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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Waln, Robert, Jr.

Waln, Robert, Jr. (1794–1825)   Reference library

Joel S. Schwartz

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

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2015

...Robert, Jr. ( 1794–1825 ) Born in Philadelphia on October 20, 1794 , Robert Waln, Jr., benefited from his family’s wealth and privileged social position. His father, Robert Waln, Sr., an important Philadelphia merchant, had a very successful importing business. Young Robert received private tutoring and attended a local Quaker school, and by utilizing his family’s wellstocked library, he broadened his education, becoming a poet and Enlightenment travel writer of note. Waln showed early promise as a writer of prose and poetry, with an active interest in...

Mitchill, Samuel Latham

Mitchill, Samuel Latham (1764–1831)   Reference library

Rachel L. Dunn

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

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...the natural sciences. He is remembered for his pioneering geology in New York, ichthyology, and for his contributions to scientific literature both as a prolific author and as a founding editor of the Medical Repository . Mitchill was born at North Hempstead, New York, on July 20, 1764 , the third son of Robert Mitchill, a farmer, and his wife Mary (née Latham). Following basic instruction in Latin, English, and medicine, Mitchill studied under Dr Samuel Bard in New York between 1780 and 1783 . He continued his medical training at the University of...

Tappan, Benjamin

Tappan, Benjamin (1773–1857)   Reference library

Bruce J. Evensen

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

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...of my life” Tappan crossed the Great Lakes and Niagara River basin, founding the town of Ravenna in the Connecticut Western Reserve, where his family had land holdings. The settlement became a crossroads between the emerging lake port of Cleveland and the Ohio River. On March 20, 1801 , Tappan married Nancy Wright, sister of John C. Wright, a future Congressman from Ohio. In 1803 , Tappan took a leadership role in the state senate. By 1809 the Tappans moved to Steubenville, where their son, Benjamin, was born on April 1, 1812 . After General William...

Alden, Timothy, Jr.

Alden, Timothy, Jr. (1771–1839)   Reference library

Jonathan E. Helmreich

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

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... moved to Meadville, where local citizens persuaded him to start his college. Only in 1828 would he initiate a village, called Aldenia, on the west shore of Conneaut Lake. He also founded numerous Sunday Schools and conducted missions to the Senecas. The college was founded June 20, 1815 . The Commonwealth granted a charter in 1817 but was parsimonious in financial support. Alden recruited library donations that made Allegheny’s library second at the time only to Harvard’s among academic institutions in the country. The books required fireproof shelter....

Cutler, Manasseh

Cutler, Manasseh (1742–1823)   Reference library

Louis W. Potts

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

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...Cutler,” The American Naturalist 32 (1898): 75–80. Newcomer, Lee Nathaniel . “The Big World of Manasseh Cutler,” New England Galaxy 4 (1962): 29–37. Potts, Louis . “Visions of America, 1787-1788: The Ohio of Reverend Manasseh Cutler,” Ohio History 111 (2002): 101–20. Louis W. Potts University of Missouri, Kansas City See also: federalists ; natural history ; reason ; science...

Mckean, Thomas

Mckean, Thomas (1734–1817)   Reference library

David Capper

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

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...McKean served in the 4th Battalion of Pennsylvania Associators, rising to the rank of Colonel. He served in the Delaware State House of Representatives as a member from 1776 to 1778 , and also served as president (governor) of Delaware from September 22, 1777 , until October 20, 1777 . He resigned to take up appointment as Chief Justice of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court in 1777 , a post he held until 1799 . While Chief Justice, he asserted the power of the court to invalidate unconstitutional laws, preceding the same claim by the US Supreme Court by...

Torrey, John

Torrey, John (1796–1873)   Reference library

Kristen Keerma

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

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2015

...who were a generation older than him. Impressed with Torrey, Hosack, and Mitchill invited him in 1817 to sign the constitution and thus become a founding member of the Lyceum of Natural History (later to become the New York Historical Society). After marrying Eliza Shaw on April 20, 1824 , Torrey was appointed Professor of Chemistry, Geology, and Mineralogy at the US Military Academy at West Point. Leaving his post in 1827 , Torrey accepted a position at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York, and in 1830 assumed a second chair as professor of...

Yates, Abraham, Jr.

Yates, Abraham, Jr. (1724–96)   Reference library

Tony Gronowicz

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

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2015

...1786). Further Reading Bielinski, Stefan . Abraham Yates, Jr. and the New Political Order in Revolutionary New York (Albany, NY, 1975). Lynd, Staughton . “Abraham Yates’s History of the Movement for the United States Constitution,” William and Mary Quarterly , 3rd Series, 20, no. 2 (1963): 223–45. Tony Gronowicz Murphy Institute for Labor Studies See also: articles of confederation ; constitution of the united states ; constitutions of the states ; morris, robert...

Bland, Richard

Bland, Richard (1710–76)   Reference library

Craig Bryan Yirush

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

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...VA, 1766). Further Reading Detweiler, Robert . Richard Bland and the Origins of the Revolution in Virginia (Yorktown, VA, 1981). Pate, James E. “Richard Bland’s Inquiry into the Rights of the British Colonies,” William and Mary Quarterly , 2nd Series, 11 (1931): 20–8. Rossiter, Clinton . Seedtime of the Republic: The Origin of the American Tradition of Political Liberty (New York, 1953). Craig Bryan Yirush University of California, Los Angeles See also: adams, john ; jefferson, thomas ; rights ; washington, george...

Bradford, William

Bradford, William (1663–1752)   Reference library

Sean Morton

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

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...William ( 1663–1752 ) William Bradford was an important printer of the early American Enlightenment and the printing family he helped establish included his son, Andrew ( 1686–1742 ), and grandson, William ( 1722–5 ). Bradford was born in Leicester, England, on May 20, 1663 . By 1685 he had finished his apprenticeship with Andrew Sowel, the leading Quaker printer of London, whose daughter, Elizabeth, Bradford married. Shortly thereafter, with the endorsement of William Penn and a letter of recommendation from George Fox, the founder of the...

Chew, Benjamin

Chew, Benjamin (1722–1810)   Reference library

Ellen Holmes Pearson

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

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...Penn family’s legal interests throughout the Revolution. He did not hold public office again until 1791 , when at the age of seventy he was appointed as president of Pennsylvania’s High Court of Errors and Appeals. He presided over that court until 1808 . Chew died on January 20, 1810 , outside of Philadelphia. His life complicates any simple understanding of the links between the American Enlightenment and the American Revolution. Bibliography Laws of the Government of New-Castle, Kent and Sussex, Upon Delaware (Philadelphia, 1752). Further...

Hutchins, Thomas

Hutchins, Thomas (1730–89)   Reference library

Charles W. J. Withers

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

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2015

...into all the Bays, Lakes, Harbours and Rivers on the North Side of the Gulf of Mexico (Philadelphia, 1784). Plat of the Seven Ranges of Townships being Part of the Territory of the United States, N. W. of the River Ohio, surveyed in conformity to an Ordinance of Congress of May 20th, 1785, under Direction of Thos. Hutchins, late geographer to the United States (Philadelphia, 1796). Further Reading Bond, Beverley Waugh , ed. The Courses of the Ohio River. Taken by Lt. T. Hutchins, Anno 1766, and Two Accompanying Maps (Cincinnati, OH, 1942). Corgan...

Latrobe, Benjamin Henry

Latrobe, Benjamin Henry (1764–1820)   Reference library

Lee W. Formwalt

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

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...portion of the north (Senate) wing. In the latter, he replaced the traditional Greek orders with his famous cotton and corn orders based on New World plants. In 1804 , Latrobe offered his services to Bishop John Carroll to build the first Roman Catholic cathedral in the US ( 1804–20 ). The Baltimore Cathedral has been called Latrobe’s masterpiece. The design fused a Latin cross and a rotunda. The original lighting for the cathedral, reestablished in an early twenty-first-century restoration, was mysteriously “filtered into the rotunda through the crown of an...

Logan, James

Logan, James (1674–1751)   Reference library

Kevin J. Hayes

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

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...James ( 1674–1751 ) Though distinguished as a public servant and hardworking entrepreneur, James Logan is best remembered as a scholar and bookman. His wide-ranging intellectual interests made him a leader of the early Enlightenment in Philadelphia. Logan was born on October 20, 1674 , in Lurgan, County Armaugh, Ireland, the son of Patrick Logan, a minister with an MA from Edinburgh University, and Isabel Hume. Patrick taught his son Latin, Greek, and Hebrew before apprenticing him to a Dublin linen draper. The Logans subsequently relocated to Bristol,...

Mchenry, James

Mchenry, James (1753–1816)   Reference library

Paul Douglas Newman

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

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...In January 1796 , President Washington appointed McHenry the Secretary of War. He retained that position in John Adams’s presidency. In 1798 , facing a possible war with France, the United States Congress created the “Provisional Army Act” to supplement the regular army with 20,000 troops, created the Department of the Navy, and allocated millions of dollars to fortify ports and harbors. McHenry performed yeoman-like service administering these augmentations, but resented President Adams’s cautious foreign policy. In 1800 , he quietly campaigned against...

Stoddard, Solomon

Stoddard, Solomon (1643–1729)   Reference library

Robert E. Brown

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

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...Concerning Conversion (Boston, 1719). An Answer to Some Cases of Conscience Respecting the Country (Boston, 1722). Further Reading Coffman, Ralph J. Solomon Stoddard (Boston, 1978). Fiering, Norman S. “Solomon Stoddard’s Library at Harvard,” Harvard Library Bulletin 20, no. 3 (1972): 642–60. Gilsdorf, Joy . The Puritan Apocalypse (New York, 1989). Lucas, Paul R. “‘An Appeal to the Learned’: The Mind of Solomon Stoddard,” William and Mary Quarterly , 3rd Series, 30, no. 2 (1973): 257–92. Schuldiner, Michael . “Solomon Stoddard and the Process...

Tucker, St George

Tucker, St George (1752–1827)   Reference library

Craig Evan Klafter

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

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2015

...the publication of his edition of Blackstone’s Commentaries , an edition which used the works of the Enlightenment to adapt and in some cases limit its application to American circumstances. He also applied these techniques to his work as a judge. In Kamper v. +Hawkins , 3 Va. 20 ( 1793 ), for example, he relied on the works of James Mackintosh, Thomas Paine, and Emmerich de Vattel to hold that the Virginia Constitution of 1776 was a sovereign act of the people and that any prior or future statute in conflict with it was null and void. Henry Steele...

West, Benjamin

West, Benjamin (1738–1820)   Reference library

Scott Paul Gordon

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

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2015

...Old Masters , rev. edn (New York, 1967). Galt, John . The Life, Studies, and Works of Benjamin West, Esq . (London, 1820). Mitchell, Charles . “Benjamin West’s ‘Death of General Wolfe’ and the Popular History Piece,” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 7 (1944): 20–33. Staley, Allen . Benjamin West: American Painter at the English Court (Baltimore, 1989). von Erffa , Helmut and Allen Staley . The Paintings of Benjamin West (New Haven, CT, 1986). Wind, Edgar . “The Revolution in History Painting” (1938) in Hume and the Heroic Portrait:...

Hammon, Jupiter

Hammon, Jupiter (1711–1806)   Reference library

Rosalie Murphy Baum

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

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2015

...entitled, The Kind Master and Dutiful Servant” (Hartford, CT, 1783). “An Address to the Negroes In the State of New-York” (1787). Further Reading Nydam, Arlen . “Numerological Tradition in the Works of Jupiter Hammon,” African American Review 40, no. 2 (2006): 207–20. O’Neale, Sondra . Jupiter Hammon and the Biblical Beginnings of African-American Literature (Metuchen, NJ, 1993). Ransom, Stanley A., Jr. America’s First Negro Poet: The Complete Works of Jupiter Hammon of Long Island (Port Washington, NY, 1970). Includes biographical sketch...

Irving, Washington

Irving, Washington (1783–1859)   Reference library

Finn Pollard

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

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2015

...he challenged visions of American progress through the rise and fall of the Dutch colony of the New Netherlands by warning of a similar future for the new republic. This theme in Irving’s writing reached its culmination in his next major, career-defining work, published in 1819–20 , The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent . In “Rip van Winkle” Irving questioned the extent of change wrought by the American Revolution while in “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” he challenged the rationalist Ichabod Crane with a ghostly presence from which he does not emerge...

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