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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

New Norse

New Norse   Reference library

S. Lyngstad and D. Krouk

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...that can be seen in many later Nynorsk writers. Around the turn of the 20th c., Arne Garborg ( 1851–1924 ) and Olav Aukrust ( 1883–1929 ) demonstrated the remarkable power and rich melody of the new medium. Since then, many of Norway’s most innovative literary figures have used Nynorsk, incl. the expressionist Kristofer Uppdal ( 1878–1961 ), the novelist and poet Tarjei Vesaas ( 1897–1970 ), and the revered poet Olav H. Hauge ( 1908–94 ), who translated many key 20th-c. writings to the lang. Contemp. lit. in Nynorsk boasts some artistically...

Paralipsis

Paralipsis   Reference library

D. Veraldi and S. Cushman

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... Alison Case suggests that Phelan’s vision of paralipsis is a convention of 20th-c. fiction rather than a perennial aesthetic. Bibliography Rhetores Graeci , ed. C. Walz , 9 vols. (1832–36) ; S. Usher , “ Occultatio in Cicero’s Speeches,” AJP 86, no. 2 (April 1965) ; H. A. Kelly , “ Occupatio as Negative Narration,” MP 74, no. 3 (1977) ; J. Phelan , Narrative as Rhetoric (1996) ; A Companion to Narrative Theory , ed. J. Phelan and P. J. Rabinowitz (2005)—chap. 20 and glossary. D. Veraldi ; S....

Neobaroque

Neobaroque   Reference library

J. Sefamí

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

.... A style of poetry common in the late 20th c. in Latin America, in which artifice , figuration , and a consciousness of textuality are highly developed, often with explicit or covert reference to the baroque poetry of the early mod. period. The term neobarroco as applied to Latin Am. lit. was arguably coined by the Brazilian poet Haroldo de Campos ( 1929–2003 ), writing about Umberto Eco’s opera aperta (open work), to refer to the unconventional nature of contemp. writing. As Campos was to insist on several occasions, Latin Am. cultures...

Phalaecean

Phalaecean   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan and R. A. Swanson

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...that has the pattern x x – ᴗ ᴗ – ᴗ – ᴗ – x, so called after the Gr. poet Phalaikos ( 4th c. bce ?). It is used at times by Sophocles ( Philoctetes 136, 151) and Aristophanes ( Ecclesiazusae 942 ff.); the Alexandrian poets employed it for whole poems, e.g., Theokritos ( Epode 20), Phalaikos ( Anthologia Palatina 13.6). In Lat., it is attempted by Laevius and Varro but finds its deepest roots in Catullus, e.g., Ădēste ēndĕcăsyllăbī, quŏt ēstīs. Forty of his 113 extant poems are in hendecasyllables , ranging from love poetry to invective . These have...

Riley, John

Riley, John (1937–78)   Reference library

Roger Garfitt

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...I Own: Versions of Hölderlin and Mandelshtam ( 1998 —both Carcanet). Critical essays appear in a memorial volume, For John Riley (Grosseteste, 1979 ), and in Poetry Review , 71:1 ( 1981 ). There is a useful discussion of ‘Czargrad’ by Douglas * Oliver in PN Review , 20 ( 1981 ). Roger Garfitt rg...

Wickham, Anna

Wickham, Anna (1884–1947)   Reference library

Carol Rumens

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Anna ( 1884–1947 ) Born in 1884 in Wimbledon, where her father kept a music shop. She was taken to Queensland, Australia, as a small child, and returned to England at the age of 20 to train as a singer. An unhappy marriage frustrated this ambition, and she increasingly turned to poetry. Her first poems were printed by Harold and Alida Monro of the Poetry Bookshop , and she went on to produce many collections, beginning with the privately printed Songs of John Oland ( 1911 ), under the pseudonym John Oland . Despite her literary successes, Anna...

Enslin, Theodore

Enslin, Theodore (1925–2011)   Reference library

Edward Foster

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... (Black Sparrow, 1975). Among other works, the five volumes of Forms (Elizabeth Press, 1970–4 ) and two volumes of Ranger (North Atlantic, 1978 , 1980) deserve particular notice. A collection of essays on Enslin was edited by John Taggart and published in Truck , 20 ( 1978 ). The National Poetry Foundation published a large selected poems, Then and Now , in 1999 . See also Re-Sounding: Selected Later Poems (Talisman House, 1999). His last book, I, Benjamin , was a ‘quasi-autobiographical’ novella on the life of the artist (McPherson,...

Ghose, Zulfikar

Ghose, Zulfikar (1935–)   Reference library

Martin Seymour-Smith

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...mathematician Ion Barbu (called by him ‘passion on ice’), would find his work rewarding. See his autobiography, Confessions of a Native Alien (Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1965) , In the Ring of Pure Light: Lectures on Language and Literature ( 2011 ), and 50 Poems: 30 Selected 20 New ( 2010 ), both published in Pakistan by Oxford University Press. Martin Seymour-Smith...

Gonzales, Rodolfo ‘Corky’

Gonzales, Rodolfo ‘Corky’ (1928–2005)   Reference library

A. Robert Lee

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of the Mayan and Aztec civilizations, Joaquín delineates each stage in the Amerindian-Spanish history of los chicanos —through, in turn, Mexican Independence ( 1821 ), the ceding of much of northern Mexico to the United States ( 1848 ), the Mexican revolution ( 1910–20 ), and, finally, the modern ‘border’ Mexico-America of the American south-west. As the persona for his community, Joaquín ends with a near Whitmanesque flourish against poverty and exploitation: ‘La Raza! | Mejicano! | Español! | Latino! | Hispano! | Chicano! | or whatever I call...

Neo-Gongorism

Neo-Gongorism   Reference library

A. W. Phillips and K. N. March

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

.... A term used to designate a brief but significant 20th-c. Sp. poetic trend stemming from a revival of the 17th-c. baroque poet Luis de Góngora ( 1561–1627 ) on the tricentennial of his death. Góngora’s style, characterized by brilliant if extravagant metaphors and convoluted or Latinate syntax, created a new interest in the formal possibilities of lang. that led to the publication of mod. eds. of his work and important stylistic studies of his poetry. Among contributors to this vogue were Dámaso Alonso , Gerardo Diego , and José Maria de...

Poetry Reading

Poetry Reading   Reference library

P. Middleton

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,459 words

...A few 19th-c. authors, notably Walt Whitman, gave public readings in the wider context of popular lectures. In the early 20th c., avant-garde venues and universities in particular provided intermittent opportunities for poets to give poetry readings; but with a few exceptions, poetic composition was not directed at authorial public performance, and there was no defined cultural category of poetry reading. Until the mid-20th c., the majority of occasions when poetry was read aloud were everyday private gatherings, where ordinary readers entertained a...

Metrici and Rhythmici

Metrici and Rhythmici   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...)—a vestige of the lingering authority of Lat., which persisted until the emergence of cl. philology in the 19th c.; and in mod. times, it is revived in the “musical” theories of prosody of Joshua Steele (18th c.), Sidney Lanier (19th c.), Andreas Heusler and John C. Pope (20th c., for Ger. and OE), and a host of epigones, as well as in other temporal theories not strictly musical (e.g., T. S. Omond , G. R. Stewart , Derek Attridge)—for schema, see Brogan 142. Allied are those who deny that mod. verse is metrical at all, such as G. F. Nott ( 1815 )...

Paradox

Paradox   Reference library

E. H. Behler

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...reflecting the paradoxical nature of the world that poetry imitates. Friedrich Nietzschemade paradox a key term of human experience and of his own literary expression. In the lit. of the 20th c., paradox often fuses with the absurd, which can be interpreted as an intensified, often existential expression of the paradox. The term paradox is widely employed in 20th-c. crit., esp. in the work of the New Criticism . Cleanth Brooks discusses it in The Well Wrought Urn (esp. chap. 1) as a form of indirection that is distinctively characteristic of poetic...

Pastiche

Pastiche   Reference library

C. Bowen

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...of literary works, the word pastiche dates back centuries; as an evaluative term, its usage gradually acquired a hint of negative or dismissive connotation. The word implies a lack of originality or coherence, an imitative jumble. It was only in the latter half of the 20th c.—and most esp. in the context of theories of postmod. narrative—that pastiche acquired its current critical purchase. While the term is almost unthinkable today outside the umbrella of postmodernism , its etymological root is instructive. Pastiche comes from pasticcio ,...

Priamel

Priamel   Reference library

W. H. Race and C. Doak

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...as a mock-tragic device in the Acharnians . Increasingly, scholars acknowledge and discuss the use of the priamel in mod. lit. Holzinger and Ramajo Caño trace the devel. of the priamel in Sp. Golden Age poetry. Race ( 2000 ) explores the use of the priamel in the work of two 20th-c. Am. poets, Richard Wilbur and Raymond Carver ; a further study of Carver’s use of the priamel is Kleppe. Other examples can be found in Shakespeare (sonnet 91), Charles Baudelaire (“Au Lecteur”), W. B. Yeats (“An Irish Airman Foresees his Death”), and W. H. Auden ...

Near Rhyme

Near Rhyme   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,025 words

...prosody. In Fr. prosody of the early 20th c., the term accord was proposed by Jules Romains (pseud. of Louis Farigoule , 1885–1972 ) and Georges Chennevière ( 1884–1927 ), poets and theorists of the movement known as unanimism, for a variety of forms of consonance and near rhyme. The accords of Romains were attacked by Maurice Grammont but may have influenced the pararhyme of Wilfred Owen. In fact, near rhyme has played an important role in most of the major Western prosodies of the late 19th and early 20th cs.—not only Brit. ( G. M. Hopkins , ...

Wallace-Crabbe, Chris(topher)

Wallace-Crabbe, Chris(topher) (1934–)   Reference library

Jennifer Strauss

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...early advocacy of American poets ( Robert * Lowell , Wallace * Stevens ) demonstrated the sharp eye for shifts in poetic preoccupations which has been a feature of critical work such as his influential essay ‘The Habit of Irony: Australian Poets of the Fifties,’ in Meanjin , 20 ( 1961 ); Melbourne or the Bush (Angus & Robertson, 1974 ), which examines different cultural values; Toil and Spin (Hutchinson, 1980 ), which considers different modes of poetic creativity; and Falling into Language (Oxford University Press, 1990 ), which deals with...

Wylie, Elinor (Morton Hoyt)

Wylie, Elinor (Morton Hoyt) (1885–1928)   Reference library

Rachel Hadas

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Elinor (Morton Hoyt) ( 1885–1928 ) Born in New Jersey and grew up in Philadelphia and Washington, DC. Married at 20 to socialite Philip Hichborn , she eloped five years later with Horace Wylie , with whom she lived, partly in England, from 1911 to 1915 . Divorced from Wylie in 1923 , she married William Rose Benét , a man of letters and brother of the poet Stephen Vincent Benét . She lived in Greenwich Village from 1922 until her death from a stroke in 1928 . Elinor Wylie ’s first book of poems was privately printed in London in 1912 and was...

Zaturenska, Marya

Zaturenska, Marya (1902–82)   Reference library

Robert S. Phillips

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...but had to drop out. She attended high school at night, worked in a factory by day—and wrote poetry. Her first published poems appeared in national magazines, including Poetry , when she was still in her teens, and she won the John Reed Memorial Award in 1922 , when she was 20. She graduated from the University of Wisconsin Library School in 1925 . That same year she married the poet and critic Horace * Gregory , of a patrician Milwaukee family. They later collaborated on anthologies and A History of American Poetry , 1900–40 (New York, 1946 )....

Martian Poetry

Martian Poetry   Reference library

Michael Hulse

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Poetry Craig * Raine 's poem ‘A Martian Sends a Postcard Home’ prompted James * Fenton , to hail the new ‘Martian School’ ( New Statesman , 20 Oct. 1978). Raine's poem is strikingly inventive. Misunderstanding the ignition and rear-view mirror in a car, Raine's alien declares that ‘a key is turned to free the world | for movement, so quick there is a film | to watch for anything missed’. Riddling wit of this kind was partly inspired by William Golding's novel The Inheritors (according to Raine himself, quoted in The Observer , 2 Mar. 1980 ) and...

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