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20/20

Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

heat grill

heat grill n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...grill n . A device consisting of closely packed alternating warm (40˚ C) and cool (20˚ C) bars used for eliciting the thermal grill illusion...

minimum separable

minimum separable n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...separable n. A measure of visual acuity , usually determined with an acuity grating , equal to the visual angle corresponding to the finest grating in which separate bars can be distinguished. A person with normal 20/20 vision according to the Snellen fraction has a minimum separable of approximately 1/60 of a degree or one minute of arc. Compare minimum visible...

profound mental retardation

profound mental retardation n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...mental retardation n . An obsolete term for a level of intellectual disability associated with IQ below approximately 20 (in adults, mental age below 3 years). Also called profound mental subnormality...

semantic satiation

semantic satiation n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...satiation n . A peculiar sense of loss of meaning that occurs when a word is recited slowly 15 or 20 times in succession. Compare verbal transformation effect...

Snellen fraction

Snellen fraction n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...top to the smallest at the bottom. The person being tested normally stands 20 feet or 6 metres from the chart and reads as many letters as possible starting at the top, and a score is assigned in the form of the ratio or fraction d / d n , where d is the viewer’s distance from the chart and d n is the distance at which a viewer with normal visual acuity could read the smallest letters that the person being tested can read. On this scale 20/20 vision is normal by definition, and 20/200 vision is a criterion of blindness originally introduced by the American...

severe mental retardation

severe mental retardation n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...mental retardation n . An obsolescent term for a level of intellectual disability associated with IQ approximately between 20 and 35 (in adults, mental age from 3 to under 6 years). Also called severe mental subnormality...

auditory receptor

auditory receptor n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...receptor n. A sensory receptor consisting of hair cells in the basilar membrane of the organ of Corti that translate sound waves—pressure waves with frequencies between 16 hertz and 20,000 hertz—into nerve impulses. Also called a phonoreceptor...

Elberfeld horses

Elberfeld horses n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...horses n. Trained horses in Germany in the early years of the 20th century that appeared to possess remarkable human-like intellectual abilities, including especially Clever Hans . [Named after the German city of Elberfeld, later merged into Wuppertal, where they were...

variable-interval schedule

variable-interval schedule n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...that the organism makes after a random time interval, and then the first response that it makes after another random time interval, and so on, the average length of the interval being specified in seconds as an affix to the abbreviation, hence VI20 indicates a variable-interval schedule with an average interval of 20 seconds. Also called a variable-interval reinforcement schedule . See also simple reinforcement schedule . Compare fixed-interval schedule , fixed-ratio schedule , variable-ratio schedule . VI abbrev...

fixed-interval schedule

fixed-interval schedule n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...the first response that the organism makes after a predetermined time interval, and then the first response that it makes after the same interval, and so on, the duration of the interval being specified in seconds as an affix to the abbreviation, hence FI20 indicates a fixed-interval schedule with a 20-second interval. Also called a fixed-interval reinforcement schedule . See also simple reinforcement schedule . Compare fixed-ratio schedule , variable-interval schedule , variable-ratio schedule . FI ...

Kuder–Richardson coefficient

Kuder–Richardson coefficient n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...of reliability in the special case of a scale with pass/fail, yes/no, or other dichotomous test items. There are two slightly different versions based on different statistical assumptions: the Kuder–Richardson 20 formula and the Kuder–Richardson 21 formula, named after equation numbers in Kuder and Richardson’s 1937 article. K–R 20 or K–R 21 abbrev . [Named after the US psychologists George Frederic (Fritz) Kuder ( 1903–2000 ) and Marion Webster Richardson ( 1891–1965 ) who introduced it in an article in the journal Psychometrika in ...

State-Trait Anxiety Inventory

State-Trait Anxiety Inventory n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Anxiety Inventory n . A questionnaire comprising two separate self-rating scales, one measuring state anxiety and the other trait anxiety, each scale containing 20 items. The inventory was first published by the US psychologist Charles D(onald) Spielberger ( 1927–2013 ) and several colleagues in 1970 . STAI abbrev...

tunnel vision

tunnel vision n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... n . A form of visual impairment in which the visual field is decreased, creating the effect of looking down a narrow tube or tunnel, often resulting from advanced chronic glaucoma . The American Foundation for the Blind defines a visual field subtending a visual angle of 20 degrees or less as a criterion of blindness...

bandwidth

bandwidth n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... n. The range of frequencies over which a sense organ or any other communication channel functions or responds. Thus the human auditory system responds within a bandwidth corresponding to the audibility range from about 16 hertz to 20,000 hertz (cycles per second). See also spectrum...

far point

far point n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...point n. The most distant point from the eye at which an object is focused on the retina without accommodation ( 1 ) of the crystalline lens, theoretically located at infinity for a normal eye but in practice usually set as 6 metres or 20 feet. See also range of accommodation . Compare near point...

phon

phon n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...of a sound is defined as the intensity level in units of decibel sound pressure level ( dB SPL ) of a comparison pure tone of 1,000 hertz that is judged by the listener to be equally loud. Thus if the comparison tone is 20 dB SPL, then the loudness of any tone of another frequency that is judged to be equally loud is defined to be 20 phons; if the comparison tone is 40 dB SPL, then any tone judged equally loud is 40 phons, and so on. See also equal-loudness contour . [From Greek phone sound or...

NREM sleep

NREM sleep abbrev.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...wakefulness and sleep, and it occupies about 5 per cent of sleeping time in healthy adults; Stage II NREM sleep, with delta waves 20 per cent of the time, is characterized by sleep spindles and K complexes , and it occupies about 50 per cent of normal adult sleeping time; and Stages III and IV NREM sleep, or slow-wave sleep , with delta waves more than 50 per cent of the time, are the deepest levels, and they occupy about 10–20 per cent of normal adult sleeping time. Also called quiet sleep or synchronized ( S ) sleep . See also sleep . Compare ...

Cohen’s d

Cohen’s d n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...of effect size , the most familiar form being the difference between two means ( M 1 and M 2 ) expressed in units of standard deviations : the formula is d = ( M 1 − M 2 )/ σ , where σ is the pooled standard deviation of the scores in both groups. A value of d below 0.20 is considered small, 0.50 medium, and 0.80 large. [Named after the US psychologist Jacob (Jack) Cohen ( 1923–98 ) who devised it and popularized it in his book Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences ( 1969 , 1988...

genetic genealogy

genetic genealogy n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...both living and dead. It is based on the analysis of both junk DNA and polymorphic genes . The first use of the term was by the US science writer Tom Siegfried (born 1950 ) in an article entitled ‘Genetic Genealogy and the Search of Eve’ in the Dallas Morning News on 20 February 1989 . [From Greek genesis birth + - itikos resembling or marked by + genes born + logos word, discourse, or...

saccade

saccade n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... n . A rapid ballistic movement of the eyes, lasting 20 to 100 milliseconds, as they jump from one fixation point to the next when reading or tracking a moving object or image. A microsaccade is a small saccade occurring as part of physiological nystagmus during visual fixation of a stationary object. See also autokinetic effect , change blindness , eye-tracking , feedforward , visual suppression . Compare smooth eye movement . saccadic adj . [French saccade a jerk, from Old French saquer to...

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