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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Web 1.0/Web 2.0

Web 1.0/Web 2.0   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Web 1.0/Web 2.0 . The terms Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 are typically used to compare different stages in the development of the World Wide Web (invented in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee). As the numbers suggest, Web 1.0 is used to refer to the first stage in the development of the web, whereas Web 2.0 (a term coined in 1999 ) denotes a later stage, which became prominent in the mid-2000s. At the heart of the comparison between Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 is a perceived shift with respect to the web’s interactivity. Web 1.0 is seen as a read-only, comparatively...

Cornish

Cornish   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
27 words

...Celtic , similar to Welsh, spoken in Cornwall until the 1800s. Revived in the mid-20th century in an attempt to establish it as a second...

Alacalufan Languages

Alacalufan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
73 words

...Chile and the adjacent part of Argentina. LANGUAGE LIST Kakauhua: also called Kaukaue, Cacahue. Formerly spoken in Chile. Qawasqar: also called Kaweskar, Kawesqar, Alacalufe, Alacaluf, Halakwulup. 20 speakers remain in Chile. Reports are that speakers are not bilingual in Spanish; 20% are monolingual in Qawasqar. The youngest speakers were from 3 to 20 years old in 1996 . Speakers have positive attitude toward Qawasqar. B....

clipping

clipping   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
34 words

...Process of word‐formation in which an existing form is abbreviated. E.g. fan ‘devotee, enthusiast’ was formed in the late 19th century by shortening fanatic , hi‐fi in the mid-20th century by shortening high fidelity...

Navajo

Navajo   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
36 words

...Athabaskan language spoken in the American South‐west, in an area from east of the Grand Canyon into north‐west New Mexico: also spelled ‘Navaho’. Speakers were still in six figures in the late 20th...

Lower Mamberamo Languages

Lower Mamberamo Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
137 words

... also called Warenbori, Waremboivoro. 600 speakers on northern coast, mouth of Mamberamo River and west to Poiwai, villages of Warembori, Tamakuri, and Bonoi. Close to Yoke. Most are proficient in Irianese Malay. Indonesian and Yoke also spoken. Most are 20 and older, but there are speakers below 20. About 20 people use it as their second or third language. Yoke: also called Yoki, Yauke, Jauke, Pauwi. 200 speakers east of Warembori east of the Mamberamo River, Jayapura Kabupaten, Mantarbori village. Recently moved to coastal location from the interior. Almost...

Lule-Vilela Languages

Lule-Vilela Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
63 words

...Languages . A language family of northern Argentina; of the two known members of the family, Lule is extinct. LANGUAGE LIST Vilela: 20 speakers in Resistencia, east central Chaco Province near Paraguay border. Bilingualism in Toba. As of 1981 , any remaining Vilela were apparently being absorbed by the Toba or losing their Indian identity in the barrios of towns and cities. B....

Wörter und Sachen

Wörter und Sachen   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
52 words

...und Sachen German ‘words and things’: name given to a movement in the early 20th century (and to the journal founded by it) which insisted that the etymology of words and their distribution across dialects should be studied in close association with that of the artefacts etc. that they referred...

‘traditional grammar’

‘traditional grammar’   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
45 words

...grammar’ Usually of grammar as it was before the advent of structural linguistics , conceived as standing in a unified tradition going back to ancient times, with grammar in the 20th century conceived as breaking away from it. Both conceptions are at best...

Hausa

Hausa   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
54 words

... language, native to northern Nigeria (roughly from Kaduna northwards and some 200 km east of Kano westwards) and neighbouring parts of Niger. Also widespread as a second language, there and elsewhere, and as a lingua franca across West Africa. Written in Arabic script before the 20th century, now largely in...

article

article   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
53 words

...A word or part of a word whose basic role is to mark noun phrases as definite or indefinite : e.g. definite the in the girl , indefinite a in a girl . Traditionally a distinct part of speech ; but usually described, since the mid-20th century, as a subclass of determiners...

sandhi

sandhi   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
51 words

...Ancient Indian term for the modification and fusion of sounds at or across the boundaries of grammatical units. E.g. short - a + i - fused in Sanskrit, both within words and across word boundaries, to - e -. Introduced into the terminology of 20th-century linguistics by Bloomfield ...

Mairasi-Tanahmerah Languages

Mairasi-Tanahmerah Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
159 words

... also called Faranyao, Kaniran. 3,300 speakers on Bomberai Peninsula, southwestern coast of neck, east and northeast of Kaimana, Wasior, Triton Bay. Close to Semimi. Northeastern Mairasi may be a separate language. Bilingual level estimates for Indonesian are 0 5%, 1 20%, 2 30%, 3 20%, 4 23%, 5 2%. Some speak some Kowiai and Indonesian. Mer: also called Muri, Miere. 100 speakers in Central Bird's Head, headwaters of Wosimi and Uremo Rivers. Semimi: also called Etna Bay. 1,000 speakers on Bomberai Peninsula close to Kaniran, southern part of neck...

Algic Languages

Algic Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
83 words

...LANGUAGE LIST Wiyot: formerly spoken in USA by 450 to 800 speakers in northwestern California. Last speaker died in 1962 . Yurok: 10 speakers in USA. Ethnic population: 3,000 to 4,500 possibly. Northwestern California. Bilingualism in English. Few if any full bloods younger than 20 years old. B....

Guuguyimidhirr Languages

Guuguyimidhirr Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
83 words

...family of Australian Languages. LANGUAGE LIST Barrow Point: 1 speaker remains. Formerly spoken on Cape York Peninsula, Barrow Point, on Princess Charlotte Bay and inland. Guguyimidjir: also called Kukuyimidir, Koko Imudji, Gugu Yimijir, Guugu Yimithirr, Guugu Yimidhirr. 20 speakers remain. Ethnic population: 400 as of 1990 . Formerly spoken in Hopevale. Bilingualism in English. Children understand Guguyimidjir, but speak only a little and mainly speak Aboriginal English. B....

Bréal, Michel

Bréal, Michel (1832–1915)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
89 words

...to grammatical and lexical theory, influential, in particular, for its treatment of changes in the meanings of words. The term ‘semantics’ (‘sémantique’) was coined by Bréal in opposition to ‘phonetics’ (‘phonétique’), and defined, more widely than in usage since the mid-20th century, as a science concerned with the nature and relations of all meaningful units, as opposed to a science, again in the most general sense, of...

determiner phrase

determiner phrase   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
104 words

...form a determiner phrase whose head would be null ; a pronoun such as she would be a determiner forming a phrase on its own. Analyses like these have been promoted, by linguists mainly, though not entirely, in the context of Principles and Parameters Theory , since the late 20th century, but have been rejected by many others. See determinative for ‘determinative...

formal semantics

formal semantics   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
91 words

...semantics Branch of philosophy concerned with the assigning of precise interpretations to expressions in artificial systems of mathematics or logic. Thus especially, in the philosophy of science in the mid-20th century, in accounts of scientific theories, conceived as calculi interpreted with respect to some empirical domain. Thence, in linguistics, of a similar interpretation of languages, on the assumption, due originally to Montague Grammar in particular, that it is illuminating to represent them, at a sufficient level of abstraction from the...

functional category

functional category   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
98 words

...category One of a set of syntactic categories distinguished, e.g. in theories of Universal Grammar , from a set of lexical categories. Thus, in one scheme dating from the late 20th century, complementizers and e.g. determiners are classed as functional; nouns and e.g. prepositions as lexical. A functional head is a head (1) which belongs to such a category: e.g. a complementizer (or ‘C’) seen as head of a complementizer phrase (or ‘CP’), or a ‘T’ as head of a TP . Compare a ‘grammatical category’ as one having grammatical meaning...

International Phonetic Alphabet

International Phonetic Alphabet   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
103 words

...of articulation not distinguished by the Roman alphabet, are shown by diacritics. The transcription of vowels is according to the cardinal vowel system. The increasing adoption of this system was without doubt one of the most important practical achievements of linguistics in the 20th...

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