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20/20

Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Group of 20

Group of 20   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...of 20 ( G20 ) A group of 19 leading economies plus the European Union. Meetings of G20 finance ministers and central bank governors have been held regularly since 1999 . The first summit of G20 heads of state was held in November 2008 as a response to the global financial crisis and it was subsequently agreed that the G20 would take over from the Group of Eight as the main forum for the world’s wealthy nations. Summit meetings are now held...

Uprising of 20,000

Uprising of 20,000   Reference library

Annie Schneiderman Valliere

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of 20,000 The Uprising of 20,000 was a fourteen-week sector-wide strike that shut down women's shirtwaist factories in New York City between November 1909 and February 1910 . The strike was spearheaded by such women workers and union leaders as Clara Lemlich, Rose Schneiderman, Fannia Cohn, and Pauline Newman, who drew upon the support of Local 25 of the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union (ILGWU). The National Women's Trade Union League also supported the strike by serving as pickets, raising money, eliciting support from college students...

G-20 and Multilateral Economic Cooperation

G-20 and Multilateral Economic Cooperation   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,644 words
Illustration(s):
1

...G-20, or a similar inclusive group, was likely to emerge as the premier forum of international economic dialogue, policy coordination, and decision making even beyond the crisis. A formal declaration to that effect was made at the third G-20 summit in Pittsburgh, USA, in 2009. G-20 leaders will now meet each year at the summit level. The bigger EMEs have now become too systemically important to be excluded from any meaningful or effective international economic consultative process to manage globalization. India is one of the bigger economies within the G-20....

G5; G7; G8; G10; G11; G20; G77

G5; G7; G8; G10; G11; G20; G77   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...G7; G8; G10; G11; G20; G77 Abbreviations for Group of Five ; Group of Seven ; Group of Eight ; Group of 10 ; Group of 11 ; Group of 77 ....

Pareto law

Pareto law   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
99 words

...Pareto law ( 80–20 law , law of the vital few ) The law states that 80 per cent of the effects are achieved by 20 per cent of the causes. Historically, the law originates from the observation made by the economist Vilfredo Pareto ( 1848–1923 ) that 80 per cent of the land in Italy was owned by 20 per cent of the population. The Pareto law has been claimed to have widespread socio-economic applicability. The practical interpretation of the Pareto law is that beyond a certain threshold the marginal cost of improving the situation further becomes...

basic rate

basic rate   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
62 words

...rate The rate of income tax that applies to all taxable non-saving incomes above a lower limit, below which a starting rate is payable, and below an upper limit, above which a higher rate is payable; the basic rate in fact applies to most UK taxable income. In 2011–12 it was 20 per cent. This was previously called the standard...

Great Leap Forward

Great Leap Forward   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
63 words

...and social plan in place from 1958 to 1960 aimed at rapidly transforming mainland China from an agricultural economy into an industrialized communist society. The collectivization of agriculture coincided with poor weather and resulted in a famine that killed an estimated 20 million people. The Great Leap Forward was abandoned in 1960 and private ownership of land...

fiduciary issue

fiduciary issue   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
83 words

...of gold reserves. In the UK in the 19th century the fiduciary issue was restricted to control the power of the Bank of England to issue money; during banking crises the Bank of England had to be specially authorized, by suspension of the Bank Act, to exceed this limit. In the 20th century nearly all high-powered money has come to consist of a fiduciary...

newly industrialized countries

newly industrialized countries   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
92 words

...NICs ) Countries which were formerly classified as less developed but have recently increased the proportion of industrial production in national income and of industrial exports in trade. The NICs were the most rapidly growing part of the world economy in the last quarter of the 20th century. There is no standard list of NICs: they include the ‘East Asian tigers’ (Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan), and various other countries such as Brazil, China, India, Malaysia, Mexico, South Africa, and Thailand, and their number is...

deindustrialization

deindustrialization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
69 words

...deindustrialization The tendency for the industrial sector to account for a decreasing proportion of gross domestic product and employment. In advanced countries large improvements in industrial productivity in the 20th century increased real incomes. Consumers and governments have largely chosen to spend these on services, including education, medical care, banking and insurance, entertainment, and tourism. An increasing proportion of economic activity in advanced economies thus consists of...

participation rate

participation rate   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
80 words

...Participation rates can be calculated for different categories of workers. Participation rates tend to vary with age, being lower among the young, many of whom are still in full-time education, and among the old, who are frequently retired; they are highest among those aged 20...

Common Agricultural Policy

Common Agricultural Policy   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
122 words

...raises the cost of living for EU consumers, damages non-EU farmers, and created great difficulties in reaching agreement in the Uruguay Round of world trade talks. A political agreement on the reform of the CAP was achieved in 2013 ; the reforms are to be implemented in 2014–20...

mortgage

mortgage   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
103 words

... A loan using a real asset, such as a house or other building, as collateral . If the interest and redemption payments are not made, the lender or mortgagee can foreclose on the collateral, that is, can take it over and sell it to repay the loan. Mortgages can be for any period: 20 or 25 years is not unusual. With a repayment mortgage the principal is paid off gradually over the life of the mortgage. With an endowment mortgage the principal is paid off at the end of the mortgage from a capital sum built up by an endowment insurance...

immiserizing growth

immiserizing growth   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
176 words

...apply to less developed countries as a group: this seems unlikely given the wide variety of goods they export, many of them manufactures with elastic world demand. It must be remembered that worse terms of trade do not necessarily imply immiserizing growth: if trade accounts for 20 per cent of national income, the terms of trade have to worsen by over 5 per cent for each 1 per cent growth of output for growth to be...

hockey stick

hockey stick   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
158 words

...of temperatures over the past 1 000 years that was given prominence in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Third Assessment Report. The hockey stick has a long flat handle showing roughly constant temperatures in the pre-industrial period, but it has a sharp 20th-century uptick which was seen as the confirmation of global warming. The hockey stick was constructed from a principal components analysis of proxy data (such as tree rings and ice cores). A generous assessment would say the methodology behind the construction has now been...

annualized percentage rate of interest

annualized percentage rate of interest   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
210 words
Illustration(s):
1

...0) and £120 in two years’ time, and is repaid with five biannual payments of £50 beginning six months from now. The APR, denoted by r , is then defined as the solution to 120 ( 1 + r ) 0 + 120 ( 1 + r ) 2 = 50 ( 1 + r ) 0.5 + 50 ( 1 + r ) 1.0 + 50 ( 1 + r ) 1.5 + 50 ( 1 + r ) 2.0 + 50 ( 1 + r ) 2.5 . The APR in this case is r = 0.082 (8.2 per cent). Where a loan is repaid in instalments and the nominal interest rate is expressed as a percentage of the original capital, the APR may be considerably higher than the nominal interest rate. In the UK lenders are...

Clark, William Clifford

Clark, William Clifford (1889–1952)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
495 words

...federal fiscal system work in the conditions of a modern welfare state. Bibliography ‘The Country Elevator in the Canadian West,’ Bulletin of the Departments of History and Political and Economic Science (1914–15), no. 20. ‘Should Maximum Prices be Fixed,’ Bulletin of the Departments of History and Political and Economic Science (1917–20), no. 27. ‘ The Business Cycle, ’ Queen's Quarterly (1921–2), vol. 24, pp. 60–83. ‘ The Flight from the Gold Standard, ’ Queen's Quarterly (1931), vol. 38, pp. 751–63. Further Reading Mackintosh, W. A. , ‘ William...

Public Administration

Public Administration   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
5,028 words

...439 488 149 48 11 15 1960 9,083 2,607 2,543 309 318 218 409 1990 20,372 8,597 8,760 407 1,243 1,304 1,956 All countries 1995 to 2000 Poorest 20% 1,260 339 361 33 59 19 19 Second 20% 2,767 785 861 83 114 53 91 Third 20% 5,038 1,758 1,881 137 300 179 265 Fourth 20% 9,883 3,398 3,703 296 496 266 935 Richest 20% 16,307 8,756 8,571 717 849 939 2,675 The first column gives income per capita...

Marshall Plan

Marshall Plan   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
763 words

...the ERP allowed an increase on average of about 10 percent (though closer to 20 percent in 1949 in Germany, where industry was depressed). However, since investment levels were close to 20 percent of GNP, the impact cannot be described as essential to European recovery. Besides, the ERP only came onstream late in 1948 . By that time, industrial output in western Europe had regained its prewar level and, if West Germany is excluded, had surpassed it by nearly 20 percent. While downplaying the impact of the ERP on western European recovery in purely...

Croker, John Wilson

Croker, John Wilson (1780–1857)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
590 words

... was born in Galway on 20 December 1780 , and died in Dublin on 10 August 1857 . He was educated in Cork and Portarlington before attending Trinity College, Dublin. In 1800 he entered Lincoln’s Inn, and was called to the Irish bar in 1802 . He began his literary career by publishing on theatrical matters; concurrently he began to establish a successful legal business in Dublin. In 1807 he joined the Munster Circuit, where he met Daniel O’Connell. Croker married Rosamund Pennell in 1806; the couple had one Child, Spencer ( 1817–20 ). Croker was MP for...

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