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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Poliphemus

Poliphemus   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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2005

..., Polyphemus , a Cyclops, one of the one-eyed giants who captured Ulysses ( Ulixes ) and was blinded by him. The story is alluded to in Boece (IV m.7:20...

Southwerk

Southwerk   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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2005

..., Southwark , across London Bridge on the south side of the Thames, where the Tabard was situated (I.20), and where the road to Canterbury...

Phedra

Phedra   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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2005

..., Phaedra , the daughter of Minos and Pasiphaë and the sister of Ariadne ( Adriane ). Theseus abandoned Ariadne for her and made her his wife. (See the Legend of Ariadne in LGW and HF 405–20...

Samuel

Samuel   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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2005

..., the Old Testament judge and adviser of King Saul. After his death Saul visited the witch of Endor ( Phitonissa ), who raised the spirit of Samuel for him (1 Sam. 28:3–20). This is alluded to by the fiend in The Friar's Tale (III.1510). The Pardoner very carefully distinguishes Samuel from Lamuel ...

Stilboun

Stilboun   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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2005

..., in The Pardoner's Tale (VI.603–20), a Spartan ambassador to Corinth, who when he found all the leaders there gambling returned to advise against an alliance with them. In John of Salisbury 's Policraticus the name of the ambassador is Chilon; possibly Chaucer had in mind the philosopher Stilbo , mentioned in Seneca...

Tristram

Tristram   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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2005

..., the lover of Iseult or Isolde ( Isaude ) in a series of romances which were immensely popular in the Middle Ages. He is depicted among the lovers in the temple of Venus ( PF 290). Chaucer (gallantly? jocularly?) calls himself ‘trewe Tristam the secounde’ in To Rosemounde (20...

Dunmowe

Dunmowe   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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2005

...at Dunmowe’ she is alluding to a custom of the manor in which a side of bacon was presented to a couple who could prove (originally, before the Prior) that they had lived in conjugal harmony for a year and a day'. It is said to have begun in 1244 , and to have continued to the 20th...

Escaphilo

Escaphilo   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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2005

...of her mother Demeter had moved Jupiter to intervene, she could not be entirely released. For this he was turned into an owl by Persephone. Chaucer could find the story in Ovid and Claudian . He makes a brief allusion to the owl, that is called Escaphilo' in Troilus V.319–20...

Clare, Seynte

Clare, Seynte   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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2005

...Her name is used in an oath by the Eagle in The House of Fame ( 1066 ) just after Chaucer has asked him about the great noise coming from the House of Fame. Perhaps there is a joking allusion to her contemplative silence; perhaps the name was simply chosen for the rhyme. (Her 20th-c. function as patron of television would be curiously...

Joab

Joab   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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..., a general of King David, noted for sounding his trumpet (2 Sam. [2 Kings in the Vulgate] 2:28; 18:16, 20:22). Hence at the wedding feast of January and May there is loud minstrelsy ‘that nevere tromped Joab for to heere’ (IV.1719). He also appears among the minstrels in The House of Fame (1245). In both cases he is associated with the classical Theodamas...

Eagle

Eagle   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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2005

.... The golden eagle, who appears at the end of Book I of The House of Fame , and carries the dreamer up through the heavens, may have been suggested to Chaucer by the eagle in Dante ( Purgatorio 9. 19–20). In the Bestiary , the eagle is noted for its soaring flight and keen gaze, and sometimes for its rigorous education of its young. It could be used as a symbol of contemplative thought, but Chaucer's eagle (one of his earliest comic creations) is an enthusiastic and loquacious instructor, lecturing his taciturn and amazed companion on the wonders of...

Lamek

Lamek   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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2005

...spouses, remarks: ‘what rekketh me [do I care], thogh folk seye vileynye | Of shrewed [wicked] Lameth and his bigamye?’ (III.53–4). His falseness is also referred to in Anelida and Arcite (150–4)—though it was his son Jabal, not Lamech himself, who ‘found tentes first’ (Gen. 4:20). He is mentioned as the father of another son, Tubal ( BD ...

Wyndesore

Wyndesore   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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2005

..., Windsor , about 20 miles (32 km) west of London. It is mentioned only in the Romaunt of the Rose (1250), but Chaucer knew it well from his time as Clerk of the Works ( see Geoffrey Chaucer : life). The great stone castle, originally begun by William I as a wooden structure, was a favourite residence of Edward III , who liked to celebrate the feast of St George there. It is likely that Chaucer had visited it earlier in his life as part of the entourage of the countess of Ulster, and perhaps on St George's day in 1374 , when the king granted...

Dafydd ap Gwilym

Dafydd ap Gwilym (b. c.1320)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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...no evidence (and almost certainly no likelihood) that either poet knew the work of the other. Bromwich, Rachel (1985) (ed. and trans.), Selected Poems of Dafydd Ap Gwilym (2nd edn., Harmondsworth); Knight, Stephen (1989), ‘Chaucer's British Rival’, Leeds Studies in English ns 20...

Gray, Thomas

Gray, Thomas (1716–71)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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2005

...‘sublime’ (a contemporary and personal literary ideal) in Chaucer. He also has some clear and sensible remarks on Chaucer's metre, in which he notes that there have been changes in accent and the pronunciation of the unstressed e. CH [Critical Heritage] see Brewer (1978) i. 215–20...

Furnivall, Frederick James

Furnivall, Frederick James (1825–1910)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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2005

...to make medieval works available to scholars and readers through his Early English Text Society (founded 1864 ). His Chaucer Society ( 1868 ) published a number of very useful parallel text editions. His own appreciation of Chaucer was enthusiastic and emotional. Without later 20th-c. doubts he endorsed a ‘biographical’ approach. Chaucer at length became ‘the most gracious and tender spirit, the sweetest singer, the best pourtrayer, the most pathetic, and withal the most genial and humourful healthy-souled man that England had ever seen’. Furnivall's great...

Silla

Silla   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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2005

...She leapt into the water to swim after his ship, and was attacked by her father, transformed into an osprey. She too was changed into a bird called ciris (or shearer). The story is told by Ovid in Metamorphoses 8. Chaucer tells it briefly in The Legend of Good Women 1908–20, emphasizing Minos's cruelty, and omitting the transformation. That however is alluded to in Tr V.1110, where ‘Nysus doughter song with fressh entente’ at dawn. Here she seems to be a lark (a detail which Chaucer may have found in a gloss or in the Ovide moralisé ). Scylla also...

Thomas of Ynde, Seint

Thomas of Ynde, Seint   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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2005

...of Ynde, Seint , St Thomas , the doubting apostle who insisted on touching the wounds of the risen Christ (John 20:25–8). The legend that he spread the word of God in India was widely accepted from the early Middle Ages. Travellers found Nestorian Christians in India, and (at various places) the apostle's tomb. Marco Polo recounts some vivid legends connected with it; Mandeville says that the relic of his arm and hand decides between true and false causes. Chaucer's most pointed allusion is in The Summoner's Tale (III.1978–80), where the friar refers...

John (1), Seint

John (1), Seint   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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2005

...is nat in us’), etc.). He is also mentioned as a visionary, ‘the grete evaungelist, Seint John’ who wrote of the ‘white Lamb celestial’ (VII.582–3), of the four beasts ‘full of eyes before and behind’ ( HF 1385; Rev. 4:6), and of the pains of hell (III.1647; cf. Rev. 19 and 20). His name is frequent in oaths (often in rhyme): e.g. II.18, 1019, III.164, etc., though it is not always clear that it is John the Evangelist rather than John the...

Myda

Myda   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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2005

...Phrygia, who was granted his wish that all he touched would turn to gold (see, for example, Ovid 's Metamorphoses 11.100ff.). In the Middle Ages he was often associated with avarice (e.g. by Gower , Confessio Amantis 5.153ff.) and covetousness (by both Dante , Purgatorio 20, and Chaucer , Tr III.1387–93, where Midas ‘ful of coveytise’ is linked with Crassus , as an example of those opposed to the ‘gentil’ servants of love). The wish (1387–9) that wretches who despise the service of love should have ears as long as Midas did alludes to a further...

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