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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Historiography in the Maghrib in the 19th and early 20th Century

Historiography in the Maghrib in the 19th and early 20th Century   Reference library

Sahar Bazzaz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
7,518 words

...in the Maghrib in the 19th and early 20th Century Literary Forms and Historical Consciousness in the Maghrib Before European Ascendance in the Maghrib. Historical literary production in the Maghrib extends back to the 12th century ce ( 7th century ah ) and comprises a rich corpus including dynastic chronicles ( tarikh ), biographies ( tarajim ), and hagiographies ( manaqib / rijjal ). Before the rise of a positivist historical tradition in the 20th century , Maghribi historiography was modeled upon a narrative form associated with the...

atom bomb effect

atom bomb effect   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
24 words

...bomb effect [Ge] Increase in the atmospheric concentration of radiocarbon caused by the nuclear explosions of the mid 20th century ad and...

pilae

pilae   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
25 words

...[Co] Pillars of brick (or stone), typically 20–40 cm square and up to 0.8 m high, supporting the floor of a room with a hypocaust...

collagen

collagen   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
26 words

...[Ge] The major protein of bone constituting about 20 per cent by weight in fresh bone. The organic component of bone used in radiocarbon...

Holstein

Holstein   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
39 words

...[Ge] A group of Quaternary interglacial deposits in northwestern Europe which are stratified above the Elster and precede the Saale . They date to the period after 300 000 years ago and are no more recent than 20 000 years...

Afontova Culture

Afontova Culture   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
64 words

...Culture [CP] Upper Palaeolithic communities in south‐central Siberia in the period 20 000 to 10 000 years ago. Distinguished on the basis of their worked stone industries which includes wedge‐shaped microcores, microblades, and scrapers. The culture was defined by F. A. Abramova in 1979 , drawing on material recovered in the early 20th century from a series of sites at Afontova Gora on the Yenisei...

Squier, Ephraim George

Squier, Ephraim George   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
81 words

...In 1851 he published an account of his work done jointly with E. H. Davis : Ancient monuments of the Mississippi Valley (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution). Squier also carried out excavations in central America, Peru, and Bolivia. Bio.: American National Biography , 20, 519–...

New Kingdom

New Kingdom   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
47 words

...Kingdom [CP] The Egyptian period following the expulsion of Asiatic Hyksos rulers and the subsequent reunification ties including Thuthmoses I–IV , Akhenaten , Tutankhamun , and Ramesses I–XI . Broadly the 18th to the 20th Dynasties, c .1550–1070 bc . To this period belongs much of the monumental architecture of...

Albany

Albany   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
52 words

...[CP] A late Stone Age industry of southern and eastern Cape Province, South Africa, dating to the period 10 000 to 6000 bc . Also known as the Oakhurst, this industry has few distinctive tool types except large scrapers more than 20 mm long. The Albany industries directly precede the appearance of Wilton ...

post‐medieval

post‐medieval   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
58 words

...[CP] Term describing the period after the medieval. In the British Isles this is often taken to be the period after the dissolution of the monasteries around ad 1540 . Some take the post‐medieval period down to the end of the 20th century, but others prefer to interpose a ‘modern’ period between about 1750 and the present...

Adena Mound, Ohio, USA

Adena Mound, Ohio, USA   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
50 words

...Mound, Ohio, USA [Si] Burial mound beside the Scioto River which gives its name to the Adena Complex of early Woodland cultures. Excavated by William C. Mills in the early 20th century. Rep.: W. C. Mills , 1902, Excavations of the Adena Mound. Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications , 10,...

long count

long count   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
145 words

...count [Ge] A calendrical system for measuring absolute time devised in Mesoamerica during the Formative (Pre‐Classic) period. The day forms the basic unit ( kin ), thereafter multiplying up into larger units progressing by 20s: uinal (20 days), tun (360 days), katun (7200 days), and baktun (144 000 days). Dates are expressed as units in a five‐place notation starting with the largest units. Thus 8.2.4.5.1 means 8 baktunob , 2 katunob , 4 tunob , 5 uinalob , and 1 kin . The Maya began their counting at a time equivalent to 3114 bc , perhaps...

planning frame

planning frame   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
151 words

...assist with accurately planning features, objects, or structures. The chassis comprises rigid wooden, metal, or plastic sides that are drilled at regular intervals to allow a grid of criss‐cross strings to be formed in the centre of the frame. Grids are typically 10 × 10 cm or 20 × 20 cm. Sophisticated planning frames may be equipped with extendable legs at each corner and a spirit level on two of the sides in order to level the frame and thus reduce parallax . By laying the frame over an area that is to be planned or drawn, and locating the corners by...

sphinx

sphinx   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
75 words

...body of a lion and the head of a human being found widely in Egyptian, Hittite, and early Greek art. In ancient Egypt it typified the might of the pharaohs and the mysticism underlying their strength. The best‐known example is the Great Sphinx of El Gizah, more than 80 m long and 20 m high, probably dating from the 4th Dynasty, about 2529 bc , and perhaps representing the pharaoh...

Leisner, Georg

Leisner, Georg   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
69 words

...devoted his life to making a comprehensive survey and analysis of the Neolithic chambered tombs of Iberia. Their massive undertaking was published in a series of volumes under the title Die megalithgräber der Iberischen Halbinsel ( 1942–65 , Berlin). Obit.: (Georg) Ampurias , 19–20 (1957–8), 294–5; (Vera) Madrider Mitteilungen , 14...

Kingdoms

Kingdoms   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
67 words

...peaks in the development of early Egyptian society, separated by phases of disorder and decline. The Old Kingdom spans the 3rd to 6th Dynasties ( c .2658–2150 bc ); the Middle Kingdom spans the 12th to 13th Dynasties ( c .2100–1750 bc ); and the New Kingdom spans the 18th to 20th Dynasties ( c .1550–1070 bc...

Ramesses

Ramesses   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
83 words

... ( Ramses ) [Di] The name used by two pharaohs of the 19th Dynasty and nine in the 20th Dynasty of ancient Egypt. The most distinguished was Ramesses II , who reigned c .1290–1224 bc , devoted much time to protecting Egypt's boundaries against Hittite invasions, and also carried out much building work, including the construction of the fine temples at Abu Simbel . Ramesses III , who reigned c. 1194–1163 bc , defeated invasions by the Sea Peoples and in c .1170 bc by the...

biface

biface   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
64 words

...[De] General term referring to a stone core tool that is usually pointed at one end and flaked on both flat faces until thin and sharp‐edged. Mainly found in Palaeolithic tool industries, and the type‐fossil of the Acheulian , they range in size from about 10 cm to over 20 cm in length, and are believed to be multi‐purpose tools for chopping, carcase dismemberment, and...

ontology

ontology   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
70 words

...[Th] A branch of philosophy concerned with what exists, its nature, character, and meaning. Much Anglo‐American archaeological thought in the late 20th century focused on epistemology and methodology, but since the early 1990s some archaeologists have turned to consider instead the very character of archaeological materials. Such archaeological ontology considers the character of material culture and social practice, and asks what archaeologists are really attempting to interpret or...

pit circle

pit circle   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
68 words

...circle [MC] A class of middle and late Neolithic monument found in the British Isles comprising an arc or ring of shallow but fairly regular oval scoops. In overall diameter such circles are rarely more than 20 m across. Deposits comprising selected objects are sometimes found placed in the bottom of the scoops. Some pit circles are found within or adjacent to henge monuments. See also timber circle...

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