You are looking at 1-20 of 252 entries  for:

  • History of Science x
clear all

View:

Overview

20/20

Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Matter

Matter  

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

...event— see Big Bang . During the process, matter may have existed briefly in a peculiar form— see Quark soup . A mystery is why equal quantities of antimatter were not created, which would have annihilated all ordinary matter— see Antimatter . In the Standard Model of late 20th-century particle physics, the basic constituents of atomic nuclei are quarks of various kinds, associated in protons and neutrons— see Particle families . The origin of their mass is supposedly due to mysterious entities pervading space and crowding around the particles— see ...

space station

space station   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
743 words

...stage of the Saturn V moon rocket, it became the logical follow-on to the Apollo program, which ended in 1972 with the return of Apollo 17 . Due to a damaged solar panel, only three manned missions were completed. The orbital station Mir (meaning “peace”) went into orbit on 20 February 1986 . With two docked spaceships attached, it weighed 136 tons and measured 33 meters (108 ft) across. Ninety-six cosmonauts visited the station over almost thirteen years of continual habitation. Valery Polyvok established the world endurance record of 438 days in space....

centrifuge and ultracentrifuge

centrifuge and ultracentrifuge   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
563 words

...for the separation of the constituents of blood . Around the turn of the twentieth century, amphibian and fish eggs were centrifuged to observe their development under conditions of changed gravity. Today, “ultracentrifuge” signifies all centrifuges that spin faster than 20,000 rpm. The first machine so called, developed by the Swedish colloid chemist The Svedberg in the 1920s, was a device used solely to determine the size of colloid particles. Svedberg and his collaborators developed two different methods: velocity sedimentation (the observation of...

computer

computer   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
518 words

...three hobbyists had founded in Albuquerque, New Mexico, started marketing a personal computer kit called the Altair. Bill Gates , a 20-year-old Harvard student, and his high-school friend Paul Allen , 22, wrote a software program for it. Gates dropped out of Harvard to develop the Microsoft Corporation, the software firm he and Allen founded in 1975 for the Altair venture. In 1976 , Steve Wozniak , 25, and Steve Jobs , 20, began marketing a personal computer, the Apple, the first model of which they built in the home garage of Jobs's parents. In 1977 ,...

Bernal's ladder

Bernal's ladder   Reference library

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
608 words

...historian Thomas Kuhn brought the term ‘paradigm shift’ into his account of scientific revolutions ( see Discovery ), working scientists were well aware of the problems of getting discoveries or theories accepted. The physicist Desmond Bernal flourished in London in the mid-20th century as a crystallographer, military scientist and left-wing social critic. He described the sequence of responses from fellow scientists, as an idea gradually ascends from rejection to acceptance: 1. It can't be right. 2. It might be right but it's not important. 3. It...

Bunsen burner

Bunsen burner   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
285 words

...and was perfectly suited to laboratory operations. The present form of the Bunsen burner, familiar to every science student today, has scarcely changed from the original of 1855 . G. Lockemann , The Centenary of the Bunsen Burner , Journal of Chemical Education 33 (1956): 20–21. A. J....

Relativity

Relativity   Reference library

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
326 words

...could have predicted the expansion of the Universe, but he fumbled it twice. First he added a cosmological constant to prevent the expansion implied by his theory, and then he decided that was a mistake. In the outcome, his cosmological constant reappeared at the end of the 20th century when astronomers found that the cosmic expansion is accelerating, driven by Dark energy . Special relativity seems unassailable, but doubts arise about general relativity because of a mismatch to quantum theory. These are discussed in Gravity and Superstrings...

Evolution

Evolution   Reference library

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
3,787 words

...meant that the real problem about dealing with creationism had been a technical one. The mainstream scientific theory of the 20th century had not succeeded in making persuasive sense of the major steps in evolution. Her remarks were in response to criticisms, by the neo-Darwinists, of her discovery of how those steps could occur by the uncovering of combinations of latent genes. ‘Darwin better watch out’ At the end of the 20th century the cruel processes of scientific selection, where ideas survive only if they pass the tests of available evidence,...

Extinctions

Extinctions  

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

...the tell-tale iridium from the asteroid itself. Later, opinion would shift in favour of the impactor being a comet. Either way the Berkeley result made mass extinctions due to impacts a scandalous topic of conversation. ‘Unbelievable arrogance’ Mainstream evolutionary theory in the 20th century was uncomfortable with the very idea of extinction. As Stephen Jay Gould of Harvard put it, ‘In an overly Darwinian world of adaptation, gradual change, and improvement, extinction seemed, well, so negative—the ultimate failure, the flip side of evolution's “real” work,...

grand tour

grand tour   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
796 words

...Society, and a tireless fighter for improved educational opportunities for women. R. E. W. Maddison , Studies in the Life of Robert Boyle, F. R. S. Part VII: The Grand Tour , Royal Society Notes and Records 20 (1965): 51–77. G. Le. Turner , The London Trade in Scientific Instrument-Making in the 18th Century , Vistas in Astronomy 20 (1976): 173–182. Darwin H. Stapleton , Accounts of European Science, Technology, and Medicine Written by American Travelers Abroad, 1735–1860, in the Collections of the American Philosophical Society (1985). Jeremy...

slogans from science

slogans from science   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
883 words

...may get us first. “Nuclear winter” [16] would be followed by a very “silent spring” [17], which could also be achieved by baking (“greenhouse effect” [18]) or grilling (“hole in the ozone layer ” [19]) the creatures of the earth. Whether “ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny” [20] then would not even be of academic interest. Since “ex nihilo nihil fit” [21], there would be little comfort in knowing that “ex ovo omnia” [22] and that life was a “double helix” [23]. 1 The Pope's use of the phrase is recorded in George Weigel , Witness to Hope ( 2001 ). 2 ...

universe, age and size of the

universe, age and size of the   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
728 words

...than radiometric measurements of the age of the earth. The work of Walter Baade in the 1940s and Allan Sandage in the 1950s resulted in substantial revisions in the accepted value of Hubble's Constant, and by the 1960s astronomers agreed that the universe was between 10 and 20×10 9 years old, with a corresponding size of the order of 10 10 light-years. Also by the 1960s, the success of the “Big Bang” Hypothesis had provided astronomers with a causal physical model of an expanding universe with an instantaneous beginning and a finite age and size. Since...

aberration, stellar

aberration, stellar   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
484 words

...light from a star, the observed direction of the star deviates from its true direction. This deviation, known as aberration, depends on the velocity of the observer on the earth and on the velocity of light. The maximum deviation owing to the earth's moving around its orbit is 20.5 seconds of arc. The earth's spin produces an additional much smaller diurnal aberration. James Bradley , England's third Astronomer Royal, discovered stellar aberration serendipitously. He was looking for evidence of stellar parallax, a concept at the heart of the heliocentric...

dialectical materialism

dialectical materialism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
498 words

..., and Sergei Ivanovich Vavilov . Loren R. Graham , Science and Philosophy in the Soviet Union (1972). Helena Sheehan , Marxism and the Philosophy of Science: A Critical History (1993). Ernst Mayr , Roots of Dialectical Materialism, in Na Perelome: Sovetskaia Biologiaa v 20–30kh Godakh , ed. E. I. Kolchinskii (1997): 12–17. Loren R....

Forces

Forces  

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

...alias positrons, which are the particles of matter that respond most nimbly to the electric force. In the 19th century, electricity and magnetism came to be seen as different manifestations of a single cosmic force, electromagnetism. This unification was extended during the 20th century, to link electromagnetism with the so-called weak force, which is responsible for changing one kind of matter particle into another, in radioactivity. Only charged particles feel the electric force, but all particles of matter feel the weak force, carried by W and Z...

Ocean currents

Ocean currents  

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

...‘I've had this dream for 20 years,’ said Georges Balmino , leader of the Groupe de Recherches de Géodésie Spatiale uniting eight French scientific teams. ‘If we could compare the real and ideal sea levels with sufficient accuracy, we could vastly improve our knowledge of ocean currents and their role in climate. Thanks to GOCE and the improved radar satellites, that dream will soon come true.’ ‘A lunatic hypothesis’ Lest anyone should feel complacent, some leading ocean physicists thought that the computer models of the 20th century were based on a false...

Sun's interior

Sun's interior  

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

...is only a pimple compared with some lofty peaks chosen for modern telescopes, but it was there that Edwin Hubble discovered the expansion of the Universe in the late 1920s. And Mount Wilson was also the scene of two of the three top discoveries about the Sun, made during the 20th century. In 1908 George Hale , founder of the observatory, measured magnetic fields on the Sun by the Zeeman effect, which alters the wavelengths of light. The dark blemishes called sunspots turned out to be scenes of intense magnetism, and the bright flashes called solar...

Climate change

Climate change   Reference library

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
3,591 words

... Climate Change blamed the moderate warming of the 20th century on man-made gases, and predicted a much greater warming of 3°C in the 21st century, accompanied by rising sea-levels. This scenario prompted the world's leaders to sign, just two years later, a climate convention promising to curb emissions of greenhouse gases. Thenceforward, someone or other blamed man-made global warming for every great windstorm, flood or drought, just as global cooling had been blamed for the same kinds of events, 20 years earlier. Ever-more complex models The alarm about...

Discovery

Discovery   Reference library

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
3,519 words

... but it is usually credited to a 20th-century philosopher, Karl Popper of London , who regarded it as a lynchpin of science. Paul Feyerabend was Popper's star pupil and, like him, Austrian-born. But at UC Berkeley, Feyerabend rebelled against his master. ‘The idea that science can, and should, be run according to fixed and universal rules, is both unrealistic and pernicious,’ he wrote. He declared that the only rule that survives is ‘Anything goes.’ Also at Berkeley was the most influential historian of science in the 20th century, the physicist Thomas...

Human ecology

Human ecology   Reference library

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
3,236 words

...beyond eco-colonialism I n bolivia , the high plateau or Altiplano stands at a chilly, thin-air altitude of 3800 metres, between the majestic snow-capped ranges of the Andes. Especially bleak is the marshy ground towards Titicaca, the great lake of the Altiplano. Here, in the late 20th century, Aymara Indian farmers scraped a living on small rises, avoiding the lowest ground. But if their potatoes didn't rot in the wet, the frequent frosts threatened them. Unable to pay for fertilizers, the farmers often had to let the poor soil lie fallow for several years, in...

View: