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20/20

Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

G20

G20   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
284 words

...20 The Group of Twenty (G20) represents a club of states that meets annually to discuss important economic, financial, and political issues. It is made up of the G7 industrialized democratic countries, the five ‘emerging’ BRICS countries, six other economically emerging countries, and the European Union , which together as the G20 represent the twenty largest global economies, generating approximately 85 per cent of global GDP. Originating as a forum for central bankers in 1999 , ongoing economic stability issues, as well as the 2008 Financial Crisis ,...

president-elect

president-elect   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
24 words

...Title given to victor of US presidential election during the transitional period between the election in November and taking office on 20...

Group of Twenty

Group of Twenty   Reference library

Stephen Gill

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,171 words

..., the idea of a complementary G-20 leaders’ summit was revived. Periodic summit meetings of the G-20 heads of state and government (and the presidents of the European Union and the European Commission), along with their finance ministers and staffs, have since been held in Washington ( November 2008 ), London ( April 2009 ), Pittsburgh ( September 2009 ), Toronto ( June 2010 ), and Seoul ( November 2010 ). Spain and the Netherlands have attended G-20 summit meetings without being recognized members of the G-20. The G-20 economies together account for...

measurement

measurement ((levels of))   Quick reference

Stephen Fisher

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
213 words

...Interval level measurement involves the assignment of a number to each observation, so that the difference between the numbers is theoretically meaningful. For example, the difference between 10°C and 20°C is equivalent to that between 20°C and 30°C. However, with interval level measurement there is no true zero point, so it is not possible to say that 20°C is twice as hot as 10°C. Finally, the ratio level of measurement is the same as the interval level with the addition of a true zero point, so it becomes possible to make statements about the ratios of...

Emerging Powers

Emerging Powers   Reference library

Amitav Acharya

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,304 words

...G-20, speak for the South? Those G-20 members who are from the South all aspire to be leaders of the world, not just of the South. They are, after all, the emerging powers. Past leaders of the South, such as India's Nehru, China's Mao, and Egypt's Nasser, harbored no illusions about achieving global Great Power status, whether individually or collectively. Today, however, China, India, Brazil, and Japan all aspire to be global Great Powers. Moreover, the question is not just whether the G-20 speaks for the South, but also who speaks for the G-20. The G-20...

Prisoners’ Dilemma

Prisoners’ Dilemma   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
487 words

...does not confess and 0 if he confesses. If Column confesses he will receive −20 if he does not confess and −10 if he confesses. Irrespective of what Column does, it is therefore a ‘sure thing’ that Row is better off if he confesses. The reasoning is symmetrical for Column. Therefore, rational prisoners will confess, even though both of them knew all along that it would be better for each if neither confessed. Column: Don’t confess Confess Row: Don’t confess −2, −2 −20, 0 Confess 0, −20 −10, −10 The Prisoners’ Dilemma has been generalized for repeated...

Iraq War

Iraq War   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics in the Middle East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
156 words

... and continued, in various forms, until 2011 . American and British leaders accused Saddam Hussein of maintaining a weapons-of-mass-destruction programme and violating United Nations Security Council resolutions imposed after the 1991 Gulf War . The Iraq War commenced on 20 March 2003 , and multinational forces occupied Baghdad on 9 April when Hussein fled into hiding. Iraq was administered by the Coalition Provisional Authority between April 2003 and June 2004 before power was returned to Iraqi politicians. An insurgency against multinational...

strategy

strategy   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
228 words

...Even in a trivial game such as noughts-and-crosses (tic-tac-toe) the first player has nine legal opening moves. To each of the second player’s eight legal responses the first player has seven legal replies, thus 504 strategies for the first two moves alone, and a total of 20,160 (9 × 8 × 7 × 6 × 5 × 4 × 3) strategies for the complete game. Most of these strategies would of course be extremely silly, and many of them are identical because of the rotational symmetry of the game. However, the example shows that analysis of strategies must depend on...

Bukharin, Nikolay Ivanovich

Bukharin, Nikolay Ivanovich (1888–1938)   Quick reference

Stephen Whitefield

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
226 words

... perestroika . Despite his ‘liberal’ reputation, Bukharin was one of the ‘Left Communists’ who opposed the peace treaty with Germany and Austria-Hungary as a deal with imperialism. He favoured a rapid transition to total state control of the economy during the Civil War 1918–20 . Moreover, in this period, he produced a rather doctrinaire textbook, The ABC of Communism . However, Bukharin became the leading proponent of NEP, advocating the radicalization of the policy at various critical junctures. Famously, he enjoined the Russian peasantry to ‘enrich’...

Gabon

Gabon   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
588 words

... and 26 March 1991 established a presidential form of government within a democratic republic. The attempts of the first president, Léon Mba ( 1902–1967 ), to gain control of the National Assembly through the establishment of a single political party provoked the coup of 17– 20 February 1964 by young military officers. French military intervention restored Mba to power and eliminated his opponents from public life. Intervention allowed Mba to install a dictatorship which he transferred to his chosen successor, Omar Bongo ( 1935–2009 ). Bongo, supported...

Nonproliferation, Nuclear

Nonproliferation, Nuclear   Reference library

Zachary S. Davis

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,477 words

...Regimes . (Monterey, Calif., 2009). Perkovich, George . Universal Compliance: A Strategy for Nuclear Security . (Washington, D.C., 2007). United States Department of Defense . “Nuclear Posture Review Report.” (April 2010). http://www.defense.gov/npr/docs/2010%20nuclear%20posture%20review%20report.pdf . Zachary S....

Social Credit

Social Credit   Quick reference

Wyn Grant

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
337 words

...the Alberta provincial government in a landslide victory in 1935 , providing the premier until 1970 , and of the British Columbia provincial government in 1952 , remaining the governing party for all but three years up to 1991 . In New Zealand, Social Credit support peaked at 20.7 per cent in the 1981 general election. Small‐scale business people and farmers have provided many of the party’s activists in Canada and New Zealand. For such a movement, political education can be as important as electoral success, which Social Credit has never achieved at a...

Mexican Revolution

Mexican Revolution   Quick reference

Francisco E. González

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
255 words

...Revolution The first social revolution of the twentieth century ( 1910–20 ). It started as a political revolution against the more than thirty‐year dictatorship of General Porfirio Díaz. This movement was led by Francisco I. Madero , whose motto ‘Effective suffrage, no re‐election’ crystallized discontent around the country in 1910–11 against Díaz’s permanence in power. Eventually Díaz went into exile in Paris, while Madero won democratic elections and became Mexico’s president in 1911 . However, the ancien régime forces, supported by United States...

Potsdam Conference

Potsdam Conference   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
517 words

...on 16 July also cast its shadow over future relations among the Big Three. The key dispute at the conference concerned German reparations. The Soviet Union demanded significant reparations from Germany, both in industrial plant and from current production, on the scale of the US$20 billion figure established for discussion at Yalta. The Western powers favored reparations only through the dismantling and removal of industrial plant. The United States and Britain opposed reparations from current production, insisting that Germany must first become...

Libyan Civil War(s)

Libyan Civil War(s)   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
498 words

...damage to Gaddafi’s heavy weaponry, troop deployments, and general morale. In August 2011 , opposition forces staged a series of attacks on coastal cities leading toward the capital Tripoli, eventually taking Tripoli. Despite capturing the capital, Gaddafi remained at large. On 20 October 2011 Gaddafi was captured and immediately executed by opposition militia in the city of Sirte. On 23 October 2011 , despite continued pockets of violence in Libya, the NTC declared Libya as ‘liberated’ and announced the end of the Libyan Revolution. However, the killing...

Iraq War

Iraq War   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
491 words

...War War launched on 20 March 2003 by coalition forces led by the United States against Iraq, to oust Saddam Hussein. The coalition referred to Iraq’s failure to comply with the UN Resolution 1441’s conditions for disarmament, and a perceived terrorist threat. Critics suggested the US were imposing military hegemony on the Middle East. UN diplomatic efforts floundered, and the war was supported by a narrow coalition. The UK and Australia offered military support, and Turkey offered minimal cooperation. With massive air superiority and limited resistance...

Mali

Mali   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,261 words

...and a population estimated at 10.6 million in 1998 . During that year, GNP stood at US$2.6 billion, while GNP per capita was $250. The capital city is Bamako, and Islam is the dominant religion. Mali gained independence from France on 20 June 1960 as the Mali Federation (Senegal and Mali). The federation broke up on 20 August 1960 , and on 22 September 1960 the dominant party, the Union Soudanaise-Rassemblement Démocratique Africain (US-RDA), led by Modibo Kéïta , opted for socialism. As leader of the US-RDA and the country's first president, Kéïta...

BRIC Countries

BRIC Countries   Reference library

Oliver Stuenkel

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
4,540 words

...BRICS members have struggled to develop joint positions on many issues, and “growth towards the outside” has been modest. The BRICS have sought to coordinate their positions at G20 Summits, and in fact, the BRICS’ leaders did convene at the G20 in June 2012 in Los Cabos, Mexico, to align their positions. Despite this, the BRICS’ capacity to coordinate their positions during the G20 Summits has been mixed, since the first summit in 2008 . The BRICS are keen on participating in the forum as equal members, but repeatedly, their positions are too heterogeneous...

Russia–Australia

Russia–Australia   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,060 words

...Ottoman Empire. However, Russian–Australian relations were put on hold by the early exit of Russia from the war following the October revolution of 1917 . Lenin's Bolshevik uprising quickly unseated Tsarist officials in key urban centres, sparking the Russian Civil War of 1918–20 . Australian troops were sent to fight the Red Army in the Transcaucases, as part of a British Expeditionary force supporting the White Army loyal to Tsar Nicholas. The schisms caused by the Russian Revolution were also felt at home. Many ethnic Russians living in Australia had...

Albania

Albania   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
524 words

...Albania is the smallest of the Balkan states in size and population. It is also one of the most ethnically homogeneous countries in Europe with Albanians in 1999 comprising 95 percent of the population. Prior to World War II, about 70 percent of the Albanians were Muslims, 20 percent Eastern Orthodox, and 10 percent Roman Catholic. Albania is thus the only predominantly Muslim country in Europe. With an estimated per capita GDP of US $1,490 in 1999 , Albania is Europe's least-developed nation. Albania was part of the Ottoman Empire for nearly 450 years...

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