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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

The Twentieth Century

The Twentieth Century   Quick reference

Brian M. Short

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,083 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Twentieth Century The 20th century presents a paradox to the local historian which brings to mind the case of Mrs Jellyby in Bleak House , whose concern for the natives of Borrioboola‐Gha precluded her interest in problems much nearer to home. The late Victorian and 20th‐century state intervention in the many institutions of everyday life has generated vast resources of records, kept centrally or locally in ways which represented enormous improvements. Nevertheless, as one approached nearer to the present, there were not only issues of searching through...

The Antiquarian Tradition

The Antiquarian Tradition   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,837 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Antiquarian Tradition Britain has a long tradition of antiquarian writing, stretching from the Middle Ages to the 20th century, which has formed the basis of many of the modern concerns of local historians. The first attempts in this genre were topographical descriptions allied to the study of genealogy and heraldry . During the 16th century scholars influenced by their European counterparts placed the study of antiquities on a firm footing. Their works and approaches remained deeply influential over the next three centuries. A change of emphasis occurred...

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation   Quick reference

R. W. Hoyle

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
7,753 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Again, the English are prone to overlook the fact that a disproportionate preoccupation of central government between the 16th and the early 20th century was the maintenance of order in Ireland. Local circumstances both there and in Scotland necessitated policies which diverged significantly from those employed in England itself, for instance the state‐sponsored dissolution of Irish landlord class after 1870 . The 20th century has seen the loss of some areas (the Irish Republic), the establishment of satellite government in another (Northern Ireland), and...

Local and Regional History: Modern Approaches

Local and Regional History: Modern Approaches   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,365 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...G. H. Tupling and J. D. Chambers , whose interest in economic history led them to study a place or a region in depth over a limited period of time in order to make a contribution to the way that historians saw the development of the whole country. During the second half of the 20th century the academic debate on the purpose of the study of local history revolved around two questions: how far should local studies be an end in themselves rather than an exploration of national themes at a local level; and what is the appropriate unit of study for a local...

Population Levels and Trends

Population Levels and Trends   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,124 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Society , 48 ( 1885 ), which categorized various stages of migration and emphasized that most people travelled relatively short distances. Ravenstein's model has proved of lasting worth. Major advances in the study of historical demography were made in the second half of the 20th century. An early attempt at an overall view of the population of the Middle Ages was J. C. Russell , British Medieval Population ( 1948 ). Establishing the level of population of a particular community or region at various times in the past has become a major task for local...

Surnames

Surnames   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,649 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...far, on the whole (though one always has to allow for the minority of individuals who moved well away from their home district), so that in the early modern period certain surnames became characteristic of a restricted area ( see country ). Despite the mobility of the 19th and 20th centuries, every part of Britain still retains its characteristic names. Surnames are therefore a useful tool in the study of population movement and the stability of groups of core families . Surnames are classified into the following major groups: locative, topographical,...

Family and Society

Family and Society   Quick reference

Ralph Houlbrooke

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,144 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and fertility both fall. In each case the trends had begun before 1900 but became much more marked during the 20th century. Children and young adults were the first to experience falling mortality, and infants and the elderly were the last, benefiting only after 1900 . The improvement in life expectancy was most dramatic in the case of newly born babies. In England and Wales infant mortality fell by nearly a quarter in the first decade of the 20th century. A gradual if uneven rise in lifetime celibacy, and a rise in the age at marriage, put a brake on...

Domestic Buildings

Domestic Buildings   Quick reference

Malcolm Airs

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,135 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...subject. The study of the house until comparatively recently has been largely the history of the high‐status dwelling, strongly influenced by considerations of architectural aesthetics, and mainly written by the landowning classes and their professional advisers. It is only in the 20th century that the houses lived in by the vast majority of the population have been studied in a systematic and scholarly way, and that the evidence provided by housing in general has been seen to have an importance for social, economic, and cultural history as well as simply for...

The Poor

The Poor   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,036 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the 1660s and 1670s. These were signed by the minister, churchwardens, or overseers of the poor and ratified by the JPs. The householders who were exempt from paying tax were not just those who were too poor to pay church or poor rates. They also included those who paid less than 20 shillings rent per annum on their properties, providing that they had only one or two hearths. For example, in 1671 at Rawcliffe, in the Vale of York, eighteen householders were ‘omitted by reason of poverty’ and another 39 householders were ‘discharged by certificate’. In most...

South Asian Genealogy

South Asian Genealogy   Quick reference

Abi Husainy

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
3,254 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Indian seamen, and details of detention in the Far East, 1943–68 . Indian students pursued a range of studies in the UK, particularly in Law and Medicine and in technical fields. At first, they came mainly to Oxford, Cambridge, London, and Edinburgh universities, then in the early 20th century to Glasgow University and the Manchester School of Technology. Where they survive, university admission registers should be consulted. As the Indian Civil Service examination was held only in London until 1922 , many qualified Indian aspirants for a post made the journey...

Welsh Local and Family History

Welsh Local and Family History   Quick reference

D. Huw Owen

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,425 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Borough of Cardiff ( 1888–1911 ) also appeared in six volumes. Large‐scale, multi‐volume histories of the Welsh dioceses , and of the Nonconformist denominations , together with biographies of the leaders, were published in the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century. In spite of their bulk, and in some cases intimidating appearance, valuable information is often contained in these works, and also in more recent studies, including D. Walker's A History of the Church in Wales ( 1976 ), T. M. Bassett , Bedyddwyr Cymru/The Welsh...

Women Local and Family Historians

Women Local and Family Historians   Quick reference

Joan Thirsk

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,549 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...wrote vividly of its distinctive landscape, expressing her strong feeling of Cornwall being an ‘old country’; and in reporting her conversations with local people, she strove to uncover the distinctive qualities of Cornish folk. That same strategy has shown again powerfully in the 20th century in the work of Ella Pontefract, Marie Hartley, and Joan Ingilby, writing from the 1930s onwards, starting from visits to remote Swaledale before many visitors had found it (see Hilary Diaper (ed.), A Favoured Land: Yorkshire in Text and Image: The Work of Marie...

Industrial History

Industrial History   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,499 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...power, the use of machinery, the employment of large numbers of people under one roof, factory discipline, and the expansion of markets. These changes were associated with †population growth and urbanization. The term was widely used by historians until the last quarter of the 20th century, but the concept of a swift and fundamental transformation of the British economy has been so refined that the phrase is now little more than shorthand for the many changes that took place in industry during the period from the mid‐18th to the late 19th centuries. The...

Local Government

Local Government   Quick reference

R. W. Hoyle

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,202 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Stuart Mill, writing in 1861 , held that the quarter sessions were ‘obviously at variance with all the principles which are the foundation of representative government’ (quoted in B. Keith‐Lucas , English Local Government in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries ( 1977 ), 20). It might be suggested that the magistracy survived as long as it did because, from the 1830s onwards, it was opened to men whose wealth was essentially commercial or professional. Clerical justices were the subject of much unfavourable comment in the early 1830s, and the influx...

Education

Education   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,295 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Roll, 1413–1579, and the Matriculation Roll, 1473–1579 (1926) , and J. M. Anderson , The Matriculation Roll of the University of St Andrews, 1747–1897 (1905). The only other British universities that were founded before the civic universities of the late 19th and early 20th centuries were London ( 1826 ) and Durham ( 1837 ). During the late 17th and the 18th centuries, however, a broader education (including science) was available at some of the dissenting academies , notably those at Northampton and Warrington. Many students went on from these...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Quick reference

Charles Phythian-Adams

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,654 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...cultures of work—both material and oral—and consequently an intellectual sensitivity to localized rural resources and contexts. At the other extreme is what will concern much of this essay: the academic approach to social (and predominantly documentary) history at the end of the 20th century and beginning of the 21st with, especially in England, its national concentration on ‘ class ’ and, indeed, recreation. Few historians thus attempt to interrelate more than a scattering of disparate strands of popular culture, or more than either rural or urban contexts,...

Britain and America: A Common Heritage

Britain and America: A Common Heritage   Quick reference

George Redmonds

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,879 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to the detriment of others, it is often possible to work there more productively than in this country. The New England Historic Genealogical Society , or NEHGS , is the oldest institution of its kind in the world and has its headquarters in Boston, Massachusetts. It has about 20 000 members, a fine library, and runs numerous educational programmes, many of them online. It also publishes the periodical New England Ancestors , which has features of interest to more than Americans. Recent articles cover aspects of forced emigration from Ireland, the first...

Irish Local and Family History

Irish Local and Family History   Quick reference

Kevin Whelan

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,945 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...recently edited the letters for counties Donegal, Down, Dublin, Kildare, and Meath. With these new scholarly resources and libraries at their backs, and inspired by the Victoria County History series in England, the last quarter of the 19th century and the first decades of the 20th century witnessed the first serious efforts to write sustained Irish local histories. Pre‐eminent among these were Philip Hore's six‐volume history of County Wexford ( 1901–11 ), W. P. Burke's Clonmel ( 1907 ), John Gleeson's Ely O’Carroll (north Tipperary and south...

Scottish Local and Family History

Scottish Local and Family History   Quick reference

David moody

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,622 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...sites and buildings. The (standing) Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland (which also includes the National Monuments Record) started a programme, now stalled, for the publication of its inventories of the monuments of each county at the start of the 20th century (the most recent, for Argyll, ran to seven volumes). In recent works, by writers such as Geoffrey Stell, the living context of buildings, be it military responses to new technology or the economics of maintaining a medieval castle's community, are now considered more...

Historic Churches

Historic Churches   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,420 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...whose designs influenced builders in other towns and in parts of the countryside where new accommodation was needed or where a great landowner rebuilt a church on his estate. In the Victorian period such estate churches were invariably Gothic. During the second half of the 20th century a wide range of modern styles were used. Towers and spires vary in style according to the period of their construction and the locality in which they were reared. In 9th‐century Italy the casting of bells heavier than hitherto necessitated the construction of separate...

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