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Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Dahshur

Dahshur  

A site about 50 kilometers (40 miles) south of Cairo (20°40′N, 31°15′E). The present-day name derives from Coptic by way of Greek tachsour; the ancient Egyptian was probably Wnt Snfrw. ...
Gebelein

Gebelein  

A site 32 kilometers (20 miles) south of Thebes, on the western bank of the Nile, in the third Upper Egyptian nome (25°29′N, 32°29′E). The two hills that form it ...
Hordjedef

Hordjedef  

Son of the fourth dynasty king Khufu. Hordjedef's (or Djedefhor's) titles include “Overseer of the King's Works.” He was buried in Giza (mastaba 7210/20), east of his father's Great Pyramid. ...
Napata

Napata  

(Old Egyptian, Npt, Npy; Meroitic, Napa; Greek, ta Napata),an important ancient city in Upper Nubia (Kush), 960 kilometers (600 miles) up the Nile River from Aswan and 20 kilometers ...
Tod

Tod  

The village of Tod is situated around an ancient mound (kôm), on the eastern bank of the Nile, approximately 20 kilometers (15 miles) south of Luxor. On the northern side ...
New Kingdom

New Kingdom  

[CP]The Egyptian period following the expulsion of Asiatic Hyksos rulers and the subsequent reunification ties including Thuthmoses I–IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamun, and Ramesses I–XI. Broadly the 18th ...
fort

fort  

1 Fortified camp or base for an army.2 Folly or fabrique like a sham castle in a garden.
predynastic

predynastic  

Of or relating to a period before the normally recognized dynasties, especially in ancient Egypt before about 3000 bc.
archaic

archaic  

1 Primitive.2 Marked by the characteristics of an earlier period, e.g. Aeolic capital compared with the Ionic Order.
Somtutefnakht

Somtutefnakht   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...A younger Pediese, Somtutfnakht's cousin, is said to have served as assistant to both Pediese senior and Somtutefnakht. Bakry, H. S. K. Two Saite Statues of Samtowetefnakhte from the Delta . Kêmi 20 (1970), 19–36. Benson, M. , and J. Gourlay . The Temple of Mut in Asher . London, 1899. Photographs of scenes showing Somtutefnakht, pp. 257–258 and plates 20–22. Caminos, Ricardo A. The Nitocris Adoption Stela . Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 50 (1964), 71–101. A definitive study of the stela recording the transfer of Psamtik I's daughter to Thebes as...

Amenhotep, Son of Hapu

Amenhotep, Son of Hapu (1430–1345)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...with intellectual development; then with experience in calculating, organizing, and leading men; and finally with ability to run large-scale works. This last included supervision of the carving, transporting, and erecting of huge statues, among them the Colossi of Memnon and the 20-meter (62-foot) colossus in front of the Tenth Pylon at Karnak. Nothing is known of him during his first fifty years, which preceded Amenhotpe III's reign. In fact, the documentation concerning him begins in Year 30 of Amenhotpe III, when he was already in his late seventies. He...

Hordjedef

Hordjedef   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

..., son of the fourth dynasty king Khufu . Hordjedef's (or Djedefhor's) titles include “Overseer of the King's Works.” He was buried in Giza (mastaba 7210/20), east of his father's Great Pyramid. The tomb is unfinished and shows signs of desecration, leading some scholars to suggest a power struggle among Khufu's princes after his death. Hordjedef did not accede to the throne, despite being named as a king in a later Middle Kingdom graffito in the Wadi Fawakhir. This royal status probably can be attributed to his fame as a cult hero at that time. There...

Kamose

Kamose (1571–1569bce)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...of that stela). The second part of the account, was found on a smaller stela, one in perfect condition. When Kamose became king, Egypt was ruled by the Hyksos leader Aa-woserre Apophis and his Egyptian allies, from the Nile Delta in the north to Cusae, about 30 kilometers (20 miles) south of Hermopolis (el-Ashmunein). In a first campaign, Kamose drove them back beyond Neferusy (near Beni Hasan ). In a second campaign, he went against the southern kingdom of Kush, which controlled Nubia as far as the First Cataract of the Nile; he reclaimed the...

Weights and Measures

Weights and Measures   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Ancient history (non-classical to 500 CE)
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2,225 words
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...10 ẖʒr made the larger unit khar (or “sack”), of 48.05 liters (about 50 quarts). By the beginning of the New Kingdom, the value of the khar was increased to the equivalent of 16 heqat (76.88 liters or 80 quarts), expressed as 4 fourfold-heqat , each of 19.22 liters (20 quarts). This increase did not reflect an economic crisis, but the change of a decimal system to a binary system, which was probably intended to make accounting easier. Thenceforward, the fourfold-heqat was no more understood as being made up of four heqat but as a unit in its...

Mathematics

Mathematics   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...the numerator of the doubled fraction, has been in effect partitioned into 1 plus a fractional series summing to unity. For example, to double 1/67, multiply 67 successively by 1/40, 1/335, and 1/536 to get respectively 1 + 1/2 + 1/8 + 1/20, 1/5, and 1/8. The series 1/2 + 1/4 (= 2 × 1/8) + 1/5 + 1/20 sums to unity, since 20 partitions into 10 + 5 + 4 + 1, so that the addition of 1 gives the 2 of the doubling process. To take a simpler example, 2/7 = 1/4 + 1/28, because multiplying through by 7 gives 7 × 1/4 = 1 + 3/4 = 1 + 1/2 + 1/4, 7 × 1/28 = 1/4, and 1/2 +...

Ankhtifi of Moʿalla

Ankhtifi of Moʿalla   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...in the Memory of Klaus Baer , edited by David Silverman , pp. 79–86. Studies in Oriental Civilization, 55. Chicago, 1994. Fecht, Gerhard . Zu den Inschriften des ersten Pfeilers im Grab des Anchtifi (Moʿalla). In Festschrift für Siegfried Schott zu seinem 70. Geburtstag am 20. August 1967 , edited by Wolfgang Helck , pp. 50–60. Wiesbaden, 1968. Fischer, Henry G. Notes on the Moʿalla Inscriptions and Some Contemporaneous Texts . Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes 57 (1961), 59–77. Goedicke, Hans . Ankhtyfy's Threat. In Individu,...

Bronze

Bronze   Reference library

Peter Lacovara

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...hammered copper objects were made in Egypt from the Predynastic period onward. From the Old Kingdom, life-size statues of Pepy I (r. 2354–2310 bce ) and his son are the earliest surviving large-scale works in hammered copper; the composition of the sculpture was analyzed at 98.20 percent copper, 1.06 percent nickel, and 0.74 percent iron. Copper's casting ability can be improved by the addition of tin—this reduces shrinkage, inhibits porosity, lowers the firing temperature, and increases fluidity. The resulting alloy, bronze, has the advantage of being...

Buto

Buto   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...branch and 30 kilometers (about 19 miles) south of the Mediterranean coast (31°12′N, 30°45′E). The ancient mound occupies about 1 square kilometer (a half mile square). Visible structures on the surface are the temple precinct (B) and the two settlement mounds (A and C) of up to 20 meters (66 feet) above the level of cultivation. The first trial pits were dug in 1904 ; further excavations were undertaken during the 1960s by the Egypt Exploration Society (EES) and, since 1982 , by the universities of Alexandria and Tanta and by the Egyptian Antiquities...

Heliopolis

Heliopolis   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

..., one of the three major cities of ancient Egypt, along with Memphis and Thebes, located north-east of present-day Cairo (30°05′N, 31°20′E). Today the site is largely covered by the suburban Cairo settlements of el-Matariya and Tell Hisn. Unlike most ancient Egyptian sites, Heliopolis was situated not on the Nile River but inland, to the west of the river, to which it was connected by an ancient canal. The ancient Egyptian name of the city was Iunu ( ἰwnw ; “pillar”), preserved also in Akkadian cuneiform, a-na , and in Biblical Hebrew, on ( Gn. ...

Instructions of a Man For His Son

Instructions of a Man For His Son   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...in a dispute with an ignoramus ( ḫm; chapter 19). Proper speech is the first behavioral requisite of any member of the elite who wants to keep his household and office running well. Conforming to this ideal guarantees friendship, social acceptance, and a clientele (chapters 20 and 21). Thus, the overall theme of the second part of the teaching is a treatise on the principle of “speaking maat ” ( ḏd-mʒ ʿt ) and displaying vertical solidarity with one's subordinates. As is known from countless autobiographies, “speaking maat ” is to be complemented by...

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