 live in Sudan and 20,000 reside in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Kakwa villages have traditionally been organized around a core of related men and their wives, and governed by councils of elders. Rural Kakwa depend primarily on agriculture for subsistence and income—corn, millet, and cassava...

Koumbi Saleh, Mauritania

Koumbi Saleh, Mauritania   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Current Version:
2010

...Muslim traders prayed in the dozen mosques. A large main street twelve meters (forty feet) wide ran the length of this settlement. A distinct, Soninké-dominated royal compound, less well built, probably existed ten kilometers (six miles) from the main town. Approximately 15,000 to 20,000 people probably lived at Koumbi Saleh at its peak, when the town prospered from the sale of gold and slaves to trans-Saharan traders. Sources state that the Almoravid Berbers destroyed the royal town in 1076 . The Almoravids may have brought Muslim rule to ancient Ghana ....

Lilongwe, Malawi

Lilongwe, Malawi   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Current Version:
2010

...house in Lilongwe, he continued to reside in the presidential palace in Blantyre. With a population of 922,894 ( 2009 estimate), Lilongwe is the second largest city in Malawi after Blantyre. In the 2000s, Lilongwe has been a center for the HIV/AIDS epidemic, with an estimated 20 percent of the population considered HIV-positive. See also Indian Communities in Africa ; Urbanism and Urbanization in Africa . Bibliography Cole-King, P. A. Lilongwe: A Historical Study. Government Press, 1971. Ari...

Malabo, Equatorial Guinea Malabo, Equatorial Guinea

Malabo, Equatorial Guinea Malabo, Equatorial Guinea   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Current Version:
2010

...Isabel in 1843 , the town served as the administrative and commercial center of Spain’s only colony in sub-Saharan Africa; it became best known as “death’s waiting room,” because of the oppressive tropical climate and disease. By 1960 the town’s population had reached nearly 20,000. But after Equatorial Guinea’s independence in 1968 , there was a rapid departure of 7,000 Spanish residents. Following years of dictatorial rule, this exodus nearly destroyed the town’s economy, which had been sustained primarily by a small fishing industry, a distillery, and...

Mozambican National Resistance

Mozambican National Resistance   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Current Version:
2010

...of support, due to their disaffection with the ruling party Front for the Liberation of Mozambique ( FRELIMO )’s socialist policies. Despite waning South African support (due to international pressure and domestic reform), by the late 1980s RENAMO numbered between 15,000 and 20,000 troops and had brought the Mozambican government to its knees. Negotiations concluded with a 1992 ceasefire and demobilization, and by the national elections in 1994 RENAMO had transformed itself into a political party and the primary opposition in Mozambique’s new...

Namib Desert

Namib Desert   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Current Version:
2010

...in the world. Some parts of the Namib Desert are spectacularly scenic. The Sossusvlei region, located in the Namib-Naukluft National Park, is known for its huge sand dunes, some of which rise as much as 60 to 240 m high (about 200 to 800 ft) and span 16 to 32 km long (about 10 to 20 mi). The Namib-Naukluft National Park is also home to the Naukluft Mountains and Sesriem Canyon. Robert...

Sukuma

Sukuma   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Current Version:
2010

...they were expected to grow export crops such as tea and coffee. At first resentful, the Sukuma later excelled at commercial farming under British colonial rule and grew prosperous from sales of cotton, tobacco, and grain crops. Today Sukumaland, which covers over 52,000 sq km (20,000 sq mi), continues to be one of the most important farming areas in Tanzania. The Sukuma have a rich oral literature and engage in many dance rituals. The Sukuma are the largest ethnic group in Tanzania, with an estimated 5.5 million members. See also Bantu: Dispersion and...

Japanese Americans, Incarceration of

Japanese Americans, Incarceration of   Reference library

Roger Daniels

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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Current Version:
2013

...by military intelligence. In 1943 , Japanese American male citizens were encouraged to enlist in the U.S. Army, and in 1944 many were actually drafted for military service from behind barbed wire. Some 3,600 young men were inducted into the Army from the camps, and more than 20,000 others served. The vast majority of Japanese American inmates did what officials told them to do, but a few challenged the government unsuccessfully in the courts. A significant minority participated in peaceful protests, including resisting the draft. For the latter offenses...

Abrahams, Peter

Abrahams, Peter (1919–)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Current Version:
2010

...on writing. His historical novel The View From Coyaba ( 1985 ) is a sweeping examination of the relationship between blacks and whites in Africa, the Caribbean, and North America. In 2000 , Abrahams published the autobiographical/historical work, The Black Experience in the 20th Century: An Autobiography and Meditation . Abrahams is known as a novelist of ideas whom some critics considered didactic, but in whom many readers found provocative and idealistic theories. Abraham's travel books, which include Jamaica: An Island Mosaic ( 1957 ), and the two...

Bangui, Central African Republic

Bangui, Central African Republic   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Current Version:
2010

...to a 2003 census, the city proper is home to some 531,000 people. The most important and vibrant kodro is Kilométre Cinq, which houses a vast marketplace, bars, and dance halls as well as the city’s largest mosque. After a decade of continuing unrest, unemployment remains above 20 percent and the government often does not have enough money to pay its civil servants. The city continued to fair poorly in international estimates of livability. A 2003 report named Bangui one of the 215 worst cities in the world, due in no small part to the continuing violence...

Buyoya, Pierre

Buyoya, Pierre (1949–)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Current Version:
2010

...the constitution, released political prisoners, and lifted restrictions on the Catholic Church. Buyoya committed his government to healing Burundi’s ethnic wounds, but a local conflict escalated and in August 1988 several northern provinces descended into violence in which around 20,000 Burundians died. Afterward, Buyoya appointed a Hutu prime minister, increased the number of Hutu in the cabinet, and established a Commission on National Unity to investigate the massacres and write a charter on national unity. Under pressure from international donors, he also...

Jugnauth, Anerood

Jugnauth, Anerood (1982)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...countries of sub-Saharan Africa by the 1990s. Jugnauth’s regime was criticized, however, as both corrupt and undemocratic. In 1983 four members of the Mauritian Legislative Assembly, traveling under diplomatic passports, were arrested in an Amsterdam airport for smuggling 20 kilograms (44 pounds) of heroin. A Mauritian commission of inquiry later implicated several other legislators in drug trafficking. The same legislation also authorized press censorship with Jugnauth’s support. Despite accusations of corruption, Jugnauth won the 1987 elections....

Mazrui, Ali A

Mazrui, Ali A (1933)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Current Version:
2010

...by publishing his first three books in 1967 , Toward a Pax Africana , which he based on his dissertation, The Anglo-African Commonwealth , and On Heroes and Uhuru-Worship , each of which received favorable reviews. He has continued to publish extensively, authoring more than 20 books and more than 100 journal articles and editing several scholarly and reference works. Among his recent work is The Power of Babel: Language and Governance in the African Experience (1998). His most popular and controversial work was a nine-part television series produced in...

Tswana

Tswana   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Current Version:
2010

...into what is now Zimbabwe , and the refugee Tswana clans resettled in the more arable lands near the Limpopo, one of the region’s only perennial rivers. Nineteenth-century European explorers and missionaries were surprised to encounter the Tswana’s large settlements, where up to 20,000 people lived in villages composed primarily of cylindrical mud dwellings with conical thatched roofs. Although the Tswana language is closely related to other Sotho languages, most Tswana do not identify themselves as Sotho. Today the Tswana are the largest ethnic group in...

Windhoek, Namibia

Windhoek, Namibia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Current Version:
2010

...many Germans from settling there. In 1915 South Africa took control of the city and five years later set up a municipal government. Thereafter, the population increased rapidly, from 716 in 1920 to 10,000 in 1949 , and to 36,000 in 1959 . White residents, numbering around 20,000, lived in exclusive suburbs, while approximately 16,000 black and Coloured (of mixed racial descent) residents lived in the shantytown suburb called the Old Location, and worked as menial laborers and domestic servants. In 1959 Namibia’s nationalist struggle began in the...

Confederate States of America

Confederate States of America   Reference library

Daniel E. Sutherland

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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Current Version:
2013

...America When Abraham Lincoln was elected president in November 1860 , many southern whites feared that a government dominated by the Republican Party would threaten their economic security and cultural identity, especially as represented by the institution of slavery. Between 20 December 1860 and 1 February 1861 , seven southern states—South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas—seceded from the Union in protest. On 4 February, their representatives met at Montgomery, Alabama, to form the Confederate States of America ...

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