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## Science 2.0 Quick reference

### A Dictionary of the Internet (4 ed.)

...2.0 A term used to describe the transformation of scientific research that has come about through the extensive use of computers both for the analysis and for the capture of...

## web 2.0 Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

...2.0 Informal a popular term used to distinguish interactive websites such as blogs , forums , and social media from earlier (pre-2000) uses of the World Wide Web , which tended to publish content with little or no participation from users. This earlier use is sometimes referred to retrospectively as web 1.0 . The term web 2.0 does not mark any technical evolution of the Web, but rather a trend in the usage of available web...

## icosa‐ Quick reference

### The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (5 ed.)

...Prefix denoting 20...

## per cent Quick reference

### The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (5 ed.)

...cent ( % ) Literally from the Latin ‘in every hundred’, so it is a fraction with the denominator of 100 replaced by this phrase, or by the symbol %. So 20 per cent=20%=20/100 which is 1/5 or...

## absolute frequency Quick reference

### The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (5 ed.)

...frequency The number of occurrences of an event. For example, if a die is rolled 20 times and 4 sixes are observed the absolute frequency of sixes is 4 and the relative frequency is 4/20...

## ton Quick reference

### The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (5 ed.)

...The mass of 20 hundredweights or 2240 pounds (lbs). It is the imperial near equivalent of the tonne (approximately 2200...

## multidimensional scaling Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Statistics (3 ed.)

... is called the stress (also called Kruskal stress ) of the solution—a low value suggests a good solution. Great Britain Ireland Nether- Lands Belgium France Italy Spain Great Britain 20 11 11 6 7 2 6 Ireland 11 20 11 10 11 10 10 Netherlands 11 11 20 12 11 6 6 Belgium 6 10 12 20 12 11 9 France 7 11 11 12 20 10 12 Italy 2 10 6 11 10 20 13 Spain 6 10 6 9 12 13 20 The proximity matrix shows, for seven European countries, the numbers of food products (out of twenty) that were found to similar extents (i.e. common in both countries or scarce in both...

## Factor Theorem Quick reference

### The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (5 ed.)

...x ) be a polynomial. Then x − h is a factor of f ( x ) if and only if f ( h )=0. The theorem is valuable for finding factors of polynomials. For example, to factorize 2 x 3 +3 x 2 −12 x −20, look first for possible factors x − h , where h is an integer. Here h must divide 20. Try possible values for h , and calculate f ( h ). It is found that f (−2)=−16+12+24−20=0, and so x +2 is a factor. Now divide the polynomial by this factor to obtain a quadratic which it may be possible to factorize...

## decimalize Quick reference

### The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (5 ed.)

...To change a measurement system to one based on multiples of 10. So in 1971 the British currency was decimalized from £1=20 shillings and 1 shilling=12 pence to £1=100 (new) pence—the ‘new’ has since been...

## dodecahedron Quick reference

### The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (5 ed.)

... ( dodecahedra ) A polyhedron with twelve faces, often assumed to be regular. The regular dodecahedron is one of the Platonic solids , and its faces are regular pentagons. It has 20 vertices and 30...

## icosahedron Quick reference

### The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (5 ed.)

... ( icosahedra ) A polyhedron with 20 faces, often assumed to be regular. The regular icosahedron is one of the Platonic solids , and its faces are equilateral triangles. It has 12 vertices and 30...

## rounding error Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Statistics (3 ed.)

...occurs when each number in a set of numbers is rounded according to some rule with the result that the total of the rounded numbers is not equal to the rounded version of the original total. For example, rounded to the nearest 10, the counts 21, 22, 23, and 24 each become 20. However, 4×20=80 whereas the total of the unrounded numbers is 90. Rounding errors are most often noticed when a set of percentages that should sum to 100% actually sums to something different (e.g. 99% or...

## web service Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

...communicate with their clients through SOAP messages. The ambition of web services is to use the Internet to implement large-scale distributed processing in an open way. http://www.w3.org/2002/ws/ The WC3’s Web Services Activity Page http://www.w3.org/TR/wsdl20-primer/ The WSDL (version 2.0) specification...

## decile Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Statistics (3 ed.)

...An approximate value for the r th decile of a data set can be read from a cumulative frequency graph as the value of the variable corresponding to a cumulative relative frequency of 10 r %. So the 5th decile is the median and the 2nd decile is the 20th percentile . The term decile was introduced by Galton in 1882...

## Connection Machine Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

...computers—operated simultaneously. Central to the machine was a communication network that permitted the small computers to exchange information in a pattern suited to the algorithm being executed. The Connection Machine marketed in 1994 could yield a sustained performance of 20 Gflops from a 512 processor...

## dynamic programming Quick reference

### The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (5 ed.)

...programming The area of mathematics relating to the study of optimization problems where a step‐wise decision making approach is employed. This is often done iteratively. http://20bits.com/2007/05/08/introduction‐to‐dynamic‐programming/ A detailed introduction to the method with...

## foundations of mathematics Quick reference

### The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (5 ed.)

...of mathematics The study of the logical basis for mathematics, and in particular attempts to establish an axiomatic basis upon which mathematics could be built. Euclid's geometrical text the Elements is one of the best‐known examples, and early in the 20th century Bertrand Russell tried to produce a unifying set of axioms for mathematics, but...

## Freudenthal, Hans (1905–90) Quick reference

### The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (5 ed.)

...Hans ( 1905–90 ) German mathematician who became one of the most important figures in mathematics education in the late 20th century. He founded the Institute for the Development of Mathematical Education in Utrecht in 1971 , and was its first director. It was renamed the Freudenthal Institute in 1991 after his...

## Galois, Évariste (1811–32) Quick reference

### The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (5 ed.)

...Évariste ( 1811–32 ) French mathematician who had made major contributions to the theory of equations before he died at the age of 20, shot in a duel. His work developed the necessary group theory to deal with the question of whether an equation can be solved algebraically. He spent the night before the duel writing a letter containing notes of his...

## kilogram Quick reference

### The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (5 ed.)

...In SI units , the base unit used for measuring mass , abbreviated to ‘kg’. Up until 20 May 2019, it was defined as the mass of a certain platinum–iridium cylinder kept at Sèvres near Paris; it is now defined in terms of the Planck constant. One kilogram is approximately the mass of 1000 cm 3 of...