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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Index on Censorship

Index on Censorship   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,309 words

... Projects, 2008–2009 . http://www.indexoncensorship.org/?p=356 . Index on Censorship. Winners of the Index on Censorship Freedom of Expression Awards 2007 . Press release. March 14, 2007. http://www.gristcommunications.com/media/Winners%20of%20the%20Index%20on%20Censorship%20Freedom%20of%20Expression%20Awards%202007.pdf . International Freedom of Expression Exchange. Amnesty Awards Recognise Persecuted Journalists . June 24, 2008. http://www.ifex.org/en/content/view/full/94791 . Scammell, Michael . “How Index on Censorship Started.” Index on...

Care International

Care International   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,254 words

...Eliza . The Courage to Change: Confronting the Limits and Unleashing the Potential of CARE's Programming for Women. Synthesis Report: Phase 2. CARE International Strategic Impact Inquiry on Women's Empowerment. February 2006. http://www.csps.emory.edu/SII%20Phase%202%20Synthesis%20Report%20Final.pdf . McCaston, M. Catherine . Moving CARE's Programming Forward, Unifying Framework for Poverty Eradiation and Social Justice and Underlying Causes of Poverty. January 2005. http://www.pqdl.care.org . Slim, Hugo . Military Intervention to Protect Human...

Palestine

Palestine   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,695 words

...20Conflict%20-%20Eng%209%20october.pdf . Rose, David . “The Gaza Bombshell.” Vanity Fair , April 2008. Simpson, Gerlad . Detainees’ Denied Justice: The Palestinian Authority's Contempt for Its Judiciary. July 1999. A comprehensive background report on the PA Judiciary covering the period from 1994–1999 and funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, Canada Fund, European Foundation, Finnish Representative's Office to the PNA, the Moriah Fund and the Government of the Netherland. http://www.phrmg.org/PHRMG%20Documents/Detainees%20Denied%20...

Chechnya

Chechnya   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,190 words

....] bibliography American Committee for Peace in the Caucasus. Ingushetia: Trends behind the Recent Violence: Interview with Eliza Musaeva and Tanya Lokshina . Interview conducted by Iva Savic, October 28, 2007. http://peaceinthecaucasus.org/PDF%20and%20Audio%20files/Eliza%20Musaeva%20and%20Tanya%20Lokshina%20Interview.html American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. Catastrophe in Chechnya: Escaping the Quagmire . Transcript of conference held December 10, 2003. Amnesty International. Russia . ...

Jus Cogens

Jus Cogens   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
1,882 words

...represent not only rules of international customary law but rules which also have the character of jus cogens . (Preliminary Report by the Special Representative of the Commission on Human Rights on the Human Rights Situation in the Islamic Republic of Iran, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/1985/20, paragraph 19 ( 1985 ) This was an extraordinarily broad pronouncement of the rights covered by the concept, one not shared by most subsequent courts and scholars. Death Penalty for Juveniles An example of the development of a jus cogens norm is the prohibition against the death...

Israel

Israel   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,202 words

...harming others (derived from John Stuart Mill's philosophy)—are enshrined also in humanistic Judaism. In 2007 the Israeli population was approximately 7.2 million. Some 20 percent of the Jewish people in Israel are religious and may prefer theocracy over democracy. Some 20 percent of the Israeli people are Palestinian Arabs who do not endorse the Zionist ethos of the state. A further 20 percent of Israelis arrived from the Soviet Union and are in many cases unfamiliar with the practice of democracy. Most of the Russian immigrants are secular, if not...

Jimmy Carter

Jimmy Carter   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,437 words

...the Republicans. With Cold War anti-Communism on the wane during the détente years, it was an alternative “big idea” that seemed to offer a morally satisfying antidote to the mid-1970s American malaise. “Our commitment to human rights must be absolute,” declared Carter in his 20 January 1977 inauguration speech. A few days later he was presented with a perfect opportunity to display this commitment when Andrei Sakharov complained to him about Moscow's persecution of Soviet dissidents. Carter wrote back that the United States would “promote respect for...

International Center for Transitional Justice (ICTJ)

International Center for Transitional Justice (ICTJ)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,601 words

...by over 40 percent from the previous year. This tremendous growth naturally put operational strains on the organization, but its widely respected programming continued to attract the necessary funding. Its projected expenditures for fiscal year 2008–2009 stood at close to $20 million, a 20 percent increase over the previous year. Contribution The founding and growth of the ICTJ mirror an equivalent blossoming of the field of transitional justice more generally. “Transitional justice” was a new and little-known area of work when the Center was founded. It is...

Simon Wiesenthal

Simon Wiesenthal   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,417 words

...behind the Final Solution's implementation, and Franz Stangl, the commander at the Sobibor and Treblinka camps. Through his many lectures worldwide, Wiesenthal promoted tolerance and understanding, and a heightened awareness of the evils and dangers of racism. He died in Vienna on 20 September 2005 at the age of ninety-six. Early Life Wiesenthal's father, Hans, was a commodities trader and Austrian Army officer who died in combat during World War I. Young Simon survived a pogrom by the Cossacks in which he was injured. He attended secondary school in Galicia...

Lebanon

Lebanon   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
4,844 words

...of personal status to the religious authorities. Article 13 covers the basic freedoms of speech, assembly, and association, whereas Article 15 protects rights of ownership. Section B of the constitution deals with powers, and under the heading “General Provisions” (B.I.), Article 20 guarantees the independence of judges in the exercise of their duties. Judicial independence, one might recall, is a fundamental element of an effective human rights regime. Among those provisions of the Taif Agreement not included in the amended Lebanese constitution, stipulations...

P.E.N.

P.E.N.   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
1,493 words

...the literature of its neighbors, it is less likely to be afraid of them and would recognize common yearnings and feelings expressed in their novels and poetry. Writers should strive to make words for peace—not words for war. Many P.E.N. speeches thus contain reference to Article 20 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which specifically prohibits propaganda for war. Membership, Committees, and Congresses As of September 2008 , P.E.N. comprised 146 centers in 104 countries on six continents—with a total membership of more than ten...

African Union

African Union   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
9,913 words

...Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights. http://www.achpr.org . African Union. http://www.africa-union.org/root/au/index/index.htm . African Union. African [Banjul] Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights . http://www.africa-union.org/official_documents/Treaties_%20Conventions_%20Protocols/Banjul%20Charter.pdf . African Union. Decision on the Seats of the African Union . Assembly/AU/Dec.45(III). http://www.asil.org/rio/africanunion.html . Ankumah, Evelyn A. The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights: Practices and Procedures . The Hague: Martinus...

Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,021 words

...Hitler The man who would become one of the twentieth century's most important opponents of the concept of human rights was born on 20 April 1889 into the family of a customs official of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Always close to his mother Klara, Hitler maintained a troubled relationship with his father Alois, most likely because of young Adolf's disinterest in serious study and the kind of dedication to work that had enabled his father to build a substantial career as a civil servant in spite of his impoverished origins. Although all known evidence...

Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices

Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,468 words

...the figure escalated. For example, the ongoing conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo killed 3.8 million people by the end of 2004 and showed no sign of diminishing. Each violent death was accompanied by sixty-two nonviolent deaths, according to the New York Times ( 20 March 2005 ). Somalia, a country where FGM affects essentially all women, has been racked by endemic violence since the early 1990s. These conflicts have disrupted entire societies, leading in some cases to indictment of leading political figures for war crimes and crimes against...

Limburg Principles on Socioeconomic Rights

Limburg Principles on Socioeconomic Rights   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,268 words

...Principles Turn Ten: An Impact Assessment.” In The Maastricht Guidelines on Violations of Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights , edited by Theo C. van Boven , Cees Flinterman , and Ingrid Westendorp , 191–205. Utrecht: Netherlands Institute of Human Rights, SIM Special No. 20, 1998. The Nature of States Parties Obligations (Art. 2, para. 1 ICESCR), General Comment No. 3 (1990) adopted by the UN Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, contained in UN Doc. E/1991/23. Sepúlveda, M. Magdalena . The Nature of Obligations under the International...

Bahá’í Faith

Bahá’í Faith   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,274 words

...that Bahá’ís are apostates of Islam. New waves of persecution were unleashed in the last two decades of the twentieth century and the opening decade of the twenty-first century. History of the Bahá’í Faith and Its Two Prophets The Báb was born in Shiraz, in southwest Persia, on 20 October 1819 . During his lifetime many followers of the “Twelver” school of the Shia branch of Islam—the predominant branch in Persia—anticipated the return of the twelfth, or “hidden,” Imam, a messianic figure. In 1844 Mulla Husayn-i-Bushrú’i , a follower of the teachings of ...

Oxfam

Oxfam   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,451 words

...NGOs of Adopting Rights-Based Approaches. ” Intrac Occasional Papers Series 41 (November 2005). Ljungman, Cecilia M. Applying a Rights-Based Approach to Development: Concepts and Principles . http:www.sed.manchester.ac.uk/research/events/conferences/documents/Winners%20and%Losers%20Papers/Ljungman.pdf . Offenheiser, Raymond C. , and Susan H. Holcombe . “ Challenges and Opportunities in Implementing a Rights-Based Approach to Development: An Oxfam America Perspective. ” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 32, no. 2 (June 2003): 268–306. Oxfam...

International Council on Human Rights Policy

International Council on Human Rights Policy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
1,918 words

...of donors have supported the Council. The Ford Foundation played a crucial role during the organization's formative stages and has continued to support its work. Governments have also sponsored its work. The bulk of the organization's 2007 income of 2.180 million Swiss francs (20 percent) came from the United States (40 percent), half of which came from the Ford Foundation; the bulk of the remainder came from Switzerland (7 percent), Sweden (10 percent), the Netherlands (14 percent), and the United Kingdom (29 percent). In previous years, the governments of...

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,975 words

...Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. “Human Rights Commission of Sri Lanka Act, No. 21 of 1996.” The Gazette of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka , August 23, 1996, Part II. http://www.hrcsl.lk/PFF/HRC%20Act.pdf . Prevention of Terrorism Act. The Gazette of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka , July 20, 1979, No. 48. http://www.tamilnation.org/srilankalaws/79pta.htm . Richardson, John . Paradise Poisoned: Learning about Conflict, Terrorism, and Development from Sri Lanka's Civil Wars . Colombo, Sri Lanka: International...

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,894 words

...increase, adjusting for inflation, in spending since the peak of the postwar years, when UNICEF's budget was just over $50 million. The two largest areas of spending are child survival and development, accounting for 52.4 percent, and basic education and gender equality, at 20.3 percent. Other program areas, such as child protection or policy advocacy, take up smaller portions but have grown substantially since UNICEF expanded from its focus on basic health and education interventions. During its early years, UNICEF was not particularly concerned with...

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