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20/20

Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

7‐20‐8

7‐20‐8 (1907)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Theatre (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
337 words

...20‐8 ; or, Casting the Boomerang , ( 1907 ) , a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly . [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady , picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman and her huge dog that both Courtney Corliss (John Drew ), a handsome young man‐about‐town, and the remote Lord Lawntennis decide to seek her out. The Englishman sends an effervescent Italian opera impresario, Signor Tamborini ( William Gilbert ), to do his legwork. Corliss's and Tamborini's search brings them to the country estate of...

7-20-8

7-20-8  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1907),a “comedy of to‐day” by Augustin Daly. [Daly's Theatre, 49 perf.] Portrait of a Lady, picture #728 at the annual Academy exhibition, so lovingly depicts a beautiful woman and ...
Titus Andronicus

Titus Andronicus   Reference library

Sonia Massai and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,504 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...enjoyed by the ‘blood tragedies’ written in the late 1580s and early 1590s. In 1785 Malone ascribed the play to Marlowe, Shakespeare’s main rival at the beginning of his career. The theory of co-authorship, which first emerged in the early 20th century, is currently the most popular. Only towards the middle of the 20th century did critics start to overlook the vexed question of authorship in order to establish the intrinsic qualities of the play itself. Peter Brook ’s cornerstone production at Stratford in 1955 triggered off an unprecedented number of...

Sonnets

Sonnets   Reference library

Michael Dobson

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,480 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...persuade a beautiful young man to marry on the same grounds, and when the sonnets do turn their attentions to a female addressee they do so with a contemptuous bitterness unequalled by any previous anti-Petrarchan writer. Although Richard Barnfield ’s Cynthia ( 1595 ) includes 20 homoerotic sonnets addressed to a boy, no other English sonnet collection of its time is as preoccupied as Shakespeare’s with an intense relationship between two men. Synopsis: Attempts to read the Sonnets as a single consecutive narrative are controversial: the following...

Pericles

Pericles   Reference library

Sonia Massai and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,543 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...shows that the first and most deceptively simple of Shakespeare’s late romances was written no later than 1608 . A manuscript copy of the play, most probably the promptbook used by the King’s Men at the Globe , was entered in the Stationers’ Register by Edward Blount on 20 May 1608 . In the same year, George Wilkins published a novel called The Painful Adventures of Pericles Prince of Tyre , which is clearly based on the play. The Italian ambassador Giorgio Giustinian saw a production of Pericles during his visit to London between January...

The Taming of the Shrew

The Taming of the Shrew   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,052 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...his wedding to Bianca and Hortensio’s to the Widow; after the three brides leave the chamber, each husband bets 20 crowns that his wife will return most obediently when summoned. Bianca and the Widow refuse to come, but Katherine comes immediately, and at Petruccio’s bidding fetches the other two wives, throws off her hat, and preaches a long homily on wifely obedience, thereby winning him the wager. A delighted Baptista adds another 20,000 crowns to Petruccio’s winnings. (In The Taming of a Shrew , Sly, now asleep, is put back into his own clothes and...

Troilus and Cressida

Troilus and Cressida   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,065 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...of different accounts: George Chapman’s translation Seven Books of the Iliads of Homer (from which Shakespeare drew the character of Thersites, though not his actions); William Caxton ’s Recuyell of the Histories of Troy ( 1475 ) and John Lydgate ’s Troy Book ( c. 1412–20 ), both derived from a common Italian original (these supplied material for most of the play’s battle scenes and the debate in Troy, among much else); and Ovid ’s Metamorphoses (from which Shakespeare derived his opposition between the intelligent Ulysses and the ‘blockish’...

Antony and Cleopatra

Antony and Cleopatra   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,330 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...subject, Cleopatra , published in 1607 , and in Barnabe Barnes’s play The Devil’s Charter , acted by the King’s Men in February 1607 , so in all probability Antony and Cleopatra enjoyed its first performances late in 1606 . It was entered in the Stationers’ Register on 20 May 1608 . Text: Despite this entry, the play was not printed until the publication of the First Folio in 1623 , which provides the only authoritative text. It seems to have been printed from a good transcript of Shakespeare’s own foul papers , though not a Promptbook : although...

All’s Well That Ends Well

All’s Well That Ends Well   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,814 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...himself to be committing treason when he is merely destroying his credit with his comrades) with the bed-trick used against Bertram (who believes himself to be committing adultery when he is really condemning himself to his arranged marriage). Critical history: Before the mid-20th century, All’s Well That Ends Well characteristically received only qualified or grudging praise from literary critics, when it enjoyed their attention at all. Throughout its critical history the play’s inversions of the normal patterns of romantic comedy—its sympathy with an...

Coriolanus

Coriolanus   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,020 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...violating poetic justice. During the 19th century and the first part of the 20th much criticism of the play was similarly dedicated to showing how and why it was inferior to the earlier tragedies, with A. C. Bradley commenting on the critical distance Shakespeare maintains between audience and characters by ironic humour and Harley Granville-Barker praising the play’s supreme, focused craftsmanship at the expense of its vitality. Frank Harris pioneered one recurrent strain in 20th-century criticism in The Women in Shakespeare ( 1911 ) when he claimed...

Cymbeline, King of Britain

Cymbeline, King of Britain   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,998 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Welsh cave, Belarius warns his untravelled sons Polydore and Cadwal against the vices of court life: when they have gone hunting, he confides to the audience that though brought up to think he is their father they are really Guiderius and Arviragus, Cymbeline’s sons, whom he stole 20 years earlier to avenge his unjust banishment. 3.4 Near Milford, Pisanio is unable to carry out Posthumus’ orders, which he shows to Innogen: outraged, she renounces Posthumus and implores Pisanio to kill her as instructed. Pisanio tells her he is sure Posthumus has been deceived,...

King John

King John   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,371 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...an entire dumb show of the signing of the Magna Carta in his 1899 revival. In the 20th century the play’s set pieces of pathos fell from favour, although periodic revivals rediscovered their power: among notable Constances have been Sybil Thorndike ( 1917–18 , and again in 1941 ), while the Bastard has been played to great effect by Ralph Richardson ( 1931–2 ), Paul Scofield ( 1945 ), and Richard Burton ( 1953 ). The most critically admired production of the later 20th century was undoubtedly that of Deborah Warner for the RSC ( 1988 ). Gregory...

Timon of Athens

Timon of Athens   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,245 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...speaks courteously to all his suitors, pays his friend Ventidius’ debt to free him from prison, and gives his servant Lucilius money to enable him to marry an old Athenian’s daughter. He accepts the offerings of the Poet, the Painter, and the Jeweller, and welcomes Alcibiades, 20 of his fellow knights, and even the snarling philosopher Apemantus, who rails at his fellow guests as parasites. 1.2 At Timon’s great banquet Apemantus continues to satirize the flatterers around him, who shower Timon with gifts but receive larger ones in return. A masque of...

Henry IV Part 1

Henry IV Part 1   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,574 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...national fertility, an ancient but undying personification of the English people—the play has usually been discussed in relation to Shakespeare’s view of history, and to 16th-century views of national destiny more generally. The Second Tetralogy has often been seen, from the early 20th century onwards, as showing England’s fall from Richard II’s lost Eden and its providential reunification and redemption under Henry V, a view associated particularly with E. M. W. Tillyard . He and subsequent commentators have pointed out that the England of 1 Henry IV seems...

Henry V

Henry V   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,163 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to claim French territory and, as a comment on his youth and alleged frivolity, has sent a barrel of tennis balls as a present. The King dismisses the ambassadors after promising that he will soon avenge this mockery in full, and sets the preparations for his campaign in motion. 2.0 The Chorus describes the country’s eager preparations for the war, but also outlines a French-funded conspiracy to assassinate the King at Southampton. 2.1 Corporal Nim and Ensign Pistol quarrel about Nim’s former fiancée the Hostess, Mistress Quickly, whom Pistol has married: they...

Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,203 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...events at will. The Lupercal and the Ides of March, for example, which in the play seem to be successive days, are actually a month apart ( see Calendar, Shakespeare ’s), while the battle of Philippi was actually two battles, the deaths of Cassius and Brutus separated by 20 days rather than the few hours which seem to intervene in the play. Plutarch, however, supplies only the barest summaries of the speeches made at Caesar’s funeral by Brutus and Antony, the latter of which becomes the turning point of Shakespeare’s play, as well as one of the most...

As You Like It

As You Like It   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,253 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...sense triumphed over the foreign affectations represented by Phoebe: according to Frederick Boas, for example, the play replaced ‘the artificial atmosphere of the Renaissance pastoral’ with ‘the open-air freshness, the breeze and blue of the old English ballad-poetry’ ( 1896 ). The 20th century saw a renewed and usually more complicated interest in the play’s dealings with the literary conventions of its time, with scholars reading it not only against Lodge’s Rosalynde (dismissed as ‘worthless’ by George Steevens in 1770 , but studied with increasing...

The Merchant of Venice

The Merchant of Venice   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,171 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...between those who insist that Shakespeare was exposing his Christians’ hypocrisy rather than attacking Judaism, and those who claim that all Elizabethans were automatically anti-Semitic and would have found Shylock’s torments hilarious, continues to this day, though since the early 20th century accounts of Shylock’s significance (such as that offered by Auden in 1948 ) have been more inclined to see him in thematic relation to the play’s other outsider, Antonio. Antonio’s erotically charged patron–client relationship with Bassanio has come under considerable...

A Midsummer Night’s Dream

A Midsummer Night’s Dream   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,220 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the play’s performance history, and are probably authorial. Sources: Most of the plot is Shakespeare’s own invention, though the play draws on a number of literary sources. The most important is Chaucer ’s Knight’s Tale, to which Shakespeare would return, with Fletcher , nearly 20 years later, dramatizing it as The Two Noble Kinsmen . Chaucer’s story provides the basis for Shakespeare’s depiction of Theseus and Hippolyta’s marriage, which it juxtaposes, furthermore, with a rivalry between two men for the same woman, source for the competition between...

Richard III

Richard III   Reference library

Randall Martin and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,559 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...a predatory arachnid was unforgettably enhanced by the black crutches on which he scuttled and swung across the stage. Reg Wilson ©Royal Shakespeare Company Text: The play first appeared in a quarto edition in 1598 (known as Q1), after being entered in the Stationers’ Register on 20 October. This was followed by five more editions derived successively from Q1, which most scholars believe was reconstructed from memory by players who originally performed it (probably the Chamberlain’s Men , Shakespeare’s company, when they went on provincial tour in summer ...

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