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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Canzona

Canzona   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

... or (Italian) canzone , Originally an arrangement, for instruments, of a polyphonic song. It developed into original composition, often making use of fugal imitation as noted by Praetorius in his Syntagma musicum ( 1614–20...

Goudimel, Claude

Goudimel, Claude   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...Claude ( 1514 / 20 – 72 ), French Huguenot composer, music publisher, and editor who worked with Nicholas de Chemin . By 1557 he was in Metz but a decade later was in Lyon where he was killed in the St Bartholomew's day massacre . Amongst his sacred music his psalm settings are particularly...

Kraft, Adam

Kraft, Adam   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...Adam or Adam Krafft ( c. 1455 / 60 – 1509 ), German sculptor, born in Nuremberg. His principal surviving work is the huge ciborium (a canopy supported by columns) in the choir of the Lorenzkirche in Nuremberg. This richly decorated Gothic structure, which is almost 20 metres (65 feet) high, includes many sculpted figures of humans and animals; the tradition that one of the figures is a self-portrait is not supported by documentary evidence. The Dictionary of Art ; Neue Deutsche Biographie ; Wilhelm Schwemmer , Adam Kraft ...

Fioravanti, Aristotele

Fioravanti, Aristotele   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
100 words

...Aristotele ( 1415 / 20 – c. 1486 ), Italian engineer and architect, born into a family of architects in Bologna. He worked in Bologna, Milan, Mantua, and Rome and in 1475 travelled via Hungary to Moscow to build the Cathedral of the Assumption (Uspensky Sobor, 1475–9 ), which dominates the churches of the Kremlin and was Russia's principal church until 1917 , when it became a museum; there are few hints in the design of the church that it is the work of an Italian Renaissance architect. Dizionario biografico degli italiani ; The Dictionary of Art...

Casa de Contratación de las Indias

Casa de Contratación de las Indias   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...de las Indias , A commission established by Juan Rodríguez de Fonseca to regulate Spanish trade with the Americas; the commission met in Seville from 1503 to 1718 . The responsibilities of the Casa included the inspection of ships and the collection of taxes, including the 20 per cent tax on precious metals mined in America. The Casa also functioned as a law court which dealt with commercial disputes. Diccionario de historia de España ; H. and P. Chaunu , Séville et l'Atlantique (8 vols.,...

Matthias

Matthias   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
246 words

...of Hungary, Austria, and Moravia by offering religious concessions (the Treaty of Libeň or Lieben), and twice invaded Bohemia ( 1608 and 1611 ) before being proclaimed king on 23 May 1611 . On the death of his brother Rudolf on 20 January 1612 , Matthias became Holy Roman Emperor. He died in Vienna on 20 March 1619 , just as the Thirty years War was beginning to devastate his empire. Neue Deutsche Biographie...

Naumburg Convention

Naumburg Convention   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
126 words

...Convention or (German) Naumburgischer Fürstentag , A meeting of Protestant princes and religious leaders held at Naumburg from 20 January to 8 February 1561 . The principal purpose of the meeting was to secure agreement on the doctrine of the eucharist on the basis of the Augsburg confession . The prospect of unity foundered on the inability of the two sides to agree on the definitive text of the Confession: the Lutherans insisted on the Invariata text of 1531 and the Calvinists adhered to the Variata text of 1540 . The Convention also...

Francini, Thomas

Francini, Thomas   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
119 words

...Thomas ( 1571–1651 ), A Florentine hydraulic engineer who moved to France c. 1599 at the invitation of Henri IV . Together with his brothers Alexandre ( fl. 1608 , d. 1648 ) and Camille ( c. 1608–20 ) he designed and installed the waterworks at Saint-Germain-en-Laye , and subsequently designed waterworks for Fontainebleau , Versailles, the Luxembourg Gardens in Paris (where he designed the aqueduct) and Cardinal Richelieu's garden at Rueil. Thomas's son François de Francine ( 1617–88 ) was the architect of the fountains of Versailles; ...

Guédron, Pierre

Guédron, Pierre   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
109 words

...Pierre ( c. 1570 – 1619 / 20 ), French composer, singer, and singing teacher. He became maître des chanteurs de la chambre at the court of Henri IV which he had joined two years earlier as a singer, and by 1614 had risen to surintendant des musiques de la chambre du roi . His principal interest as a composer was with the airs du cour , which were lute songs set to his own texts or those of François de Malherbe . He also wrote vocal music for the ballet de cour , including expressive recitatives in which he confronted the rhythmic difficulties...

Fornovo, battle of

Fornovo, battle of   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
101 words

...battle of , or battle of Taro , A battle in the Wars of Italy fought on the banks of the river Taro near Fornovo (20 kilometres (12 miles) south-west of Parma) on 6 July 1495 between the forces of the Holy League (an alliance of the pope, the emperor, Spain, Milan, and Venice) commanded by Gianfrancesco II Gonzaga and the army of Charles VIII of France, which was returning from Naples. The battle lasted for only fifteen minutes, because the French army cut its way through the forces of the League and continued its retreat to France; both...

Sambin, Hugues

Sambin, Hugues   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
126 words

...Hugues ( 1515 / 20 – 1601 / 2 ), French architect, sculptor, woodcarver, and furniture designer. He was born in Gray (Burgundy) and worked throughout Burgundy, where architects and woodcarvers associated with his Dijon workshop created a distinctive decorative style characterized by fanciful high-relief sculpture (e.g. Maison Milsand, Dijon, c. 1561 ) and intricate rustication (e.g. the Petit Château at Tanlay, c. 1568 ). His principal building was the Palais de Justice in Besançon ( 1581 ), and his carved work includes a walnut cupboard of 1570 ...

Sustris, Lambert

Sustris, Lambert   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
101 words

...Lambert ( c. 1515 /20– c. 1584 ), Dutch painter, a native of Amsterdam who by the mid-1540s was living in Venice and working as a painter of landscape backgrounds in the workshop of Titian ; in 1548 and again in 1550–1 Sustris accompanied Titian to Augsburg, where he painted several portraits, including those of Hans Christoff Vohlin and Veronika Vohlin (Alte Pinakothek, Munich). He moved to Padua in 1554 and returned some fifteen years later to Venice. The few works that can confidently be assigned to his late Venetian period include The...

Zurara, Gomes Eanes de

Zurara, Gomes Eanes de   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
122 words

...Gomes Eanes de or Gomes Eanes de Azurara ( 1410 / 20 – 1473 / 4 ), Portuguese historian who succeeded Fernão Lopes as royal chronicler in 1454 . His Crónica da tomada de Ceuta is a continuation of his predecessor's account of the reign of King John I , and records the conquest of Ceuta, on the north coast of Africa , in 1415 . His Crónica do descobrimento e conquista de Guiné was the first account of the Portuguese exploration of the West African coast, and initiated the historiographical tradition that attributes the success of the early...

Bergantina

Bergantina   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
128 words

...English pinnace of the same period. The bergantina was typically 10 metres (30 feet) long and was fitted with eight to sixteen rowing benches and a small cabin aft for the officers. A single lateen sail was carried by one or two masts. The draught was less than 50 centimetres (20 inches), which suited the bergantina for coastal and river waters. Like the pinnace, the bergantina was routinely carried in pieces in the holds of larger ships bound for any coast on which wood was available for planking; Columbus and his successors carried bergantinas in the...

d'Aubigné, Theodore Agrippa

d'Aubigné, Theodore Agrippa   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
167 words

... ( 1572 ), which nonetheless marked his subsequent writings, notably Les Tragiques (completed 1579 , published 1616 ), a poetic history of the Wars of Religion from a Protestant perspective. He later wrote a prose history of the same period ( L'Histoire universelle , 1618–20 ). In 1620 d'Aubigné moved as a religious exile to Geneva, where he spent the last decade of his life. Dictionnaire de biographie française s.v. Aubigné; Madeleine Lazard , Agrippa d'Aubigné (1998); Histoire universelle , ed. André Thierry (11 vols. to date,...

Moro, Antonio

Moro, Antonio   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
142 words

...Antonio , or (Dutch) Antonis Mor van Dashorst ( c. 1516 / 20 – 1576 / 7 ), Dutch portrait painter usually known by the Spanish version of his name, born in Utrecht, where he trained in the studio of Jan van Scorel . His access to the Burgundian court and his extensive travels (he visited England, Italy, Portugal, and Spain) gave him the opportunity to paint members of many of the ruling houses of Europe. The subjects of his portraits include King Philip II (Escorial), Emperor Maximilian II (Prado, Madrid), Queen Mary I of England ( 1554 , versions...

Orsi, Lelio

Orsi, Lelio   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
141 words

...Lelio ( 1508 / 11 – 87 ), Italian painter and architect, born in Novellara, 20 kilometres (12 miles) north of Reggio nell'Emilia (then part of the Este duchy of Modena). He may have been trained in the studio of Correggio . He was banished from Reggio in 1546 , and after periods in Venice and Rome returned to Novellara. His frescoes in Reggio and Novellara have perished, but the delicate elegance of paintings such as The Rest on the Flight into Egypt (York) shows strong links with Parmesan art and a stylistic debt to Parmigianino . His Road to...

Cruciger, Caspar the Elder

Cruciger, Caspar the Elder (1504–48)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
141 words

...to supervise the establishment of the Reformation. His son Caspar the Younger became the successor of Melanchthon at Wittenberg. Neue Deutsche Biographie ; Timothy Wengert , ‘ Caspar Cruciger, 1504–1548: The Case of the Disappearing Reformer ’, Sixteenth Century Journal , 20...

Fernández, Alejo

Fernández, Alejo   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
140 words

...in 1508 . His best-known work is the unsigned Virgen de los navegantes (now in the Archivo de Indias in Seville), which is attributed to Alejo on stylistic grounds by analogy to signed works such as the Virgen de la rosa in the Church of Santa Ana de Triana in Seville ( 1510–20 ) and the altarpiece of the Lamentation of Christ in Seville Cathedral ( 1527 ). The Dictionary of Art ; D. Angulo Iñíguez , Alejo Fernández ...

Sá, Mem de

Sá, Mem de   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
133 words

...brother of the poet Francisco de Sá de Miranda . In 1557 he was appointed governor of Brazil, where his raids of 1560 and 1567 destroyed the French island colony of Fort Coligny and mainland colony of La France Antarctique; the victory of 1567 was accomplished on 20 January , the Feast of St Sebastian, and so the new Portuguese colony was named São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro. In the course of his fourteen years as governor Mem de Sá supported Portuguese colonization and the missionary endeavours of the Jesuits . Dicionário de história de...

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