You are looking at 1-20 of 156 entries  for:

  • Archaeology x
clear all

View:

Overview

20/20

Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Puberty, Marriage, Sex, Reproduction, and Divorce, Bronze and Iron Age

Puberty, Marriage, Sex, Reproduction, and Divorce, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Jennie Ebeling

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
8,817 words

...the value of a male based on his age, offers some insight into the economic value of boys and men in ancient Israel. From age 5 to 20, a boy’s value is one-third or two-fifths of the value of an adult; between ages 20 and 60, a man’s value is that of an adult. The census in Numbers 1:3 indicates that men could take part in military activities at age 20, further supporting the idea that a male was considered an adult at age 20. Marriage. The biblical writers provide some details about marriage arrangements and wedding customs in ancient Israel, but they do...

Ashdod

Ashdod   Reference library

David Ben-Shlomo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
3,957 words
Illustration(s):
2

... b.c.e . Ashdod is mentioned in the prophetic texts in relation to destruction prophecies of various kingdoms, usually as one of the late Iron-Age Philistine cities, together with Gaza, Ashkelon, and Ekron ( Jer 25:20 ; Amos 1:8 , 3:9 ; Zeph 2:4 ; Zech 9:6 ). One of these references mentions the “remnants of Ashdod” ( Jer 25:20 ), possibly indicating the weaker position of Ashdod during the seventh century b.c.e . According to Herodotus, after the fall of Assyria, Ashdod was besieged by Psamtik I of Egypt for no less than 29 years. The ostracon...

Mount Ebal

Mount Ebal   Reference library

Adam Zertal

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
2,269 words
Illustration(s):
1

...secondary ramp, which was connected to the main one, led to it. Two stone-paved courtyards constructed in front of the main building, measuring approximately 26.2 by 19.7 ft (8 by 6 m) each, contained several stone boxes. In all, some 100 or more little stone boxes, each ca. 20 by 20 inches (50 by 50 cm), were found scattered in the courtyards and around the altar. They were built in layers that indicate several stages of use. Different pots, above all jugs, were found inside most of them. The pots had been broken on the spot, enabling their archaeological...

Tel Kedesh

Tel Kedesh   Reference library

Andrea M. Berlin and Sharon C. Herbert

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,536 words
Illustration(s):
4

...of King Hiram of Tyre, a contemporary of Kings David and Solomon. (1) In 1 Kings 9:10–14 Solomon gives to Hiram 20 cities in the Galilee, but in the parallel passage of 2 Chronicles 8:2 Solomon rebuilds the cities that Huram (as the Chronicler calls him) had given to him. (2) In 1 Kings 5:9–11 Hiram sends lumber and workers for the temple, in return for which Solomon pays a yearly tribute of 20,000 cors of wheat and 20,000 cors of oil, an arrangement reflecting the Tyrian monarch’s greater standing; in 2 Chronicles 2:3–16 , payment is...

Gender, Bronze and Iron Age

Gender, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Mayer I. Gruber

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,502 words
Illustration(s):
1

...six women, four of whom are named. Those named are Miriam ( Exod 15:20 ), Deborah ( Judg 4—5 ), Huldah ( 2 Kgs 22:14 , 2 Chr 34:22 ), and Noadiah ( Neh 6:14 ); the unnamed include the wife of Isaiah ( Isa 8:3 ) and a female prophet identified in Micah 6—7 . The medium at Endor ( 1 Sam 28 ), though not orthodox for the writer of Samuel, should be counted among this group as well. Prominent among the sages are two women, whose stories are found in 2 Samuel 14 and 2 Samuel 20:16–22 . Their very anonymity points to the possibility that female sages...

Ceramics Production, Bronze and Iron Age

Ceramics Production, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Gloria Anne London

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
3,815 words

...the pinch-pot technique. Domestic and professional potters often worked on a series of pots simultaneously in an interrupted method of manufacture that had multiple stages of work. Instead of making a pot in its entirety, the potter shaped the first stage for a series of 6, 10, or 20 pots (depending on their size and the quantity of clay available) and then allowed them to dry. Work could not continue on individual pots until they had dried slightly. After a short drying period, the length of which depended on the weather, the next stage of work was...

Feasting, Bronze and Iron Age

Feasting, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Jacob L. Wright and Michael J. Chan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,052 words

...hosts a feast for Abner, Saul’s former general, the latter agrees to rally all of Israel to the side of the king ( 2 Sam 3:20–21 ). Similarly, when Absalom and Adonijah, David’s sons, wish to mount the throne, they begin by organizing feasts ( 2 Sam 13:23–29 ; cf. 15:1 and 1 Kgs 1:5 ). With the help of strong drink, the Aramean king nourishes his alliance with his 32 coalition partners during a campaign against Israel ( 1 Kgs 20:16 ). Later, the prophet restrains the king of Israel from slaughtering the Aramean forces, commanding him instead to prepare...

Aram-Damascus

Aram-Damascus   Reference library

K. Lawson Younger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,541 words

...Adad-idri (Hadadezer) with Ben-Hadad of 1 Kings 20 and 22 . (Since an earlier Ben-Hadad I is mentioned in 1 Kings 15:18–20 , this Ben-Hadad of 1 Kings 20 and 22 is often designated “Ben-Hadad II” by those following this option.) One fundamental problem is that the name in the monolith, “Adad-idri,” does not equate with Ben-Hadad (other than the deity element). Although the name “Ben-Hadad” may have been a dynastic title, there is no clear evidence of this. The second option understands 1 Kings 20 and 22 as misplaced by a mistaken biblical...

Masada

Masada   Reference library

Jürgen Zangenberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,329 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Masada’s main character as residential refuge, reflecting the dramatic events of 40 b.c.e. The second phase. Substantial additions to phase-I structures, probably connected to a shift in functional focus, characterize the second building phase on Masada, carried out between 30 and 20 b.c.e. Just reaffirmed as king of Judea by Octavian following Cleopatra and Mark Antony’s demise, Herod was able to take full advantage of the political security and economic prosperity that the Pax Romana had brought to the empire. Herod demonstrated his key position within the...

Family Structure, Hellenistic and Roman Period

Family Structure, Hellenistic and Roman Period   Reference library

April Pudsey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,921 words

...organized around tribes, phratries (family groups), and demes (subdivisions of Attica); boys at birth were formally accepted into their oikos and inherited kinship of their phratry and deme through their fathers. According to Xenophon’s fourth-century b.c.e. treatise ( Oec. 7.20–22, 30, 189; 9.2–5) the oikos in its agricultural and economic context was divided along broadly gendered lines especially in terms of labor, a division which is apparent in terms of the political and social involvement of individuals within the oikos . This image of the...

Jerusalem, Hellenistic and Roman

Jerusalem, Hellenistic and Roman   Reference library

Jürgen K. Zangenberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
9,575 words
Illustration(s):
2

... Ant. 15.423). But the project was so huge that much work dragged on until 28 c.e. ( John 2:20 ), and it was not before 64 c.e. that the Roman governor Albinus declared the Temple finished and ordered construction to stop, creating a major social crisis (Josephus, Ant. 20.219). Herod Agrippa II (r. 48–ca. 93 c.e. ) had to repair and embellish the streets of Jerusalem to keep 18,000 workers active who were previously employed at the Temple (Josephus, Ant. 20.220–221). Numismatic finds and the almost perfect state of many pavers on the south–north road...

Dan

Dan   Reference library

David Ilan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,469 words
Illustration(s):
2

...“Cenotaph” tomb XI Middle Bronze II 18th century b.c.e. Mud-brick gate house with three intact arches, earthen rampart, monochrome painted crème ware pottery XII Middle Bronze I 20th–18th centuries b.c.e. Simple dwellings, wheel-made pottery including Levantine painted ware, infant and adult burials and tombs under houses, first bronze objects XIII Intermediate Bronze 23d–20th centuries b.c.e. Sparse settlement remains, pottery XIV Early Bronze III 27th–23rd centuries b.c.e. Massive additions to rampart in stone and earth, Khirbet Kerak pottery XV Early...

Herodium

Herodium   Reference library

Jürgen K. Zangenberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,362 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Judaea: A Mediterranean State in the Classical World . TSAJ 122. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck, 2008. Spijkerman, A. Herodium III: Catalogo delle monete . Studium Biblicum Franciscanum, Collectio Maior 20. Jerusalem: Franciscan Printing Press, 1972. Testa, E. Herodium IV: I graffiti e gli ostraka . Studium Biblicum Franciscanum, Collectio Maior 20. Jerusalem: Franciscan Printing Press, 1972. Jürgen K....

Capernaum

Capernaum   Reference library

Stefano De Luca

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
8,467 words
Illustration(s):
1

...where the crowd assembles and he meets with, heals, teaches, and debates them and privately instructs his disciples ( Mark 1:29–39 , 2:1–12 , 3:20–35 , 4:10–11 , 7:17–23 [cf. Matt 15:1–20 ], 9:33–37 ; Matt 8:14–17 , 9:1–18 , 12:46–50 , 13:36–43 , 18:1–5 ; Luke 4:38–43 , 5:17–26 , 8:9–10 , 8:19–21 , 9:46–48 ). Even if one recognizes an underdeveloped ecclesiological dimension in Mark, Mark 3:20–35 documents elements typical of a new core of believers, a new family of Jesus in the house of Simon and Andrew—set in opposition to those...

Infancy, Childhood, Adulthood, Old Age, Bronze and Iron Age

Infancy, Childhood, Adulthood, Old Age, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Jennie Ebeling

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
9,760 words

...much was expected of them in return. Children were to be respectful and obedient ( Exod 20:12 ) and to follow the orders of their elders. Children were subject to the authority of both parents, as seen in the commandment to “honor your father and your mother, so that your days may be long in the land that the Lord your God is giving you” ( Exod 20:12 ; also Deut 5:16 , Prov 23:22 ). Children could be harshly punished for being disobedient ( Exod 21:17 , Lev 20:9 ); Eli’s disobedient sons were considered a disgrace to the family and community ( 1 Sam...

Death and Burial, Bronze and Iron Age

Death and Burial, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Elizabeth Bloch Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,612 words

...For example, the deceased Samuel and “ghosts and familiar spirits” of Isaiah foretold the future ( 1 Sam 28:15–19 , Isa 8:19–20 ). Elisha’s bones revived a dead man ( 2 Kgs 13:21 , a reprise of 2 Kgs 4:31–35 ). Necromancers, dōrēš ע el-hammētîm , and those associated with the ע ôb and yiddě א ōnî (“ghosts” and “familiar spirits”) likely contacted the dead for information or intercessory services ( Lev 19:31 , 20:6 ; Deut 18:10–11 ; 1 Sam 28:8 ; 2 Kgs 21:6 ). Additionally, těrāpîm , objects of human form also referred to as ע ělōhîm (...

Fortifications in the Bronze and Iron Age

Fortifications in the Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Kyle H. Keimer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,828 words

...provided places for elders, judges, and kings to assemble to hear legal cases and to make proclamations (cf. Deut 21:19 , 22:15 , 25:7 ; Josh 20:4 ; Ruth 4:1–12 ; 2 Sam 19:8 ; 1 Kgs 22:10 ; Jer 36:10 , 38:7 ; Amos 5:10 ; Neh 8:1, 3 ). The gates at Lachish (stratum III) and Dan (stratum III) had inner and/or outer plazas lined with shops where economic transactions took place (cf. 1 Kgs 20:34 , 2 Kgs 7:1 ). Watering troughs appear in many gates (e.g., Gezer VIII), as does evidence for cultic activity such as standing stones, ritual...

Gath

Gath   Reference library

Aren Maeir

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,993 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a few identities were suggested), based on both textual analyses and the archaeological remains, it is clear that Gath of the Philistines should be placed at Tell eṣ-Ṣâfi (Tel Zafit), a site in the northwestern Shephelah, on the southern bank of the Elah Valley, ca. 12.5 miles (20 km) north of modern Qiryat Gath and 5.6 miles (9 km) south of Tel Miqne-Ekron. Textual References. Predating its mention in the biblical text, Gath is known from the el-Amarna correspondence, with several letters relating to the site ( gimti ), mentioning two kings, Šuwardata and...

Arad

Arad   Reference library

Zeאev Herzog

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,675 words
Illustration(s):
1

...hewn limestone incense altars were found lying on their sides on the middle stair of stratum X, below the floor of stratum IX of the main hall. The altars differ in size: the base of the smaller is 8.7 by 7.9 inches (22 by 20 cm) and it is 15.7 inches (40 cm) high, while the larger is 12.2 by 11.4 inches (31 by 29 cm) at base and 20 inches (51 cm) high. Both altars had a top part separated from the base by a groove. A shallow depression was cut in the top surface, with remnants of organic material. Unlike many similar altars, those at Arad had no horns. The...

Household Religion, Hellenistic and Roman Period

Household Religion, Hellenistic and Roman Period   Reference library

Annette Weissenrieder

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,094 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a positive result. With reference to literary testimony, one expects to find his cult place in the storeroom (Dio Chrysostom, 1 Regn. 92; Menander Pseudo-Herakles, Poetae Comici Graece 6.2.410). Two speeches, delivered by Isaeus ( Orat. 8.16–17) and Antiphon ( Orat. 3.18–20), describe a tribute of the domus by way of a sacrifice and a (ritual) meal. Yet while Isaeus restricts the sacrifice to the family in the narrower sense, Antiphon reports on two friends’ cult sacrifice that is committed in one of their houses. So here one must create a broader...

View: