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Gurzil Dispels the Darkness

Subject: Religion

(Libya) Gurzil, the sun god, was worshiped among the Huwwara of Tripolitania well into the eleventh century, long after the Arab conquest. This deity was a protector, a guide, ...

Antigonus Doson

Antigonus Doson   Quick reference

R. M. Errington

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
294 words

...for Demetrius II's young son Philip (later Philip V ), but after some initial military successes against invading Dardanians and Aetolians and rebellious Thessalians he was granted the royal title. He had already married Philip's mother Chryseis and adopted the boy, so dispelling suspicions that he might wish to usurp Philip's ultimate claim to succeed. Doson's reign is characterized by careful restorative diplomacy, in Thessaly, where he allowed the Thessalian League to be reconstituted, but especially in the Peloponnese, leading to the restoration...

Antigonus

Antigonus (3) (c.263–221 bc)   Reference library

R. M. Errington

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
355 words

... Demetrius (6) II 's young son Philip (later Philip (3) V ), but after some initial military successes against invading Dardanians and Aetolians and rebellious Thessalians he was granted the royal title. He had already married Philip's mother Chryseis and adopted the boy, so dispelling suspicions that he might wish to usurp Philip's ultimate claim to succeed. Doson's reign is characterized by careful restorative diplomacy, in Thessaly , where he allowed the Thessalian League to be reconstituted, but especially in the Peloponnese, leading to the restoration...

Velleius Paterculus

Velleius Paterculus   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
502 words

...forms the unconventional conclusion to his work, is arguably a recognition of the political crisis of 29 , while the treatment of Sejanus, which is not a panegyric of the man but a defence of his elevation by Tiberius, betrays some of the very unease which it seems designed to dispel. Velleius travelled widely; he was a senator, like Sallust and Tacitus , and held magisterial office; like Thucydides (2) he witnessed and took part in a significant number of the events he describes. He thus enjoyed many of the advantages conventionally associated with the...

Heroön

Heroön   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
1,011 words

...(Theseus at Athens , Anios at Delos ), legislator (Lykourgos at Sparta ) or soldier (Brasidas at Amphipolis ). Each city hoped, through an appropriate cult, to capture after the hero’s death the beneficial, semi-divine influence he had exercised while alive, and sometimes to dispel the evil influence of a vengeful hero by funerary honours. For example, at Temesa in southern Italy a drunken sailor who had raped a virgin was stoned to death and left unburied by the furious population, and at Delphi the inhabitants killed Neoptolemos in the Sanctuary of...

Velleius Paterculus

Velleius Paterculus   Quick reference

A. J. Woodman

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,020 words

...conclusion to his work (2. 131), is arguably a recognition of the political crisis of ad 29 , while the treatment of Sejanus, which is not a panegyric of the man but a defence of his elevation by Tiberius, betrays some of the very unease which it seems designed to dispel. Velleius, like Polybius , travelled widely (cf. 2. 101. 3); he was a senator, like Sallust and Tacitus , and held magisterial office; like Thucydides he witnessed and took part in a significant number of the events he describes (cf. 2. 104. 3, 106. 1, 113. 3, 118. 1). He...

Romulus and Remus

Romulus and Remus   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,107 words
Illustration(s):
1

...earliest mention of Romulus’ deification is a fragment from Ennius: “Romulus lives for ever in the sky with the gods that gave him birth” ( Annales F 110). Cicero ( De republica 2.20) reports a story that Romulus’ deification as Quirinus was proclaimed by Proculus Julius to dispel the suspicion that the senators were responsible for Romulus’ death. The tradition that Romulus was torn in pieces by senators appears in Livy (1.16) and Dionysius (2.56), with the latter commenting on Romulus’ tyrannical behavior. Both authors give an alternative version that...

Velleius Paterculus

Velleius Paterculus   Reference library

A. J. Woodman

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,050 words

...conclusion to his work (2. 131), is arguably a recognition of the political crisis of ad 29 , while the treatment of Seianus, which is not a panegyric of the man but a defence of his elevation by Tiberius, betrays some of the very unease which it seems designed to dispel. Velleius, like Polybius , travelled widely (cf. 2. 101. 3); he was a senator, like Sallust and Tacitus) , and held magisterial office; like Thucydides he witnessed and took part in a significant number of the events he describes (cf. 2. 104. 3, 106. 1, 113. 3, 118. 1). He...

Velleius (RE 5) Paterculus

Velleius (RE 5) Paterculus   Reference library

A. J. Woodman

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,275 words

...conclusion to his work (2. 131), is arguably a recognition of the political crisis of ad 29 , while the treatment of Seianus, which is not a panegyric of the man but a defence of his elevation by Tiberius, betrays some of the very unease which it seems designed to dispel. Velleius, like Polybius (1) , travelled widely (cf. 2. 101. 3); he was a senator, like Sallust and Tacitus ( 1 ) , and held magisterial office; like Thucydides (2) he witnessed and took part in a significant number of the events he describes (cf. 2. 104. 3, 106. 1, 113....

Hadrian

Hadrian   Quick reference

Anthony R. Birley

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,681 words

...consulship for 118 . His position was thus very strong when Trajan died at Selinus in Cilicia on 8 August 117 . The next day his adoption by Trajan was announced. A single aureus with the reverse hadriano traiano caesari ( BM Coins , Rom. Emp. 3. lxxxvi, 124) cannot dispel the rumours that Plotina had staged an adoption after Trajan died. Hadrian was disliked by his peers and had rivals, but the army recognized him; the senate had to follow suit. Plotina and the guard prefect Attianus took Trajan's body to Rome, while Hadrian faced the...

Sextus Empiricus

Sextus Empiricus   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,050 words

...source of the Pyrrhonist's final liberation from anxiety. Tranquility is the goal, belief (and the wish to believe) the disease, the Pyrrhonian activity leading to suspension (and preserving it) the cure. Involuntary affections like cold, hunger, and pain will not be dispelled by skeptical arguments, but the skeptic will tolerate them more easily than the layman and the dogmatist do: the skeptic's affection will be moderate ( metriopatheia ) because he will not add unnecessary belief-induced mental distress to those natural and inescapable...

Augustine

Augustine (354–430ce)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,001 words

...bishop, Valerius, was petitioning Carthage to have Augustine consecrated as his co-bishop, again in defiance of canon law. He became the sole bishop of Hippo in 396 . Many Christians, including a few of his own communion, questioned the authenticity of his conversion. In part to dispel suspicions of crypto-Manichaeism, Augustine narrated his conversion in a manner designed to evoke Saul's conversion on the road to Damascus. He also made the radical claim that a requirement for Christian conversion was the renunciation of fictional classical literature (prose...

Hadrian

Hadrian   Reference library

Anthony R. Birley

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,725 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to a second consulship for 118. His position was thus very strong when Trajan died at Selinus in Cilicia on 8 August 117 . The next day his adoption by Trajan was announced. A single aureus with the reverse hadriano traiano caesari ( BM Coins, Rom. Emp. 3. lxxxvi, 124) cannot dispel the rumours that Plotina had staged an adoption after Trajan died. Hadrian was disliked by his peers and had rivals, but the army recognized him; the senate had to follow suit. Plotina and the guard prefect Attianus took Trajan’s body to Rome, while Hadrian faced the crisis in...

Hadrian

Hadrian (ad 117–38)   Reference library

Anthony R. Birley

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,778 words

...to a second consulship for 118. His position was thus very strong when Trajan died at Selinus in Cilicia on 8 August 117. The next day his adoption by Trajan was announced. A single aureus with the reverse hadriano traiano caesari ( BM Coins, Rom. Emp. 3. lxxxvi, 124) cannot dispel the rumours that Plotina had staged an adoption after Trajan died. Hadrian was disliked by his peers and had rivals, but the army recognized him; the senate had to follow suit. Plotina and the guard prefect Attianus took Trajan's body to Rome, while Hadrian faced the crisis in...

Ptolemy

Ptolemy (1)   Reference library

Dorothy J. Thompson, Albert Brian Bosworth, Dorothy J. Thompson, Dorothy J. Thompson, Dorothy J. Thompson, Dorothy J. Thompson, Dorothy J. Thompson, Dorothy J. Thompson, Dorothy J. Thompson, Dorothy J. Thompson, Dorothy J. Thompson, Dorothy J. Thompson, Dorothy J. Thompson, Dorothy J. Thompson, Dorothy J. Thompson, and Dorothy J. Thompson

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,611 words

...twice ( 169–168 , initially with the support of Philometor), and in July 168 , formally crowned as king, he only left when Rome intervened. The temporary reconciliation of the brothers, with a joint reign of Ptolemies VI and VIII and Cleopatra II from 169–164 , could not dispel this new influence on Egyptian affairs. Ejected in 164 , Philometor visited Rome to plead for his throne. In 163 the brothers finally agreed to disagree, with Philometor restored to Alexandria (1) and his brother ruling Cyrene . Philometor kept his throne but died fighting...

Seneca the Younger

Seneca the Younger   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
5,311 words
Illustration(s):
1

...eventual publication of the tragedies as texts designed to be read: as the plays became known through written copies, readers alone could experience the full intertextual complexity of works that engage so creatively in dialogue with their literary past. The view has long been dispelled that Senecan tragedy is slavishly dependent on its fifth-century Greek tragic models. Although those models undoubtedly gave inspiration in terms of plot structure, characters, and tragic development and effect, Seneca departs radically from Greek tragic convention not just in...

Epicurus

Epicurus (341–270bce)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
4,913 words
Illustration(s):
1

...( Letter to Herodotus 75f.), but not the gods, play a role. Epicurus also finds mechanical explanations for phenomena in the sky such as lightning and thunder that cause fear and anxiety in human beings. His explanatory hypotheses draw the rug out from under mythical beliefs, dispel fear, and are intended to contribute to a happy life. Ethics. In Epicurus’ view the goal of every action is to live a good life and to achieve happiness ( eudaimonia ). Pleasure ( hēdonē ) is an essential part of a good life, and pain needs to be avoided. Therefore, pleasure is...

Wroxeter

Wroxeter   Reference library

Adam Rogers

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...structural remains, including the wall of the baths - basilica (the ‘Old Work’), and the post-Roman sequence of rectangular timber buildings identified through meticulous excavations. Recent research indicates that the settlement became an important local power base; it dispels former views of a violent end, and suggests that Wroxeter was probably abandoned in the early 8th century . Adam Rogers R. White and P. Barker , Wroxeter: Life and Death of a Roman City ...

meteorology

meteorology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
132 words

...Aristotle's Meteorology includes accounts not only of comets and meteors but of the weather, earthquakes, the origins of seas and rivers, and the formation of minerals. Theophrastus also wrote a Meteorology , parts of which survive in a Syriac version. The Epicureans aimed to dispel fear by explaining the nature of those aspects which terrify most ( see Lucretius , book 6 ). Poseidonius ' work in some part survives in the Younger Seneca's Natural Questions , and treats the subject in Stoic fashion as part of the workings of the whole...

cross in art

cross in art   Reference library

Dorothy Verkerk and Oliver Nicholson

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...in art The sign of the Cross had the power to dispel demons ( Lactantius , Mort . 10; Inst . IV, 27). Crosses were commonly represented on such personal items as lamps , pottery , amulets , seals , jewellery , and clothing to invoke protection against evil and to attract good fortune. Sarcophagi , wall paintings, and gold glass embedded in tombs displayed crosses in hope of the resurrection. The Church utilized it in every aspect of worship: in processional crosses, church furniture , reliquaries , and architectural sculpture . Imperial...

draught animals

draught animals   Reference library

Michael Decker

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...were used to pull ploughs and to lift water. Horses were less used for these purposes because they are smaller, but they were much used in land transport and former scholarly doubt about Romans having the technology to harness horses for draught purposes has been largely dispelled. Mules were especially important; they were prized for their high endurance and ability to tolerate coarser food than finer Mediterranean horse breeds. Donkeys were commonly used to pull carts with light loads, while mules drew wagons with heavier burdens, as in the depiction...

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