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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Food in the 20th-century American City

Food in the 20th-century American City   Reference library

Adam Shprintzen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
6,753 words

...in the late 20th and early 21st centuries sought to reframe the need for city gardens. Efforts in places like Chicago, Detroit, Milwaukee, and New York City attempted to present city gardens as a necessary resource to provide healthy food and a natural part of a city’s landscape, rather than a response to a specific crisis. 16 Purchasing and Selling Food The early decades of the 20th century marked a significant change in the ways that some urbanites acquired their food. Small, often family-run grocery stores were a staple of early 20th-century ...

Zoning in 20th-century American Cities

Zoning in 20th-century American Cities   Reference library

Christopher Silver

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
7,473 words

...in 20th-century American Cities Zoning is the exercise of public control over private property through a legal instrument available to local government to regulate real property, including buildings and structures, by designating districts according the nature and extent of their use. Zoning is intended to enable orderly growth of a city, town, village, or county according to a framework for development that seeks to ensure that incompatible uses do not undermine the quality or value of real property. Local governments determine the character of the real property...

Street Gangs in the 20th-century American City

Street Gangs in the 20th-century American City   Reference library

Andrew Diamond

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
12,268 words

...Street Gangs in the 20th-century American City Street Gangs, Race, and Americanization in the Interwar Era The sociologist Frederic Thrasher effectively launched academic inquiry into street gangs with his classic publication The Gang: A Study of 1,313 Gangs in Chicago ( 1927 ). Adhering to the Chicago School of sociology’s social disorganization theory, Thrasher explained the emergence of gangs in Chicago as related primarily to a breakdown of social institutions—family, religious, educational—in the city’s immigrant and low-income districts. “The gang,” he...

Mass Transit in 19th- and 20th-Century America

Mass Transit in 19th- and 20th-Century America   Reference library

Jay Young

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
9,895 words

...growing role of the state in mass transit in the second half of the 20th century . In 1904 , the Interborough Rapid Transit Company’s service began connecting the Bronx to Manhattan, followed by the construction of hundreds of more miles of subway in New York during subsequent decades. 33 The Effects of Electric Streetcars on Urban Life Streetcars and other forms of electric traction had a tremendous influence on the shapes and sensations of urban life during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In many cases, the technology exacerbated trends that...

Corfu Pact

Corfu Pact  

(20 July 1917)An agreement between the Serbian Prime Minister, Nicola Pasic (b. 1846, d. 1926), and the leader of South Slav refugees, Ante Trumbic (b. 1868, d. 1938). Concluded at the seat of the ...
Montreux Convention

Montreux Convention  

(20 July 1936)Following Turkish fears that Mussolini was seeking to use Italy's bases in the Dodecanese to extend its colonies in Asia Minor, an international conference was held in Montreux. Turkey ...
Calouste Sarkis Gulbenkian

Calouste Sarkis Gulbenkian  

(b Constantinople [now Istanbul], 23 Mar. 1869; d Lisbon, 20 July 1955).Turkish-born oil magnate and collector who became a British citizen in 1902 and adopted Persian nationality in 1926. ...
Sir Leonard Hutton

Sir Leonard Hutton  

(1916–90) English cricketer.An opening batsman for Yorkshire, in 1938 he scored 364 against Australia, a world record for 20 years. In 1953 he was the first professional captain of the England ...
José Alexandre Gusmão

José Alexandre Gusmão  

(b. 20 June 1946).President of East Timor, 2002–7 Born in Laleia (Manatuto), he visited a Jesuit school and completed his military service in the Portuguese army. He became a journalist, and went to ...
Mohammed Neguib

Mohammed Neguib  

(b. 20 Feb. 1901, d. 29 Aug. 1984).President of Egypt 1952–4 Born in Khartoum, he joined the Egyptian army in 1921, gradually rising to the rank of brigade commander during the war against the newly ...
Raymond Poincaré

Raymond Poincaré  

(b. 20 Aug. 1860, d. 15 Oct. 1934).President of France 1913–20; Prime Minister 1912–13, 1922–4, 1926–9 A member of the Chamber of Deputies 1887–1903, he was a Senator 1903–13, and 1920–9. Though not ...
Rafael Alberti

Rafael Alberti  

(1902–1999)Spanish poet.Born near Cádiz into a formerly well-to-do family, Alberti was educated at a local Jesuit college. His position as a charity student left a bitterness that may have ...
Jacques Delors

Jacques Delors  

(b. 20 July 1925).President of the EC Commission 1985–94 Following a university degree in economics he worked for the Bank of France (1945–61), while also being active in the Christian trade‐union ...
Ferdinand Foch

Ferdinand Foch  

(1851–1929)French general. He strongly supported the use of offensive warfare, which resulted in many of his 20th Corps being killed by German machine guns in August 1914. He became Supreme Commander ...
Ionel Bratianu

Ionel Bratianu  

(b. 20 Aug. 1864, d. 26 Nov. 1927).Prime Minister of Romania 1909–11, 1914–18, 1918–19, 1922–6 Born in Florica as the son of Ion C. Bratianu (b. 1821, d. 1891), a leading National Liberal Romanian ...
Sani Abacha

Sani Abacha  

(b. 20 Sept. 1943, d. 8 June 1998).Nigerian dictator 1993–8 Born in Kano of the Hausa people, he was educated at the local government college before entering the army in 1962. He rose through its ...
Don Stephen Senanayake

Don Stephen Senanayake  

(b. 20 Oct. 1884, d. 22 Mar. 1952).Prime Minister of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) 1947–52 A devout Buddhist, he worked on his father's rubber plantation before entering politics. He was elected to the Ceylon ...
Treaty of Neuilly

Treaty of Neuilly  

(27 Nov. 1919)The peace treaty between the Allied powers and Bulgaria after World War I, negotiated at the Paris Peace Conference and signed at Neuilly Castle in Paris. Bulgaria had to cede the rich ...
Munich Olympic killings

Munich Olympic killings  

(5 Sept. 1972)During the 20th Olympic Games in Munich, Palestinian terrorists from the ‘Black September’ group attacked the quarters of the Israeli team in the Games village. Two Israelis were killed ...
Lord Reith

Lord Reith  

(b. 20 July 1889, d. 16 June 1971).Director-general of the BBC 1927–38 Born in Stonehaven, Kincardine, he became a locomotive engineer after leaving school. He was wounded in World War I, and ...

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