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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Fathers of the 20th century

Fathers of the 20th century   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Modern Phrase & Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...of the 20th century . The title ‘Father of’ has long been traditionally applied to a leader, inventor or pioneer of some kind, such as Hippocrates ( 460–377 bc ), the Father of Medicine, or George Washington ( 1732–99 ), the Father of America. The following are some modern ‘Fathers’ in various fields (in order of subject Father of American Music: Charles Ives ( 1874–1954 ), US composer Father of Australia: Sir Edmund Barton ( 1849–1920 ), the first Australian prime minister ( 1901–3 ) Father of Country Music: Jimmie Rodgers ( 1897–1933 ), US...

Dragged kicking and screaming into the 20th century

Dragged kicking and screaming into the 20th century   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Modern Phrase & Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...kicking and screaming into the 20th century . A phrase applied to any person or institution that is reluctant to modernize or resistant to progress. In current usage ‘21st century’ is often used instead. [Listening to ragtime] he felt literally dragged out of the nineteenth into the 20th century. j.b. priestley : in London Opinion , 1913 A change, slight but unmistakable, has taken place; the English theatre has been dragged, as Adlai Stevenson once said of the Republican Party, kicking and screaming into the 20th century. kenneth tynan : Curtains ...

Advertising slogans of the 20th and 21st centuries

Advertising slogans of the 20th and 21st centuries   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Modern Phrase & Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...slogans of the 20th and 21st centuries . The ever-pervasive media of the 20th and 21st centuries has etched several advertising slogans on the collective consciousness, even when no actual interest is individually shown in the particular product. The most powerful have undoubtedly been those shown in television commercials, although the printed advertisements of the first half of the 20th century also generated many memorable phrases. Rhymes, puns and wordplay are often evident. The following is a selection of some of the best known, with the name of...

proscenium arch

proscenium arch   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...arch [ prŏ- seen -iŭm ] The structure separating the main acting area from the auditorium in most Western theatres of the 19th and early 20th centuries. It usually forms a rectangular ‘picture frame’, the ‘picture’ being revealed by opening a curtain. Its associated dramatic conventions often involve the illusion of looking into a room through an invisible ‘fourth...

vaudeville

vaudeville   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...A form of variety show popular in the USA in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and more respectable than the American burlesque show. In Britain, this form of entertainment with various songs, dances, sketches, acrobatics, ventriloquisms, and other ‘acts’ is more often called music hall. In 18th- and 19th-century France, however, vaudeville was a more coherent form of light-hearted comedy interspersed with satirical songs; it evolved into the comic...

belles-lettres

belles-lettres   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...literature from scientific or philosophical writing. Since the 19th century, though, the term has more often been used dismissively to denote a category of elegant essay-writing and lightweight literary chatter, of which much was published in Britain in the late 19th and early 20th centuries: Max Beerbohm ’s essays and Andrew Lang ’s Letters to Dead Authors ( 1896 ) are examples. An author of such elegant trifles is a belletrist . Adjective : belletristic...

broadside

broadside   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...A large sheet of paper printed on one side only, often containing a song or ballad , and sold by wandering pedlars in Britain from the 16th century until the beginning of the 20th century, when they were superseded by mass-circulation newspapers; they also appeared in the USA in the late 19th century. The broadside ballads were intended to be sung to a well-known tune; often they related topical events, and some were adopted as folk songs . Broadsides are sometimes called...

experimentalism

experimentalism   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...The commitment to exploring new concepts and representations of the world through methods that go beyond the established conventions of literary tradition. Experimentalism was an important characteristic of 20th-century literature and art, in which successive avant-garde movements arose in continual reaction against what they regarded as decayed or ossified forms of expression. For examples, see dada , expressionism , futurism , modernism , nouveau roman , surrealism , vorticism...

Grand Guignol

Grand Guignol   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...] A popular French form of melodrama featuring bloody murders, rapes, and other sensational outrages, presented in lurid and gruesome detail. It is named after Guignol, a French puppet-character similar to Mr Punch . The term is now often applied to horror movies; while in late 20th-century fiction, several of Angela Carter ’s stories are studies in Grand Guignol...

nō

  Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...the nō play derives from religious rituals, and is performed by an all-male cast, originally for an aristocratic audience. More than 200 such plays survive from as early as the 14th century, mostly on religious and mythological subjects. English translations appeared in the early 20th century, influencing the work of Ezra Pound , W. B. Yeats , and Bertolt Brecht...

Acmeism

Acmeism   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...A short-lived ( c .1911–21 ) but significant movement in early 20th-century Russian poetry, aiming for precision and clarity in opposition to the alleged vagueness of the preceding Symbolist movement. Its leaders, Nikolai Gumilev and Sergei Gorodetsky , founded an Acmeist ‘Poets’ Guild’ in 1911 , and propounded its principles in the magazine Apollon . The principal poetic luminaries of this school were Anna Akhmatova ( 1889–1966 ) and Osip Mandelstam ( 1891–1938 ). Further reading: Justin Doherty , The Acmeist Movement in Russian Poetry ...

propagandism

propagandism   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Propagandist writing is thus a kind of didactic literature directed toward changing or confirming readers' and audiences' allegiances. Although the concept of propaganda derives from Christian evangelizing traditions, this term is usually applied to socialist literature of the 20th century taking forms such as agitprop , socialist realism , or the epic theatre of...

pulp fiction

pulp fiction   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...fiction A colloquial American term for cheaply produced books and magazines of the early 20th century containing popular kinds of fiction ranging from westerns and detective stories to romances and science fiction . The name comes from the cheap kind of paper upon which they were printed, and is often abbreviated simply to ‘pulp’, as in ‘pulp writer’, ‘pulp magazine’, etc. See also dime novel , novelette , paraliterature...

purple patch

purple patch   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...patch An over-written passage in which the writer has strained too hard to achieve an impressive effect, by elaborate figures or other means. The phrase (Latin, purpureus pannus ) was first used by the Roman poet Horace in his Ars Poetica ( c .20 bce ) to denote an irrelevant and excessively ornate passage; the sense of irrelevance is normally absent in modern usage, although such passages are usually incongruous. By extension, ‘purple prose’ is lavishly figurative, rhythmic, or otherwise overwrought. See also bombast , fustian...

short story

short story   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...more economically than a novel’s sustained exploration of social background. There are similar fictional forms of greater antiquity— fables , lais , folktales , parables , and the French conte —but the short story as we know it flourished in the magazines of the 19th and early 20th centuries, especially in the USA, which has a particularly strong tradition. Further reading: Adrian Hunter , The Cambridge Introduction to the Short Story in English ...

ut pictura poesis

ut pictura poesis   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...pictura poesis [ uut pik- too -ră poh- ees -is ] A phrase used by the Roman poet Horace in his Ars Poetica ( c .20 bce ), meaning ‘as painting is, so is poetry’. The phrase has come to stand for the principle of similarity between the two arts, an idea shared by many writers and artists of different periods and found in common metaphors of literary ‘depiction’ or ‘portrayal’. It held an important place in aesthetic debates of the late Renaissance and in the theories of neoclassicism , but was subjected to an important critique by the German...

middle generation

middle generation   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...generation A term increasingly used since the 1980s to refer collectively to American poets who had been born in the first twenty years of the 20th century, and who made their reputations in its middle decades, 1940–60 . Schematically, the middle-generation poets are regarded as intermediate between poets associated with modernism (most of those having been born in the 1880s) and the later cohorts of the New York school and the Beat writers , mostly born in the 1920s. The poets most often identified as belonging to the middle generation are, by date...

serialized

serialized   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Published in successive instalments, either in a newspaper or magazine, or independently in cheaply bound pamphlet form. Serialization of literary works, especially novels, was a major feature of magazine and newspaper culture from the early 19th century to the early 20th. Alexander Pushkin’s verse novel Eugene Onegin , for example, first appeared serially in magazines from 1825 to 1831 before becoming available as a book in 1833 . Many of Charles Dickens’s novels were first issued in monthly parts, usually containing three chapters apiece. An...

Bildungsroman

Bildungsroman   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...from childhood or adolescence into adulthood, through a troubled quest for identity. The term (‘formation-novel’) comes from Germany, where Goethe ’s Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre ( 1795–6 ) set the pattern for later Bildungsromane . Many outstanding novels of the 19th and early 20th centuries follow this pattern of personal growth: Dickens ’s David Copperfield ( 1849–50 ), for example. When the novel describes the formation of a young artist, as in Joyce ’s A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man ( 1916 ), it may also be called a Künstlerroman . ...

dissociation of sensibility

dissociation of sensibility   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...‘there is a direct sensuous apprehension of thought, or a recreation of thought into feeling’, from the time of Milton and Dryden ‘a dissociation of sensibility set in, from which we have never recovered’. This view had some influence in British and American criticism in the mid-20th century, notably in the Cambridge school and among the New Critics , but it has frequently been challenged as a misleading simplification of literary...

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