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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

syndicalism

syndicalism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
39 words

...A political movement or ideology that promotes workers’ control through the medium of the workplace. It was particularly strong in France, Italy, and Spain in the late 19th and early 20th century, but was extinguished in the...

Registrar General’s Classification

Registrar General’s Classification   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
55 words

...General’s Classification An official scheme of class analysis used in British surveys and censuses for much of the 20th century. In sociological work it was largely superseded by the Goldthorpe class scheme . The new NS-SEC classification has now replaced it for official studies and is beginning to be used in sociological...

technicism

technicism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
55 words

...A belief that technocracy is desirable or inevitable. Also a broad social movement , especially influential in the United States during the early 20th century (the Technocracy Movement), calling for the elimination of the price system in favour of the government of industry and society by scientific or engineering principles. See also technocracy...

women’s movement

women’s movement   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
59 words

...refers to the mobilization of women around the project of changing and improving their position in society. It is often used interchangeably with ‘Women’s Liberation Movement’ to describe the second wave of feminism from the 1970s onwards (the first wave being 19th- and early 20th-century feminism culminating in the struggle for votes for...

preference theory

preference theory   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
171 words

...over their own fertility. It posits that women are heterogeneous in tastes and preferences, being divided into three distinct groups: a minority of work-centred women who often remain childless by choice (about 20 per cent of the adult population); a minority of home-centred women who usually have many children and do little paid work (about 20 per cent of the adult population); and a majority of adaptive women who seek to combine paid work in the labour market with childbearing and child-rearing. Preference theory states that the three groups differ...

civil rights

civil rights   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
170 words

...of others or the common good. Although the idea of rights being embodied for citizens in legal doctrines was hardly new, it took on a new meaning in the 20th century, as a result of the Civil Rights Movement. The distinctively modern form of civil rights is often dated from the American Civil War, after which slaves gained the right of freedom. It is embodied in the Civil Rights Legislation of the late 20th century—such as the 1964 Civil Rights Act in the United States. The history of this legislation is discussed in M. Berger , Equality by Statute ...

schizophrenia

schizophrenia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
77 words

...A psychosis , more broadly defined in the United States than Britain, typically characterized by delusions or hallucinations, usually developing in late adolescence, and regarded as paradigmatic of madness. The term was introduced in the early 20th century and applied to a condition identified in the mid-19th century as dementia praecox. Evidence indicates genetic predisposition but also the aetiological importance of environment . Ronald Laing , however, highlighted the family processes generating behaviour diagnosed as...

Childe, Vere Gordon

Childe, Vere Gordon (1892–1957)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
74 words

...Vere Gordon ( 1892–1957 ) Born in Australia, Childe became professor successively in the Universities of Edinburgh and London, and was a leading figure in mid-20th-century archaeology. Known for his Marxist emphasis on the importance of the economy, Childe nevertheless also stressed the importance of society and culture, rather than artefacts. He was a great popularizer of archaeology, particularly through his well-written comparative accounts of human prehistory, such as Man Makes Himself ...

decarceration

decarceration   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
82 words

...The process of removing people from institutions such as prisons or mental hospitals—the opposite of incarceration . In the middle of the 20th century, this became a central feature in the reorganization of social control , and is closely allied to programmes of community care and community control. The reasons for this change are discussed in Andrew Scull's controversial book Decarceration (1984). A linked concept is transcarceration, in which people are moved sideways from one kind of institution to...

transsexual

transsexual   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
77 words

...requiring sex surgery to change the sex organs, and being fully trained into the gender role of that sex. The ideal for many transsexuals is to pass completely and imperceptibly into the other sex and gender. Transsexualism was invented as a clinical phenomenon during the mid-20th century, but it is of great sociological interest in the study of gender and deviance. See also transvestism...

guilds

guilds   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
94 words

...sought to regulate trade and to protect the interests of employers and which in some countries survive vestigially as curious gentlemen's clubs. The 19th-century view that they could be seen as precursors of trade unions is now seldom advanced. The Guild Socialism of the early 20th century drew on medieval ideas to propose that industrial unions and other economic groups should manage major industries and form the basis of a larger political democracy. A contemporary form of this view is Paul Hirst’s Associative Democracy ...

Marshall, Thomas H.

Marshall, Thomas H. (1893–1982)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
245 words

...the 19th century, to welfare rights (such as social security payments) in the 20th century. These rights were institutionalized in law courts, parliament, and the welfare state . He developed the notion that modern societies are ‘hyphenated societies’ in The Right to Welfare and Other Essays (1981) , because they are organized around the conflicting principles of welfare , class , and democracy . He also wrote an influential study of social policy ( Social Policy in the 20th Century , 1965 ). His concept of citizenship continues to be influential...

public opinion

public opinion   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
114 words

...polls . Consequently, it is often taken to be synonymous with ‘what the polls report’—about morality, favoured consumer brands, politics, or whatever. The two groups most commonly surveyed under this label are adults of working age (variously defined as people aged 16, 18, or 20 to 60 or 65 years), and all adults over the age of compulsory education, including the elderly and retired (typically defined as people aged 16 or 18 and...

Quételet, Lambert Adolphe Jacques

Quételet, Lambert Adolphe Jacques (1796–1874)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
102 words

...that, in the case of social phenomena, the distribution usually follows a normal curve —a conclusion reached by (among other things) observing the height of soldiers in a regiment. However, his work was for a long time ignored by social scientists, and it was not until the early 20th century that his writings were...

definition of the situation

definition of the situation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
124 words

...of the situation A concept first developed by William Isaac Thomas and Florian Znaniecki in The Polish Peasant in Europe and America (1918–20) , and now central to symbolic interactionism . It is the idea that people's actions are shaped more by the subjective meaning given to their situation than by the purely objective aspects of the situation. Individuals construct the meaning of a situation on the basis of their experiences, needs, and wishes, and also on the basis of the customs and beliefs of their social group. Most significantly the...

semi-colonialism

semi-colonialism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
104 words

...A term used, classically by Lenin and Mao Zedong ( see Maoism ), to describe states that in the late 19th and early 20th centuries were penetrated by imperial capital, trade, and political influence, but that preserved their juridical independence. Examples include Persia, China, Thailand, Afghanistan, Yemen, and Ethiopia. Factors seen as enabling such countries to maintain their independence include the strength of indigenous states, geographical remoteness, lack of desirable resources, cultural and military resistance, and (most...

technological society

technological society   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
125 words

.... In the tradition of the Sociologie du Travail , technology is treated as a form of alienation, and as domination by artefacts. The growing interest in alternative technology, ecology, and the environment may be regarded as a reaction born of an analogous interpretation of late 20th-century...

flexible employment

flexible employment   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
111 words

...of the post-industrial world, it assumes two forms. Functional flexibility (or post-fordism) means the adaptation of work organization, skills, and machinery, so as to cope with the constantly changing market and technological environment of the global economy of the late 20th century. So-called flexible firms are also said to adopt numerical flexibility, using non-standard forms of employment to allow rapid changes in labour recruitment and discharge, in the face of product-market fluctuations. Only equivocal empirical evidence exists of flexible...

Gestalt theory

Gestalt theory   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
125 words

...theory An early 20th-century development in psychology and an alternative to empiricist theories of perception and knowledge. A gestalt is a coherent whole with its own laws, seen as a construct of the perceiving mind and eye, not as given in reality. ( Gestalt is a German word meaning pattern, form, or configuration.) Gestalt theory argues that the functioning of the various parts of a social entity is determined by the behaviour and nature of the whole, seeks to organize human and social phenomena in terms of larger units of analysis, and is...

backward-sloping supply curve for labour

backward-sloping supply curve for labour   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
176 words

...It is found when wage incentives are offered to improve productivity and labourers respond by working shorter hours to earn the same money rather than working harder or longer to earn more money. Max Weber discussed this phenomenon in General Economic History ( 1919–20 ), seeing it as an example of economic traditionalism that runs counter to modern capitalist rationality. Sociological research has produced a variety of alternative explanations for the persistence of this traditionalism in modern societies. It may be a consequence of perceived...

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