You are looking at 1-20 of 725 entries  for:

  • Type: Subject Reference x
  • Archaeology x
clear all

View:

Overview

20/20

Subject: Music

This US group was formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1978 by Steve Allen (guitar, vocals) and Ron Flynt (bass, vocals), two expatriate musicians from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Drummer Mike Gallo ...

Historiography in the Maghrib in the 19th and early 20th Century

Historiography in the Maghrib in the 19th and early 20th Century   Reference library

Sahar Bazzaz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
7,518 words

...in the Maghrib in the 19th and early 20th Century Literary Forms and Historical Consciousness in the Maghrib Before European Ascendance in the Maghrib. Historical literary production in the Maghrib extends back to the 12th century ce ( 7th century ah ) and comprises a rich corpus including dynastic chronicles ( tarikh ), biographies ( tarajim ), and hagiographies ( manaqib / rijjal ). Before the rise of a positivist historical tradition in the 20th century , Maghribi historiography was modeled upon a narrative form associated with the...

Lascaux

Lascaux   Reference library

Paul G. Bahn

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
991 words

...first space is the great Hall of the Bulls, about 66 feet (20 m) across and 16 feet (5 m) high, the walls of which are covered in painted figures. The main frieze is dominated by a series of four enormous black auroch bulls, over 16 feet (5 m) in length (and all probably by the same artist), as well as smaller horses and tiny deer, and it begins at the left with an enigmatic “imaginary” animal, with two straight horns, known oddly as the Unicorn. The hall is prolonged by the Axial Gallery, 66 feet (20 m) in length and 5 feet (1.5 m) wide at the bottom, but 11...

Terra Amata

Terra Amata   Reference library

Paul G. Bahn

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
538 words

...were always oval, between 23 feet (7 m) and 49 feet (15 m) in length and 4 to 20 feet (1 to 6 m) wide. One of the oldest was surrounded by a line of large blocks, 12 inches (30 cm) in diameter, sometimes piled on each other, and enclosing a thick layer of organic material and ash. Some of the hut floors appeared to bear the imprint of skin coverings. Traces of small hearths were found at the center of each hut: some were dug 6 inches (15 cm) into the sand dune and were 12 to 20 inches (30 to 50 cm) across. Others were paved with pebbles. The fact that many...

Olorgesaillie

Olorgesaillie   Reference library

Brian M. Fagan

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
330 words

...concentrations of hand axes, cleavers, and other stone artifacts lie in an area that once lay on the shores of a small lake. Unfortunately, many of the artifacts come from sites disturbed by water action, but Isaac estimated that most camp areas were between 16 and 66 feet (5 and 20 m) across. Almost no bone was preserved at Olorgesaillie, and no human fossils have been recovered. One location yielded large quantities of baboon bones, perhaps the remains of a troop killed while sleeping in trees overhead. Many stone artifacts were made from stone brought from...

Nyanga

Nyanga   Reference library

Gilbert Pwiti

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
350 words

...were part of a homestead. Although controversy surrounds their function, it is generally thought that they were livestock pens. Hill forts, whose function is assumed to have been defensive, consist of dry stone walls about 6.5 feet (2 m) high, a meter thick, and about 66 feet (20 m) in diameter. Stone wall enclosures appear in various forms, the most elaborate being the Dziwa Complex, covering a large area consisting of enclosures, passages, and pit structures. Excavations in Nyanga have yielded pottery, glass beads, animal bone, and plant seeds, including...

Jericho

Jericho   Reference library

Ian Kuijt

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
892 words

...of John Garstang (1930–1936). Focusing on the Early and Middle Bronze Age occupation, these researchers demonstrated that in the Bronze Age Jericho was surrounded by extensive defensive wall systems with a number of elongated rectangular towers between 49 to 70 feet (15–20 m) in length and 20 to 26 feet (6–8 m) in width. Jericho appears to have been continually occupied into the Middle Bronze Age, indicated by the extensive cemetery, with vertical shaft tombs and underground burial chambers. In the Middle Bronze Age, the town was expanded with the construction...

Monte Albán

Monte Albán   Reference library

Richard E. Blanton

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
475 words

...the Zapotec and Mixtec Civilizations , 1983. Licón, Ernesto González . “Ritual and Social Stratification at Monte Albán, Oaxaca: Strategies from a Household Perspective.” In Domestic Life in Prehispanic Capitals , edited by Linda R. Manzanilla and Claude Chapdelaine , pp. 7–20, 2009. Marcus, Joyce . Mesoamerican Writing Systems: Propaganda, Myth, and History in Four Ancient Civilizations , 1992. Richard E....

Tautavel

Tautavel   Reference library

Paul G. Bahn

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
420 words

...been excavating the cave since 1964. The deposits are over 35 feet (10 m) thick, comprising an alternation of sands and sandy clays, with a thick layer of stalagmite at the top. Over twenty ancient living floors have been uncovered, separated from each other by 2 to 8 inches (5–20 cm) of sterile sand, and filled with stone and bone debris, but with no trace of fire. The fauna consists primarily of horse, but also includes bison, aurochs, musk ox, mouflon, chamois, deer, carnivores, rhinoceros, elephant, rabbit, and birds. This faunal assemblage points to the...

Vijayanagara

Vijayanagara   Reference library

Carla M. Sinopoli

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
445 words

...city was founded at the site of a small temple center, dated to the eleventh century AD. From the founding of the empire around AD 1350, Vijayanagara rapidly grew to a population of some quarter- to a half-million inhabitants. The core of the capital extended over 7.7 square miles (20 sq km), and the fortified suburban zone, containing dispersed settlements, craft production locales, and a diverse range of agricultural fields and irrigation works, was more than 116 square miles (300 sq km) in area. The city was abandoned in 1565 and has not been extensively reoccupied...

Ban Chiang

Ban Chiang   Reference library

Joyce C. White

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
452 words

...Chiang Ban Chiang is a prehistoric site in northeastern Thailand at least 20 acres (8 ha) in size, dating between 3600 BC and AD 500 . The site, which gives its name to a regional culture known as the Ban Chiang Cultural Tradition, is renowned for the depth of its sequence, its elegant ceramics, early metallurgy, and controversial chronology. At the time of the site’s major excavations in the 1970s, Southeast Asia had seen little archaeological research. Establishing a chronology for the site to serve as a benchmark for the region has been a priority. A...

Banpo

Banpo   Reference library

Sarah Milledge Nelson

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
446 words

...walls are plastered with mud and straw. The later oblong houses are larger, and their interior space is divided into sections with rows of slender posts. Hearths are gourd-shaped and deeper. The ditch surrounding the settlement is V-shaped, up to 25 feet (6 m) wide at the top and 20 feet (6 m) deep. The quantity of artifacts recovered is overwhelming, including 8,000 stone and bone tools and half a million potshards. More than half the pottery is coarse, surface-roughened with cord marks, impressing, or incising, and was used for cooking and storage. Finer painted...

Carnac

Carnac   Reference library

Chris Scarre

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
495 words

...have shown that large standing stones are among the earliest of the Carnac monuments. The most famous is the Grand Menhir Brisé at Locmariaquer, an enormous granite pillar now fallen and broken into four separate fragments. When complete, it would have stood more than 66 feet (20 m) high. Nearby is the low mound of Er Grah, 394 feet (120 m) long, which contains a megalithic chamber in its central section. This is one of a series of monuments known as Carnac mounds, which are unique to this part of southern Brittany. They are distinguished both by their size...

Chan Chan

Chan Chan   Reference library

Melissa A. Vogel

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
503 words

...brought in from across the empire to create sumptuary goods of the finest quality, including ceramics, textiles, jewelry, and other gold and silver objects. Chan Chan lies along the desert coastline in the Moche Valley of Peru, and its walls encompass nearly 8 square miles (20 sq km) of architectural remains, with an urban nucleus of about 2.5 square miles (6 sq km). The city is characterized by four types of architecture: the large, rectangular royal compounds known as ciudadelas , the smaller compounds that were the elite residences of the nobility,...

Ethics of Conservation

Ethics of Conservation   Reference library

Shelley-Anne Peleg

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,277 words

...Cultural Significance), 1979. http://heritage.tas.gov.au/media/pdf/The%20Burra%20Charter%201999adopted.pdf . International Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites (The Venice Charter), 1964. http://www.international.icomos.org/charters/venice_e.htm . The Nara Document on Authenticity (Nara Conference on Authenticity in Relation to the World Heritage Convention, held at Nara, Japan, from 1–6 November 1994). http://bunka.go.jp/kokusaibunka/bunkazaihogo%20/pdf/nara_Nara_e.pdf . Torre, Marta de la , ed. Assessing the Values of...

Mounds of Eastern North America

Mounds of Eastern North America   Reference library

Vincas P. Steponaitis

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,935 words

...tradition eventually produced the largest Archaic Period earthworks ever built: the Poverty Point site in northeastern Louisiana, which was used between 1800 BC and 500 BC . The site is today marked by a large pear-shaped mound some 70 feet (21 m) high, a smaller conical mound 20 feet (6 m) high, and six concentric ridges that form a semicircle slightly more than 0.6 mile (1 km) in diameter. The function of the bigger mound is a mystery. The smaller mound was once believed to be a funerary structure, but recent work has cast doubt on this interpretation....

Boyne Valley

Boyne Valley   Reference library

George Eogan

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,608 words

...down to post-medieval times. In all, nine main cultural phases can be detected. Earliest Neolithic Stage (ca. 4000–3500 BC). A small group of farmers arrived at Knowth, cleared an area in the woodland, and commenced mixed farming. They lived in a rectangular wooden house 26 by 20 feet (8 m by 6 m) with a limited range of articles consisting of flint scrapers and pottery vessels with round bases and simple rims. Developed Early Neolithic (ca. 3500–3000 BC). The homestead was again the rectangular wooden house, but a progression to nucleated settlement is...

Meadowcroft Rockshelter

Meadowcroft Rockshelter   Reference library

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
615 words

...“Who Are Those Guys? Some Biased Thoughts on the Initial Peopling of the New World.” In Americans before Columbus: Ice Age Origins , compiled and edited by R. C. Carlisle , pp. 45–61, 1988. Fagan, B. F. “Tracking the First Americans.” Archaeology (November/December 1990): 14–20. Haynes, C. V. “Paleoindian Charcoal from Meadowcroft Rockshelter: Is Contamination a Problem?” American Antiquity 45 (1980): 582–587. Tankersley, K. B. , C. A. Munson , and D. Smith . “Recognition of Bituminous Coal Contaminants in Radiocarbon Samples.” American...

Cultural Creativity

Cultural Creativity   Reference library

Ian Alden Russell

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
689 words

...a decade. As such, archaeologists as well as anthropologists have over this last decade undertaken serious engagements with the traces, residues, and phenomena of digital life worlds and computer game industries. Many have seized participatory opportunities enabled through Web 2.0 digital architectures and virtual worlds such as Second Life, expanding the possibilities of archaeological interpretive processes. Whichever media form or creative outlet it uses, archaeology as a transdisciplinary pursuit has explored and will continue to explore new and...

Klasies River Cave

Klasies River Cave   Reference library

H. T. Deacon

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
595 words

...River Cave Klasies River Cave, the main site on the south coast of South Africa (30°06′S, 24°24′E), is a complex of tunnel-like openings and overhangs, forming a large single depository. The well-stratified sediments have a total thickness of some 66 feet (20 m). These comprise multiple occupation horizons with hearths, shell and bone food waste, and stone artifacts that are separated by interbedded sands. The use of dating techniques such as uranium disequilibrium dating, electron spin resonance dating, and amino acid dating as well as biostratigraphy...

Leakey, Louis, and Mary Leakey

Leakey, Louis, and Mary Leakey   Reference library

Nicholas Toth and Kathy Schick

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
625 words

... 1960 and dated to about 1.4 million years ago. The Leakeys also carried out fieldwork at Early and Middle Miocene localities in western Kenya, which yielded hominoid remains of Proconsul from Rusinga Island and Kenyapithecus from Forth Ternan. Proconsul , dating to about 20 million years ago, is believed by some paleontologists to be near the common stem for all modern apes. Other archaeological sites worked by the Leakeys included the Acheulean occurrences at Olorgesaillie and Kariandusi, as well as the later prehistoric sites of Gamble’s Cave, Njoro...

View: