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20/20

Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Group of 20

Group of 20   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
89 words

...of 20 ( G20 ) An association of 20 of the world’s largest industrial and emerging powers. Formed in 1999 to extend the concept of the Group of 8 beyond the established industrial nations, its members are Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, the EU, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the UK, and the USA. It came to prominence in 2008 when a special meeting was called to discuss a coordinated international response to the Credit Crunch...

Antonius (RE 20), Gaius

Antonius (RE 20), Gaius   Reference library

Geoffrey Walter Richardson and Barbara M. Levick

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
112 words

...( RE 20), Gaius , second son of M. Antonius (Creticus) . Caesar 's legate in 49 bc , he was blockaded by a Pompeian fleet ( see pompeius magnus (1), cn. ), on Curicta in the Adriatic and forced to surrender. After his praetorship in 44 he went to Macedonia; the senate rescinded the appointment late in that year. He was besieged and captured in Apollonia by Brutus (March 43); Cicero urged Brutus to execute him. He tried to incite Brutus' troops to mutiny and was put under guard; when Brutus heard of the proscriptions , he was executed (early...

‘20th century belongs to Canada’

‘20th century belongs to Canada’   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
131 words

...20th century belongs to Canada’ . ‘I think that we can claim that it is Canada that shall fill the 20th century’, boasted Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier in an 18 January 1904 address before the Ottawa Canadian Club. Laurier's optimism was not unfounded: immigrants were peopling the Prairies, industries were running full steam ahead, and the government had committed itself to supporting the construction of not one but two more transcontinental railways. Of course, the 20th century did not belong to Canada; it belonged to the United States. Nonetheless, the...

Sextius (RE 20) Calvinus, Gaius

Sextius (RE 20) Calvinus, Gaius   Reference library

Ernst Badian

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
43 words

...( RE 20) Calvinus, Gaius , as consul in 124 bc and proconsul fought successfully in Transalpine Gaul, triumphing ( see triumph ) over Ligurians, Vocontians, and Salluvians c. 122 . He founded Aquae Sextiae as a Roman garrison post. Ernst...

Quinctilius (RE 20) Varus, Publius

Quinctilius (RE 20) Varus, Publius   Reference library

Ronald Syme and Ernst Badian

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
264 words

...( RE 20) Varus, Publius of a patrician family that had been of no importance for centuries. He owed his career to the favour of Augustus . He was consul 13 bc with the future emperor Tiberius ; like him, Varus was at the time the husband of a daughter of M. Vipsanius Agrippa . Later he married Claudia Pulchra , the grand-niece of Augustus, and was able to acquire some political influence (his two sisters made good marriages, cf. Syme , AA , Table XXVI). Varus became proconsul of Africa (7–6 bc ; see africa, roman ), and then legate ( see...

Domitius (RE 20) Ahenobarbus (2), Gnaeus

Domitius (RE 20) Ahenobarbus (2), Gnaeus   Reference library

E. Badian

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
128 words

...( RE 20) Ahenobarbus (2), Gnaeus , as consul ( 122 bc ) and proconsul ( see pro consule ) in Gaul (Transalpine) defeated the Allobroges and Arverni in two major battles, once with the help of Q. Fabius Maximus Allobrogicus . He treacherously seized the Arvernian king Bituitus and led him in his triumph ( c. 120 ). He built stone trophies in Gaul to commemorate his victories and began the via Domitia , perhaps establishing a garrison at Narbo to guard it; and he probably made treaties with the defeated tribes. His censorship ( 115 ,...

Octavius (2) (RE 20), Gnaeus

Octavius (2) (RE 20), Gnaeus   Reference library

Ernst Badian

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
156 words

...(2) ( RE 20), Gnaeus failed to be elected aedile, but became consul 87 bc with L. Cornelius Cinna (1) , whose attempt to reverse Sulla's legislation he opposed, finally driving Cinna and his supporters out of Rome after a massacre in the Forum and thus starting what Cicero calls the bellum Octavianum . He had Cinna deposed and the flamen Dialis ( see flamines ) L. Cornelius Merula elected in his place, thus assuring himself of sole power. Cinna collected an army, was joined by C. Marius (1) , Cn. Papirius Carbo and Q. Sertorius ....

Scribonius (RE 20) Libo, Lucius

Scribonius (RE 20) Libo, Lucius   Reference library

Theodore John Cadoux and Barbara M. Levick

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
183 words

...( RE 20) Libo, Lucius , born c. 90 bc (moneyer 62 ), of praetorian family, father-in-law of Sextus Pompeius , probably as plebeian tribune supported Pompey's pretensions to an Egyptian command in 56 bc and later was in charge of part of his fleet in the Adriatic ( 49–48 ). By the end of 46 he was reconciled with Caesar , but must have been proscribed in 43 : in 40 , as one of Sextus' adherents, he was sent to Mark Antony ( M. Antonius (2) ) to arrange an alliance against Octavian ( see augustus ). However, he agreed to Octavian's...

Porcius (RE 20) Cato (2), Marcus

Porcius (RE 20) Cato (2), Marcus (95–46 bc)(‘of Utica’)   Reference library

Guy Edward Farquhar Chilver and Miriam T. Griffin

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
543 words

...( RE 20) Cato (2), Marcus , ‘of Utica’ (‘Uticensis’) ( 95–46 bc ) , great-grandson of Cato (Censorius) (see preceding entry), nephew of M. Livius Drusus (2) , and brought up in the Livian household with the children of his mother's marriage to Cn. Servilius Caepio . Quaestor probably in 64 , in 63 he became tribune-designate in order to check Q. Caecilius Metellus Nepos , supported L. Licinius Murena 's prosecution, and intervened powerfully in the senate to secure the execution of the Catilinarians ( see sergius catilina, l. ). As...

Russia, U.S. Military Intervention in, 1917–20

Russia, U.S. Military Intervention in, 1917–20   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...U.S. Military Intervention in, 1917–20 . American intervention in Russia developed in response to the political turmoil and great power competition triggered by the Russian Revolution and civil war. President Woodrow Wilson and his advisers enthusiastically welcomed the revolution of March 1917 , seeing the overthrow of the incompetent and allegedly pro‐German Czarist regime as a triumph of American political principles, an opening to displace German and British rivals for Russian markets, and an opportunity to revitalize Russia's military effort...

Food in the 20th-century American City

Food in the 20th-century American City   Reference library

Adam Shprintzen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
6,753 words

...in the late 20th and early 21st centuries sought to reframe the need for city gardens. Efforts in places like Chicago, Detroit, Milwaukee, and New York City attempted to present city gardens as a necessary resource to provide healthy food and a natural part of a city’s landscape, rather than a response to a specific crisis. 16 Purchasing and Selling Food The early decades of the 20th century marked a significant change in the ways that some urbanites acquired their food. Small, often family-run grocery stores were a staple of early 20th-century ...

Zoning in 20th-century American Cities

Zoning in 20th-century American Cities   Reference library

Christopher Silver

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
7,473 words

...in 20th-century American Cities Zoning is the exercise of public control over private property through a legal instrument available to local government to regulate real property, including buildings and structures, by designating districts according the nature and extent of their use. Zoning is intended to enable orderly growth of a city, town, village, or county according to a framework for development that seeks to ensure that incompatible uses do not undermine the quality or value of real property. Local governments determine the character of the real property...

Street Gangs in the 20th-century American City

Street Gangs in the 20th-century American City   Reference library

Andrew Diamond

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
12,268 words

...Street Gangs in the 20th-century American City Street Gangs, Race, and Americanization in the Interwar Era The sociologist Frederic Thrasher effectively launched academic inquiry into street gangs with his classic publication The Gang: A Study of 1,313 Gangs in Chicago ( 1927 ). Adhering to the Chicago School of sociology’s social disorganization theory, Thrasher explained the emergence of gangs in Chicago as related primarily to a breakdown of social institutions—family, religious, educational—in the city’s immigrant and low-income districts. “The gang,” he...

Photography and Cinema in 20th-Century Mexico

Photography and Cinema in 20th-Century Mexico   Reference library

John Mraz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
8,313 words

...and Cinema in 20th-Century Mexico The Porfiriato, 1876–1910 Mexican photojournalism began in 1900 and became an important tool of Porfirio Díaz’s dictatorship. Thanks to the subsidies he received from the Díaz regime, editor Rafael Reyes Espíndola imported the best European high-volume rotogravure presses and Linotype machines, which made it possible to publish photographs in Mexican periodicals and to sell them at markedly lower prices than the competition. Reyes Espíndola founded the newspaper El Imparcial , and magazines such as El Mundo...

20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914

20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,991 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914 Claire Squires 1 The 20 th -century book 2 Empire, export, and globalization 3 Wartime 4 Education, access, and the reading public 5 The business of books 1 The 20 th -century book What might be distinctive about the book in 20 th -century Britain, the publishing industry that produced it, the book trade that circulated it, and the readers that consumed it? The most iconic books of the period, as well as the most indicative of the book’s relationship to wider society, were *Penguin *paperbacks . They were...

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,058 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914 Leslie Howsam 1 A book culture 2 Economics 3 Production and publishing 4 Circulation and preservation 5 Subjects and genres 6 Reading 1 A book culture Print was the principal medium of written communication in Britain during the 19 th and early 20 th centuries. In that era of rapid population increase and concentrated industrial, urban, and imperial expansion, MS circulation was minimal and broadcasting lay in the future. Along with *periodicals and *newspapers , books and *pamphlets constituted the...

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,011 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...a The History of the Book in Britain, c .1475–1800 Andrew Murphy 1 Origins 2 The Stationers’ Company 3 Beyond London 4 MS circulation and playbooks 5 Religious publishing 6 Copyright and control 7 Conclusion 1 Origins The history of the book in Britain begins, in fact, on the Continent. In 1471 , the Kent-born merchant *Caxton travelled from Bruges to Cologne, where he formed a partnership with the printer and *punchcutter Johannes Veldener . Having mastered the art of printing, Caxton returned to Bruges in the following year, probably accompanied...

Mass Transit in 19th- and 20th-Century America

Mass Transit in 19th- and 20th-Century America   Reference library

Jay Young

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
9,895 words

...growing role of the state in mass transit in the second half of the 20th century . In 1904 , the Interborough Rapid Transit Company’s service began connecting the Bronx to Manhattan, followed by the construction of hundreds of more miles of subway in New York during subsequent decades. 33 The Effects of Electric Streetcars on Urban Life Streetcars and other forms of electric traction had a tremendous influence on the shapes and sensations of urban life during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In many cases, the technology exacerbated trends that...

Indigenous Mobilizations and the Mexican Government during the 20th Century

Indigenous Mobilizations and the Mexican Government during the 20th Century   Reference library

María L. O. Muñoz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
9,380 words

...Flowers to Ash , traces the challenges of the Náyari in the Sierra Nayar over the course of the 20th century. According to Coyle, the presence of INI in the region only deepened the conflicts, as the INI representative, an unnamed cultural promoter in Santa Teresa, intervened in local matters, like calling for an investigation into seventeen unresolved murders that many locals preferred be left alone, among other actions that challenged local power brokers. 20 Eventually, Santa Teresa officials managed to have the cultural promoter removed from his post. In...

The Public Sphere in Mexico since the Mid-20th Century

The Public Sphere in Mexico since the Mid-20th Century   Reference library

Vanessa Freije

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
7,786 words

...Public Sphere in Mexico since the Mid-20th Century The public sphere broadly references the spaces for debate, including the press, political parties, and civic organizations, that mediate between the state and society. Jürgen Habermas introduced this concept to signify an independent sphere where individuals could discuss issues, forge public opinion, and hold their government accountable. 1 While Habermas envisioned the public sphere to be democratic and horizontal, scholars have since acknowledged that it can perpetuate gender, race, and class exclusions....

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