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Overview

20/20

Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Lignocaine

Lignocaine   Reference library

A-Z of Plastic Surgery

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Medicine and health, Surgery
Length:
46 words

...Local anaesthetic : Maximal dose plain is 3 mg/kg. With adrenaline is 7 mg/kg, e.g. 70 kg man and 2% lignocaine plain = 70 × 3 ÷ 20 = 10.5 ml; 80 kg man with 2% with = 80 × 7 ÷ 20 = 28...

Heberden’s node

Heberden’s node   Reference library

A-Z of Plastic Surgery

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Medicine and health, Surgery
Length:
32 words

...node Bony spurs on the dorsal aspect of the DIPJ . The most common clinical manifestation of OA. 10–20× more common in women. Rarely they may produce pain and require...

Hyaluronic acid preparations

Hyaluronic acid preparations   Reference library

A-Z of Plastic Surgery

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Medicine and health, Surgery
Length:
37 words

...acid preparations Preparations such as restylane and Perlane are composed of synthetically manufactured hyaluronic acid. 20–50% are absorbed by 6 months. They are typically injected superficially to treat wrinkles and increase lip definition. See Alloplasts...

Hydrogen cyanide

Hydrogen cyanide   Reference library

A-Z of Plastic Surgery

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Medicine and health, Surgery
Length:
41 words

...cyanide See Inhalation . • Binds to and inhibits cytochrome oxidase. • Rapidly fatal in concentrations of >20 ppm and serum concentration of >1 mg/L. • Almond odour. • Treat with amyl nitrite, which traps cyanide, also sodium thiosulphate and...

Alopecia

Alopecia   Reference library

A-Z of Plastic Surgery

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Medicine and health, Surgery
Length:
39 words

...• Primary excision with rotation flaps such as the Ortichochea flap are useful to correct defects covering 15–20% of the hair-bearing scalp. • Also Juri flaps . • Tissue expansion . See Hair restoration with flaps . See Burns reconstruction...

Osteochondroma

Osteochondroma   Reference library

A-Z of Plastic Surgery

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Medicine and health, Surgery
Length:
105 words

... The most common benign Bone tumour . • Cartilage-capped bony exostosis near the epiphyseal cartilage plate. • Usually painless. • Growth often stops within 2 years of skeletal maturity. • Most occur in the 20s. • May get local pressure on adjacent structures. • May be solitary or multiple. • Multiple may be hereditary as autosomal dominant (20% have a negative family history). • Most commonly in the radius and ulna and in the hand in the metacarpal and phalanges. • Treat if becomes large and causing cosmetic or functional problem. • Malignant...

Gorlin syndrome

Gorlin syndrome   Reference library

A-Z of Plastic Surgery

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Medicine and health, Surgery
Length:
92 words

...Also called basal cell nevus syndrome. • The naevi are reddish brown and papular. • Autosomal dominant though 20–30% are due to de novo mutations. • Traced to a mutation in a suppressor gene located at 9q23.1–q31 – the Patched gene (PTCH). • Get multiple basal cell naevi with malignant change to Basal cell carcinoma by puberty. • Jaw cysts (adontogenic keratocysts). • Pitting of the palm and soles. • Calcification of the falx cerebri by 20 years of age. • Also pseudohypertelorism, frontal bossing, syndactyly and spina...

Laryngopharyngectomy

Laryngopharyngectomy   Reference library

A-Z of Plastic Surgery

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Medicine and health, Surgery
Length:
88 words

...speech and oral nutrition are lost. • Gastric pull-up and pectoralis major flaps have been used for proximal defects, but have significant morbidity, with up to 40% fistula formation and operative mortality of up to 20%. • Free jejunal transfer is the procedure of choice. The biggest problem remains fistula and stenosis, which occur in about 20% of patients. Excessive length may cause swallowing difficulties. • Voice restoration...

Meissner corpuscles

Meissner corpuscles   Reference library

A-Z of Plastic Surgery

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Medicine and health, Surgery
Length:
48 words

...corpuscles • Sensory receptors only found in the hand. • Rapidly adapting myelinated A fibres, which mediate moving touch and vibration. • They are encapsulated mechanoreceptors in the dermal papillary ridges of the skin. They range from 20 on the finger tip to 5/mm 2 on the...

Ossifying fasciitis

Ossifying fasciitis   Reference library

A-Z of Plastic Surgery

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Medicine and health, Surgery
Length:
57 words

...fasciitis • Rare benign tumour similar histologically to nodular fasciitis, composed of metaplastic bone with calcification. • Rapidly growing lesion which may be mistaken for a malignancy. Usually found in the trunk and upper and lower limbs. • Most common in women 20–30 years, may be associated with trauma (10%). • Treatment is local...

Plantaris: anatomy and harvest

Plantaris: anatomy and harvest   Reference library

A-Z of Plastic Surgery

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Medicine and health, Surgery
Length:
66 words

...anatomy and harvest • Located anterior and medial to Achilles tendon. • Absent in 7% of cadavers though clinically Harvey found it absent in 20% of limbs. Can be detected with CT scan or USS. Also unusable at times due to its insertions. • Harvest with transverse incision just anterior to medial aspect of Achilles tendon. Divide and pass suture then stripper. See Tendon reconstruction...

Semmes–Weinstein monofilament testing

Semmes–Weinstein monofilament testing   Reference library

A-Z of Plastic Surgery

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Medicine and health, Surgery
Length:
56 words

...monofilament testing • Technique of Sensation testing to evaluate light touch and deep pressure. • Uses 20 nylon monofilaments with a constant length, but increasing diameter. • They are applied perpendicular and the patient responds when feeling sensation. • The figures range from 1.56 to 6.65 with 2.44–2.83 being normal for a...

Sodium bicarbonate

Sodium bicarbonate   Reference library

A-Z of Plastic Surgery

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Medicine and health, Surgery
Length:
62 words

...solution between ionized and non-ionized forms. The non-ionized form goes into the nerve more rapidly. • Alkalization of the solution changes the concentration of the non-ionized form and increases the rapidity of onset. • Dose to give are 1 mEq/10 ml lignocaine and 0.1 mEq/20 ml...

Aneurysmal bone cyst

Aneurysmal bone cyst   Reference library

A-Z of Plastic Surgery

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Medicine and health, Surgery
Length:
49 words

...bone cyst • Blood-filled cysts lined with fleshy membrane. • 50% occur secondary to other tumours. • 20s–30s. • Tendency to recur, can be aggressive. XR: Metaphyseal expansile lesion with a thin rim of reactive bone. Treatment is bloc bone excision and strut graft. See Bone tumours...

Bites

Bites   Reference library

A-Z of Plastic Surgery

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Medicine and health, Surgery
Length:
51 words

...• Human: aerobic pathogens include Staph. aureus and epidermidis, and Strep . Anaerobic bacteria include Peptostrep. peptococci, Eikenella corodens and bacteroides. • Animal: dogs and cats also have Pasteurella multocida . Only 20% of dog bites get infected, whereas 80% of cat bites get infected due to the depth of the...

Body Mass Index (BMI)

Body Mass Index (BMI)   Reference library

A-Z of Plastic Surgery

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Medicine and health, Surgery
Length:
42 words

...Mass Index (BMI) Measured by body wt (kg) divided by height 2 (m) • Normal 20–25 kg/m 2 • Overweight 25–30 kg/m 2 • Obese 30–35 kg/m 2 • Morbidly obese 35–55 kg/m 2 • Super morbidly obese >55 kg/m 2 See Obesity...

Dermatofibroma

Dermatofibroma   Reference library

A-Z of Plastic Surgery

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Medicine and health, Surgery
Length:
68 words

...• Also called nodular subepidermal fibrosis, fibroma simplex, sclerosing haemangioma, noduli cutanei, fibroma durum and histiocytoma. • Papule or nodule, usually in the extremities. • Usually solitary, but 20% of patients have more than one. • Slow growing, attached to the skin. Vary from 1 to 2 cm. • Histologically composed of proliferating fibrocytes, collagen, vessels and monocytes. • Either no treatment or excise. See Mesodermal tumours...

Ewing’s sarcoma

Ewing’s sarcoma   Reference library

A-Z of Plastic Surgery

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Medicine and health, Surgery
Length:
106 words

...sarcoma • Primitive malignant Bone tumour with small cells with round nuclei and without distinct cytoplasmic border. • Probably of neuroectodermal origin. • Occur in 20s to 30s. • Found in the upper limb in 20% of patients, the humerus is the most common site. • Present with pain, raised ESR, anaemia, raised white count and low grade fever. Mimic osteomyelitis. • The tumour infiltrates the Haversian canals without diffuse cortical destruction. • XR: mottled radiolucent lesion, poor boundaries, onion peel periosteal reaction. • Most are stage...

Leucoplakia

Leucoplakia   Reference library

A-Z of Plastic Surgery

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Medicine and health, Surgery
Length:
70 words

...vulval, vaginal mucosa. • In the mouth it is often seen in older men, linked to smoking, poor-fitting dentures and poor oral hygiene. • Microscopically get hyperkeratosis and acanthosis. Get cellular atypia in epidermal layer and inflammatory infiltrate in dermal layer. • 15–20% undergo malignant transformation. The Squamous cell carcinoma that develop are much more aggressive than those associated with Solar keratosis...

Louis–Bar syndrome

Louis–Bar syndrome   Reference library

A-Z of Plastic Surgery

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Medicine and health, Surgery
Length:
97 words

...and then on the upper half of the body. • Cerebella ataxia also begins in early childhood, followed by progressive neuromotor degeneration. • Also get endocrine dysfunction, chromosomal instability, immunologic deficiencies, and growth retardation. • Death usually occurs in the 20s from recurrent sinopulmonary infections and bronchiectasis or from lymphoreticular malignancy. • Heterozygous carriers of the gene also may be at significantly increased risk for...

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