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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Web 1.0/Web 2.0

Web 1.0/Web 2.0   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Web 1.0/Web 2.0 . The terms Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 are typically used to compare different stages in the development of the World Wide Web (invented in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee). As the numbers suggest, Web 1.0 is used to refer to the first stage in the development of the web, whereas Web 2.0 (a term coined in 1999 ) denotes a later stage, which became prominent in the mid-2000s. At the heart of the comparison between Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 is a perceived shift with respect to the web’s interactivity. Web 1.0 is seen as a read-only, comparatively...

World-Wide Web

World-Wide Web   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...World-Wide Web ( WWW , the Web ) . A global electronic system for organizing, making available and accessing documents on the internet using a hypertext system. See web 1.0/web 2.0 . ...

Amelioration

Amelioration   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2018

...extravagant, elegant, rare, strange (15–16c), effeminate, shy, tender, slender, delicate, unimportant (16–17c), over-refined (17–18c), careful, precise, intricate, difficult, fastidious (16–19c), dainty, appetizing (18–19c), refined, cultured, discriminating (17–20c), and agreeable, pleasant (18–20c). See pejoration . ...

Jive

Jive   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2018

...Jive ( jive talk ) . 1. The slang or jargon associated in the earlier 20c with such African-American forms of music as jive (swing, jazz, etc.). 2. In the later 20c, an informal term for flattering, deceptive, exaggerated, meaningless talk, especially among black Americans ( Hey, don’t give me that jive, man! ); double talk : ‘Everything that we do must be aimed toward the total liberation, unification and empowerment of Afrika. Anything short of that is jive’ ( Black World , Oct. 1973 ). Compare blarney ; rap . ...

Stock

Stock   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2018

...especially as part of a stock-in-trade of topics, arguments, plots, jokes, expressions, etc. ‘If Agatha Christie works almost entirely with what the critics call “stock responses”, she knows how to take advantage of our responding in a stock way to stock situations’ ( The Times , 20 Sept. 1975 ). Compare cliché . ...

Sabir

Sabir   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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2018

... sabir to know] . A name for the original lingua franca , the earliest known pidgin based on a European language. Its vocabulary is drawn mainly from the southern romance languages , and it was used from the time of the Crusades (11–13c) until the beginning of the 20c for communication among Europeans, Turks, Arabs, and others in the Levant. It is believed by some scholars to have served as a base for the development of Atlantic and other pidgin languages first used by Portuguese sailors and traders and later by the British, Dutch, French, and...

Descriptivism and Prescriptivism

Descriptivism and Prescriptivism   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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2018

...and Prescriptivism . Contrasting terms in linguistics . Descriptivism is an approach that proposes the objective and systematic description of language, in which investigators confine themselves to facts as they can be observed; particularly, the approach favoured by mid–20c US linguists known as descriptivists . Prescriptivism is an approach, especially to grammar, that sets out rules for what is regarded as correct in language. In debates on language and education, enthusiasts for one side often use the label for the other side dismissively. ...

Sociologese

Sociologese   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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2018

...Sociologese (20c: from sociology and -ese as in journalese ) . An informal, usually pejorative term for the style and register of sociologists, especially when addressed to or used by non-sociologists. Critics who condemn sociologese usually make a simultaneous plea for plain language , especially in speeches and texts addressed to the general public. The issue appears to be the need to fit register to audience and be clear in what one says and writes rather than the invasion of the language at large by the jargon of sociology. See academic usage...

Affordance

Affordance   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2018

...studies generally to refer to the opportunities made available by a resource, especially a technology. It is typically used to describe the range of potential uses made available to the user. This term is often used in contrast to ‘constraint’. For example, the development of web 2.0 brought new affordances to computer-mediated communication and meant that there were new things that users could do, for example commenting on a blog , something that at the time of writing is taken for granted. ...

Language Shift

Language Shift   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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2018

...Language Shift . A term in linguistics for a massive shift in use from one language to another, as in Ireland from gaelic to English (18–20c). In 1964 , the US linguist Joshua A. Fishman introduced the dual notion language maintenance and language shift ( LMLS ) to discuss the situation of ‘the minority language or small national language faced by pressures related to a much bigger national or international language’. To the latter, of which English is the pre-eminent example, he has given the name language of wider communication ( LWC ). ...

Chat

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The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2018

...and not necessarily restricted to one-to-one communication. Early uses of chat pre-date the web , with the first chat system being established in 1973 . Early popular chat systems included ICQ (‘I seek you’) and AOL’s Instant Messenger. With the development of Web 2.0, chat services became increasingly incorporated into various websites and is now a standard feature of most online communication, e.g. Facebook, Twitter, Skype. The integration with smartphones means that for most uses there is almost no difference between chat and text messaging...

Hybrid

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The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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2018

...on propriety and aesthetics. Traditionally, they have been considered barbarisms; purists have assumed that just as Latin, Greek, French, and English are distinct languages, so elements from these languages within English should be distinct. Hybridization has grown steadily in the 20c, with such words as genocide, hydrofoil, hypermarket, megastar, microwave, photo-journalism, Rototiller, Strip-a-gram, volcanology . See african english ; anglo-hybrid ; barbarism ; combining form ; indian english ; thematic vowel . ...

Substantive

Substantive   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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2018

...Substantive . A grammatical term that in the Middle Ages included both noun and adjective, but later meant noun exclusively. It is not usually found in later 20c English grammars. In such languages as Latin and French, the equivalent terms serve to distinguish the use of latin nomen , French nom (etc.) as ‘name’ from the grammatical use as ‘noun’, a distinction which is unnecessary in English. However, the term has been used to refer to nouns and any other parts of speech serving as nouns (‘the substantive in English’). The adjective local is used...

Computing

Computing   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2018

...to new ends, as in computational linguistics and artificial intelligence . (3) Their users have developed their own styles and registers for working with them and talking about them. Since the 1950s, these factors have developed explosively and are major influences on late 20c English, the language most closely involved in computing. See computer-mediated communication ; internet ; world-wide web . ...

Literary Standard

Literary Standard   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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2018

...Literary Standard ( Literary English ) . A term used by Eric partridge in the mid-20c for the English of literary prose: [It] lies beyond any matter of pronunciation, and is confined to written English,—and should it be used in speech, it is too bookish to be Received. Of Literary English—Literary Standard—it is necessary only to say that it is the more conventional, stylized, and dignified, more accurate and logical, sometimes the more beautiful form that Received Standard assumes, like evening dress, for important occasions ( Usage and Abusage , ...

Oxford English

Oxford English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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2018

...Oxford English . 1. English spoken with an oxford accent , widely considered, especially in the earlier 20c, to be ‘the best’ BrE usage, but also regarded by many as affected and pretentious. 2. A term used by Oxford University Press in recent years virtually as a trade name in the promotion of English-language reference books and ELT course materials. It occurs in the title of Oxford English: A Guide to the Language , ed. I. C. B. Dear ( 1983 ). This work is presented as ‘a guide to correct written and spoken English and an accessible introduction...

American Language, The

American Language, The   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2018

...independence. Revised and enlarged editions of the AL appeared in 1921 , 1923 , and 1936 , with two large supplements to the 4th edition in 1945 and 1948 . The later editions used anecdotal contributions from readers as well as contemporary AmE scholarship. Mencken ignored 20c developments in linguistics. A 1963 abridgement and conflation of the 4th edition and its supplements (which remain in print as a three-volume set) was edited with additions by Raven I. McDavid Jr. ...

Anglo-Hybrid

Anglo-Hybrid   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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2018

...by, those languages affected today will undergo irreversible change, as English did after the Danish invasions and the Norman Conquest’ ( Tom McArthur , ‘The Coming Hybrids’, Verbatim: The Language Quarterly 29: 3, Winter 1993 ). The phenomenon has been particularly noted in the 20c, giving rise to such often facetious but troubled terms as Spanglish , for English mixed with spanish , especially in the US, and Taglish , for English mixed with tagalog in the Philippines. See code-mixing and code-switching . ...

Received Standard and Modified Standard

Received Standard and Modified Standard   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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2018

...Received Standard and Modified Standard . Highly prescriptive and outdated terms which were proposed by Henry Cecil Wyld at the beginning of the 20c to contrast two kinds of pronunciation in Great Britain: It is proposed to use the term Received Standard for that form which all would probably agree in considering the best, that form which has the widest currency and is heard with practically no variation among speakers of the better class all over the country. This type might be called Public School English. It is proposed to call the vulgar English...

Yiddishism

Yiddishism   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2018

...1880s Yiddishisms began entering English in great numbers. The centrality of london and new york City, where most of the immigrants settled, played a major role in disseminating such usages as Yid, Yiddish, shnorrer, shlemiel, gefilte fish, shul, bar mitzva . Throughout the 20c, Yiddishisms have continued to make their way into English, increasingly as slang. The chief medium of transfer remains the Yiddish-influenced variety of English used by Jews of Eastern European origin or descent. See jewish english . ...

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