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20/20

Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

G20

G20   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
81 words

...20 A state-led economic and financial council of wealthy nations consisting of the finance ministers and central bank governors of nineteen countries from around the world, plus the European Union. These major economies represent around 90 per cent of global GDP, 80 per cent of global trade, and two thirds of the world’s population. Founded in 2008 it meets semi-annually to discuss the international financial system and promote financial stability and trade. http://www.g20.org/en Official website of the G20 2012 Mexico...

G-20

G-20   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...20 ( Group of Twenty ) A group of twenty of the most important economies on the planet. It includes nineteen independent countries along with the European Union: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France † , Germany † , India, Indonesia, Italy † , Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, United Kingdom † , United States, European Union. † = also a member of the...

pandemic

pandemic   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
86 words

...The condition when an infectious disease moves from being a local epidemic to a global phenomenon affecting millions of people. There have been many such pandemics, for example, the Black Death in the 14th century, Spanish Flu in the early 20th century, and HIV/AIDS at the end of the 20th century. In each case, millions of people were infected, with a great many dying due to associated illnesses. Geographers are interested in documenting the spatial processes of diffusion that create pandemics. See also diffusion ; epidemiology...

skilled migration

skilled migration   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
51 words

...migration The movement between countries of high-skilled or trained individuals for permanent or temporary settlement; sometimes termed ‘skills migration’. Since the late 20th century, many states have devised specific immigration visas to attract individuals with skills specifically in shortage in the economy, or high levels of skill and education...

human genome

human genome   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
58 words

...genome The complete set of genes that carries a human being’s hereditary information. There are 20,000–25,000 genes in the DNA of a human being. The full genome was revealed by two parallel projects in the early 2000s, one international programme led by US government agencies and one private operation by the Celera Corporation. See genetics ; genetic modification...

moral landscape

moral landscape   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
82 words

...moral norms or challenges to those norms by counter-cultures, subcultures, or other oppositional groups. For example, David Matless shows how specific conceptions of rural landscapes were key media for the communication of what it meant to be ‘properly’ English in the early 20th century. Reference Matless, D. (1998), Landscape and Englishness...

Nature’s Metropolis

Nature’s Metropolis   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
77 words

...Metropolis An award-winning monograph by American historical geographer William Cronon (1991) that demonstrates the umbilical connection between the country and the city in the rise of Chicago at the turn of the 20th century. Cronon’s aim was to question the urban-rural dualism common in Western thought by demonstrating how the prodigious growth of one city (Chicago, a manufacturing and distribution centre) was profoundly dependent on the large-scale transformation of its extended hinterland into a farming...

Pax Americana

Pax Americana   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
98 words

...characterized by order under the auspices of the military and political power of the USA. In Latin, pax means ‘peace’, hence the phrase means American Peace. The idea has been invoked at various times, including after the US Civil War ( 1865 onwards), the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, and after the Second World War . In more recent years, it is associated with the idea that the USA can and should be the ‘world’s policeman’, enforcing peace by force if...

suburbanization

suburbanization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
74 words

...The expansion of the built environment beyond the limits of long-standing urban cores, most notably with the spread of automobile ownership in affluent countries from the mid‐20th century onwards. As well as being a physical change, suburbanization is often understood as a set of social and cultural transformations involving new relations of class, gender, religion, and race. Though led by residential change, industries, services, and retailing have followed ( see edge city...

sunk costs

sunk costs   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
70 words

...up plant and machinery, the cost of doing business, and the costs of moving. These are fixed and not related to output. Further reading Clark, G. L. and Wrigley, N. (1995), ‘Sunk costs: a framework for economic geography’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 20:...

tropical geography

tropical geography   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
94 words

...geography The geographical study of tropical regions and the resultant accumulation of geographical knowledge. The idea that the tropics constituted a distinct region for inquiry emerged from the 15th‐ and 16th‐century voyages of discovery by Europeans, but was systematized in the 20th century by French, German, and Dutch geographers in particular. The most significant work was Les Pays Tropicaux by French geographer Pierre Gourou which went through several editions and translations. Later critics suggest that much of tropical geography was suffused with ...

commercial geography

commercial geography   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
82 words

...geography A predecessor of economic geography , concerned with how, what, and where commodities are produced, with close attention paid to the distribution of raw materials and the economic possibilities afforded by colonies. It flourished in the USA and Germany up to the mid-20th century and reflected early academic geography’s roots in mapping, surveying, and inventorying territory. British geographer George Chisholm’s Handbook of Commercial Geography was published in seven editions between 1889 and 1908 such was the popularity of the...

Critical Geopolitics

Critical Geopolitics   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
98 words

...Ó Tuathail and published in 1996 . Subtitled ‘the politics of writing global space’, it feature a series of essays on how national governments have attempted to remap the globe in their own image. The examples include British imperialist, German, and US geopolitics in the mid-20th century, as well as more recent events in Bosnia and Ireland. Although highly regarded, critiques have questioned the focus on discourse and representation at the expense of affect , performativity , and the production of political...

developmental state

developmental state   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
65 words

...involving direct, concerted, and sustained intervention in national economic development through industrial policies such as export-led growth and labour control. The term is generally applied to East Asian countries such as Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan where, in the late 20th century, technocrats and planners were responsible for strategically shaping those countries’ economies rather than just regulating them...

estate

estate   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
74 words

...large in size and sometimes given over to the production of an agricultural crop ( see plantation ). 2. The total assets belonging to an individual or family. Large estates, also called ‘ latifundia ’ in South America, were at the centre of land reform efforts throughout the 20th century. These often aimed to break estates up and redistribute the land to smaller...

existentialism

existentialism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
70 words

...A mid-20th-century movement in philosophy, literature, and theatre that prioritized the experiences of embodied individuals who must make their way in a world not entirely of their own making. In Anglophone human geography it was advocated by some humanists from the late 1970s who took issue with the ‘abstract individuals’ of quantitative spatial science and of the early research published by Marxist geographers . See also humanistic geography...

genre de vie

genre de vie   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
92 words

...de vie A way of life associated with the interaction of a human community and their local or regional environment. The term featured in the work of French geographer Paul Vidal de la Blache and his colleagues in the early 20th century. They sought to explain how and why the country’s regional (largely rural) landscapes looked as they did and why they differed from one another. By emphasizing the long-term interaction of people and environment, Vidal sought an alternative perspective to environmental determinism . See also cultural landscape ; ...

hyper-globalizer

hyper-globalizer   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
73 words

...A term to describe someone who regards late-20th-century globalization as a new epoch in human history. As described by David Held and colleagues in Global Transformations ( 1999 ), the hyper-globalist or ultra-thesis is that economic globalization has eroded the power of the nation state, effected a borderless economy, and ushered in new forms of social life. It contrasts with a more sceptical position that sees such pronouncements as...

iconic architecture

iconic architecture   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
62 words

...architecture A term to describe buildings that are deemed to possess special symbolic and aesthetic value and are widely recognizable by the public. Such buildings may be generic, for example, medieval European Gothic cathedrals or the early 20th-century US skyscrapers; or more commonly specific, for example, the Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur or Bilbao’s Guggenheim Museum. See also architecture ; vernacular landscape...

logical positivism

logical positivism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
204 words

...positivism A philosophy of knowledge whose central idea is that the world is only knowable on the basis of observation and evidence. It is associated with a group of scholars active in the early 20th century known as the Vienna Circle, after the city in which they lived ( see logical empiricism ). Their thinking derived from the 19th-century French polymath Auguste Comte. In French positif means ‘imposed on the mind by experience’. Comte was thus an opponent of idealism in its various forms, such as theology and metaphysics . He argued that the...

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